Heritability and linkage analysis of personality in bipolar disorder by Greenwood Tiffany A, Badner Judith A, Byerley William, Keck Paul E, McElroy Susan L, Remick Ronald A, Dessa Sadovnick A, Kelsoe John R in Journal of affective disorders (2013). PubMed

Abstract

The many attempts that have been made to identify genes for bipolar disorder (BD) have met with limited success, which may reflect an inadequacy of diagnosis as an informative and biologically relevant phenotype for genetic studies. Here we have explored aspects of personality as quantitative phenotypes for bipolar disorder through the use of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), which assesses personality in seven dimensions. Four temperament dimensions are assessed: novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD), and persistence (PS). Three character dimensions are also included: self-directedness (SD), cooperativeness (CO), and self-transcendence (ST).

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