In studying the effects of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) levels of cotinine (the proximate metabolite of nicotine), measured in plasma, urine or saliva, are widely used as indicators of nicotine exposure . In interpreting the levels of cotinine in non-smokers relative to levels in smokers, the assumption is made that the pharmacokinetics of nicotine and cotinine are independent of level of nicotine exposure. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.
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