Variability in smoking behavior is partly attributable to heritable individual differences in nicotine clearance rates. This can be assessed as the ratio of the metabolites cotinine and 3'-hydroxycotinine (referred to as the nicotine metabolism ratio; NMR). We hypothesized that faster NMR would be associated with greater cigarette puff volume and higher levels of total 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), a carcinogen biomarker.
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