S-1 is an oral anticancer drug containing tegafur (FT), a pro-drug of fluorouracil, combined with two modulators, 5-chloro-2,4-dihydroxypyridine and potassium oxonate (Oxo), at a molar ratio of 1:0.4:1. CYP2A6 genetic polymorphism and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) inhibition are important for the antitumor effect of S-1. Exploiting the usefulness of the 2-(13)C-uracil breath test (UrBT) as an indicator of DPD activity, we examined whether the results of CYP2A6 genetic polymorphism analysis and UrBT could be used to predict the antitumor effect of S-1.
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