Children with Down's syndrome have a greatly increased risk of acute megakaryoblastic and acute lymphoblastic leukaemias. Acute megakaryoblastic leukaemia in Down's syndrome is characterised by a somatic mutation in GATA1. Constitutive activation of the JAK/STAT (Janus kinase and signal transducer and activator of transcription) pathway occurs in several haematopoietic malignant diseases. We tested the hypothesis that mutations in JAK2 might be a common molecular event in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia associated with Down's syndrome.
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