G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) are key modulators of G protein-coupled receptor signalling. Increasing evidence points to the occurrence of complex mechanisms able to modulate the subcellular localization, activity and expression levels of GRKs, revealing new functional interactions of these kinases with different cellular proteins and transduction cascades. GRK activity and subcellular targeting is tightly regulated by interaction with receptor domains, G protein subunits, lipids, anchoring proteins, caveolin and calcium-sensing proteins. In addition, GRK phosphorylation by several other kinases has recently been shown to modulate its functionality, thus putting forward new feedback mechanisms connecting different signalling pathways to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) regulation. On the other hand, the mechanisms governing GRK expression at both transcriptional and protein stability levels are just beginning to be unveiled. Namely, GRK2 has been shown to be rapidly degraded by the proteasome pathway in a process dependent on beta-arrestin and c-Src function, and also to be proteolyzed by m-calpain. A better knowledge of GRK regulatory mechanisms would contribute to greater understanding of GRK physiological function and also its reported alterations in different pathological situations, such as congestive heart failure, hypertension or inflammation.
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