Gene:
VDR
vitamin D (1,25- dihydroxyvitamin D3) receptor

PharmGKB contains no dosing guidelines for this . To report known genotype-based dosing guidelines, or if you are interested in developing guidelines, click here.

PharmGKB has no annotated drug labels with pharmacogenomic information for this . If you know of a drug label with PGx, send us a message.

PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the table.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

? = Mouse-over for quick help

This is a non-comprehensive list of genetic tests with pharmacogenetics relevance, typically submitted by the manufacturer and manually curated by PharmGKB. The information listed is provided for educational purposes only and does not constitute an endorsement of any listed test or manufacturer.

A more complete listing of genetic tests is found at the Genetic Testing Registry (GTR).

PGx Test Variants Assayed Related Drugs?

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page on the appropriate tab.

Links in the "Drugs" column lead to PharmGKB Drug Pages.

Variant?
(138)
Alternate Names / Tag SNPs ? Drugs ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
rs11568820 10445851C>T, 1270G>A, 48302545C>T, VDR:Cdx2
C > T
Not Available
rs1540339 10400632C>T, 277+1504G>A, 427+1504G>A, 46489G>A, 48257326C>T
C > T
Intronic
rs1544410 1024+283G>A, 10383141C>T, 1174+283G>A, 48239835C>T, 63980G>A, VDR: BsmI, VDR:BsmI
C > T
Intronic
rs2228570 10416201A>C, 10416201A>G, 10416201A>T, 152T>A, 152T>C, 152T>G, 2T>A, 2T>C, 2T>G, 30920T>A, 30920T>C, 30920T>G, 48272895A>C, 48272895A>G, 48272895A>T, Met1Arg, Met1Lys, Met1Thr, Met51Arg, Met51Lys, Met51Thr, VDR:FokI
A > T
A > C
A > G
Missense
Met51Thr
Met51Lys
Met51Arg
rs2239179 10401072T>C, 277+1064A>G, 427+1064A>G, 46049A>G, 48257766T>C, VDR:rs2239179
T > C
Intronic
rs2239185 10387865G>A, 48244559G>A, 59256C>T, 756-3968C>T, 906-3968C>T
G > A
Intronic
rs3782905 10409473G>C, 146+6584C>G, 296+6584C>G, 37648C>G, 48266167G>C
G > C
Intronic
rs4516035 -1172A>G, -1294A>G, -1413A>G, 10443132T>C, 3989A>G, 48299826T>C
T > C
5' Flanking
rs731236 10382063A>G, 1056T>C, 1206T>C, 48238757A>G, 65058T>C, Ile352=, Ile402=, NM_000376.2:c.1056T>C, NP_001017535.1:p.Ile352Ile, NP_001017536.1:p.Ile402Ile, VDR: TaqI, VDR:Taq1 T>t
A > G
Synonymous
Ile402Ile
rs7975232 1025-49G>T, 10382143C>A, 1175-49G>T, 48238837C>A, 64978G>T, VDR:ApaI
C > A
Intronic
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 138

Overview

Alternate Names:  protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 163
Alternate Symbols:  NR1I1; PPP1R163
PharmGKB Accession Id: PA37301

Details

Cytogenetic Location: chr12 : q13.11 - q13.11
GP mRNA Boundary: chr12 : 48235320 - 48298814
GP Gene Boundary: chr12 : 48232320 - 48308814
Strand: minus
The mRNA boundaries are calculated using the gene's default feature set from NCBI, mapped onto the UCSC Golden Path. PharmGKB sets gene boundaries by expanding the mRNA boundaries by no less than 10,000 bases upstream (5') and 3,000 bases downstream (3') to allow for potential regulatory regions.

The Vitamin D receptor (VDR) binds the active form of vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3). It belongs to the family of trans-acting transcriptional regulatory factors and shows sequence similarity to the steroid and thyroid hormone receptors. The gene was cloned by Baker et al. in 1988 [Article:2835767] and maps to chromosome 12q13.11. It consists of 9 exons with at least 6 isoforms of exon 1, spans 63.5 kb and encodes a 427-amino acid protein [Article:9212063]. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding the VDR protein of different lengths [Articles:9724737, 15225777].



The interaction of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 with VDR modulates many biological activities of the neural, immune, and endocrine systems, including calcium and phosphorous homeostasis, apoptosis and cell differentiation (reviewed in [Articles:20511058, 21119732, 21197695]). Its pleiotrophic property is reflected by the findings that VDR is expressed in at least 37 tissues, which can roughly be grouped into seven biological systems (calcium homeostasis, immune, pancreatic ß cells, muscle, cardiovascular, brain, and lung) [Articles:7781594, 15225753, 18483332]. The most characterised mechanism is the binding of vitamin D3 to nuclear VDR, which activates the receptor to form a heterodimer with the retinoid-X receptor (RXR) and interact with a specific DNA sequence on the gene promoter regions called the "vitamin D response element" (VDRE). Transcription repressors occupying the VDRE are then replaced by transcription activators to initiate transcription of targeted genes. Microarray analyses using different human cell lines have identified over one hundred genes with vitamin D response elements at the promoter regions, all potential targets of the 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3- VDR complex [Articles:16002434, 14996990, 12040012]. In human oral squamous carcinoma SCC25 cells, genes with characterized VDREs and demonstrated greater than 10 fold increase after treatment with 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 include 24-hydroxylase (CYP24), 17ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD17B2), CD14 (CD14), Type XIII collagen (COL13A1) and 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) [Article:16002434] . The effect of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 via binding to VDR in the nucleus is often described as the slow acting genomic effect; the effect will take days or hours to be noticed.



Three LD blocks within the gene have been localized. Block "A" at the 3' end of exon 9 spans approximately 10.5 kb, block "B" spans 40 kb and VDR exons 3-9 and block "C" contains exon 1. Block "B" and "C" are separated by a 1.3 kb LD-breaking spot including VDR exon 2 and the FokI SNP while a 5.7 kb LD-breaking spot separates block "A" and "B" [Article:15175274]. The three widely studied variants BsmI, ApaI and TaqI are located to block B and they are often analyzed together as haplotypes in disease/phenotype association studies [Article:8864898]; however, further analysis of this genomic area showed that these three variants do not capture all the information in the block [Article:15175274]. (Note on the nomenclature of the variants, the alleles are conventionally defined by capital letters in the absence of a restriction site and small letters in the presence of a given restriction site, e.g. TaqI T and C alleles are named T and t, respectively.)


Alternatively, 1,25dihydroxyvitamin D3 can bind to VDR located in caveolae in the plasma membrane to exert rapid responses via production of second messengers [Article:15272054]. Pathways which have been shown to be activated by 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 VDR[memb] complex include mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)- [Article:9449611], cAMP- [Article:7917787], phospholipase A2 (PLA2) [Article:9699504] - , phospholipase C (PLC) [Article:9109427] -, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase [Article:12114317] and protein kinase C [Article:7876102] - dependent pathways. Examples of such rapid response include rapid Ca2+ absorption in the duodenum [Articles:6548181, 9280067], opening of Cl- channels and secretion in osteoblasts, insulin secretion from pancreatic ß-cells [Articles:10499529, 3899614] , and vascular smooth muscle cell migration [Article:12114317].



VDR variations



Due to the pleiotrophic effect the 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3- VDR complex exerts, its genetic variants have been found to be associated with a variety of diseases/phenotypes, including various types of cancer, tuberculosis, asthma, height, longevity/mortality, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, bone mineral density and hyperparathyroidism, as reviewed comprehensively elsewhere [Articles:15315818, 16563362]. This study focuses on clinically relevant associations between treatment responses in the presence of VDR genetic polymorphisms. Furthermore, although no VDR polymorphism has been reported to be associated with vitamin D treatment in cancer therapy, the findings that VDR expression is reduced in colon cancer and negatively correlated with progression imply a role of VDR protein expression in treatment response [Articles:20138990, 15322538, 16203744].



In a comprehensive study of the genetic architecture of VDR, areas of low LD and areas of high LD was observed [Article:16252240]. This study further noted that the number and size of LD blocks are different in whites, Han Chinese and African. In whites, 4 blocks were found at the 5' end and the largest block encompasses exons 4-9 and 3' UTR. The LD structure in Han Chinese is similar to the whites but that of African American is substantially fragmented and different from the whites and Han Chinese. The 5' promoter variants Cdx2 and GATA reside in block 2, and the three widely studied 3' variants BsmI, ApaI and TaqI are located in block 5, while variant FokI does not reside in any block and is located between blocks 2 and 3. However, further analysis of this genomic area showed that the three variants do not capture all the information in the block [Article:15175274]. (Note on the nomenclature of the variants, the alleles are conventionally defined by capital letters in the absence of a restriction site and small letters in the presence of a given restriction site, e.g. TaqI T and C alleles are named T and t, respectively. To avoid confusion this review will only use the allele corresponding to the nucleic acid.) This review highlights the pharmacogenetic effects of VDR polymorphisms in various biological systems. Table 1 summarizes the functional effect and associated phenotypes of genetic variants in VDR gene.

Citation Very important pharmacogene summary for VDR. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. Poon Audrey H, Gong Li, Brasch-Andersen Charlotte, Litonjua Augusto A, Raby Benjamin A, Hamid Qutayba, Laprise Catherine, Weiss Scott T, Altman Russ B, Klein Teri E. PubMed
History

Submitted by Audrey H. Poon, Li Gong, Charlotte Brasch-Andersen, Augusto A. Litonjua, Benjamin A. Raby, Qutayba Hamid, Catherine Laprise, Scott T. Weiss, Russ B. Altman and Teri E. Klein

Variant Summaries rs11568820, rs1540339, rs1544410, rs2228570, rs2239179, rs2239185, rs3782905, rs4516035, rs731236, rs7975232
Drugs
Diseases
Phenotypes Allergy skin test response Osteocalcin levels Bone mineral density (BMD) Osteoporosis therapy efficacy

Appendix

Key Pathways: Etoposide pathway
No related genes are available

Curated Information ?

Curated Information ?

Publications related to VDR: 45

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Lopez-Lopez Elixabet, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The future of pharmacogenetics for osteoporosis. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Marini Francesca, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Innate immune gene polymorphisms in tuberculosis. Infection and immunity. 2012. Azad Abul K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Intestinal CYP3A4 and midazolam disposition in vivo associate with VDR polymorphisms and show seasonal variation. Biochemical pharmacology. 2012. Thirumaran Ranjit K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Very important pharmacogene summary for VDR. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. Poon Audrey H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
A polymorphism in the thyroid hormone receptor gene is associated with bronchodilator response in asthmatics. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2012. Duan Q L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Vitamin D receptor gene methylation is associated with ethnicity, tuberculosis, and TaqI polymorphism. Human immunology. 2011. Andraos Charlene, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Clinical and genetic predictors of response to narrowband ultraviolet B for the treatment of chronic plaque psoriasis. The British journal of dermatology. 2010. Ryan C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics of osteoporosis-related bone fractures: moving towards the harmonization and validation of polymorphism diagnostic tools. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Rojo Venegas Karen, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Association between polymorphic variation in VDR and RXRA and circulating levels of vitamin D metabolites. The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology. 2010. Hibler E A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms modulate the skeletal response to vitamin D supplementation in healthy girls. Bone. 2009. Arabi Asma, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Drug discovery using chemical systems biology: identification of the protein-ligand binding network to explain the side effects of CETP inhibitors. PLoS computational biology. 2009. Xie Li, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Association of drug metabolism gene polymorphisms with toxicities, graft-versus-host disease and survival after HLA-identical sibling hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for patients with leukemia. Leukemia : official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K. 2009. Rocha V, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Update on the pharmacogenetics of the vitamin D receptor and osteoporosis. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Gennari Luigi, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms predict acquired resistance to clodronate treatment in patients with Paget's disease of bone. Calcified tissue international. 2008. Mossetti Giuseppe, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics of osteoporosis and the prospect of individualized prognosis and individualized therapy. Current opinion in endocrinology, diabetes, and obesity. 2008. Nguyen Tuan V, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Vitamin D receptor genotypes and response to zoledronic acid therapy in thalassemia-induced osteoporosis. Annals of hematology. 2008. Otrock Zaher K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Dairy products, polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor gene and colorectal adenoma recurrence. International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer. 2008. Hubner Richard A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
A PAI-1 (SERPINE1) polymorphism predicts osteonecrosis in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Blood. 2008. French Deborah, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Polymorphisms of vitamin D receptor gene in Turkish familial psoriasis patients. Archives of dermatological research. 2007. Dayangac-Erden Didem, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Ancestry and pharmacogenetics of antileukemic drug toxicity. Blood. 2007. Kishi Shinji, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Promoter and 3'-untranslated-region haplotypes in the vitamin d receptor gene predispose to osteoporotic fracture: the rotterdam study. American journal of human genetics. 2005. Fang Yue, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the human vitamin D receptor promoter change protein-DNA complex formation and are associated with height and vitamin D status in adolescent girls. Human molecular genetics. 2005. d'Alésio Arnold, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
BsmI vitamin D receptor genotypes influence the efficacy of antiresorptive treatments in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. A 1-year multicenter, randomized and controlled trial. Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA. 2005. Palomba Stefano, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics of outcome in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood. 2005. Rocha Jose Claudio C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Vitamin D receptor Fok1 polymorphisms affect calcium absorption, kinetics, and bone mineralization rates during puberty. Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. 2005. Abrams Steven A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms, particularly the novel A-1012G promoter polymorphism, are associated with vitamin D3 responsiveness and non-familial susceptibility in psoriasis. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2005. Halsall J A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Polymorphisms of vitamin D receptor gene protect against the risk of head and neck cancer. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2005. Liu Zhensheng, et al. PubMed
Vitamin D receptor genotypes influence the success of calcitriol therapy for recurrent vertebral fracture in osteoporosis. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2005. Morrison Nigel A, et al. PubMed
Association of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms with childhood and adult asthma. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 2004. Raby Benjamin A, et al. PubMed
Association of vitamin D receptor genetic variants with susceptibility to asthma and atopy. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 2004. Poon Audrey H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Genetics and biology of vitamin D receptor polymorphisms. Gene. 2004. Uitterlinden André G, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Comparative high-resolution analysis of linkage disequilibrium and tag single nucleotide polymorphisms between populations in the vitamin D receptor gene. Human molecular genetics. 2004. Nejentsev Sergey, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Effectiveness of alendronate treatment in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: relationship with BsmI vitamin D receptor genotypes. Clinical endocrinology. 2003. Palomba Stefano, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Two polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor gene--association with bone mass and 5-year change in bone mass with or without hormone-replacement therapy in postmenopausal women: the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study. Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. 2002. Tofteng C L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Expression of CYP3A4, CYP2B6, and CYP2C9 is regulated by the vitamin D receptor pathway in primary human hepatocytes. The Journal of biological chemistry. 2002. Drocourt Lionel, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Transcriptional control of intestinal cytochrome P-4503A by 1alpha,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3. Molecular pharmacology. 2001. Thummel K E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Vitamin D receptor and estrogen receptor gene polymorphisms in postmenopausal Danish women: no relation to bone markers or serum lipoproteins. Climacteric : the journal of the International Menopause Society. 2000. Bagger Y Z, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
VDR genotype and response to etidronate therapy in late postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA. 1999. Marc J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Change of bone mass in postmenopausal Caucasian women with and without hormone replacement therapy is associated with vitamin D receptor and estrogen receptor genotypes. Human genetics. 1998. Deng H W, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Multiple promoters direct the tissue-specific expression of novel N-terminal variant human vitamin D receptor gene transcripts. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1998. Crofts L A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Structural organization of the human vitamin D receptor chromosomal gene and its promoter. Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.). 1997. Miyamoto K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
A unique mutation in the vitamin D receptor gene in three Japanese patients with vitamin D-dependent rickets type II: utility of single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis for heterozygous carrier detection. American journal of human genetics. 1991. Saijo T, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Point mutations in the human vitamin D receptor gene associated with hypocalcemic rickets. Science (New York, N.Y.). 1988. Hughes M R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Cloning and expression of full-length cDNA encoding human vitamin D receptor. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1988. Baker A R, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

UniProtKB:
VDR_HUMAN (P11473)
Ensembl:
ENSG00000111424
GenAtlas:
VDR
GeneCard:
VDR
MutDB:
VDR
ALFRED:
LO010717Q
HuGE:
VDR
Comparative Toxicogenomics Database:
7421
ModBase:
P11473
HumanCyc Gene:
HS03416
HGNC:
12679

Common Searches