Gene:
PTGS2
prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase)

PharmGKB contains no dosing guidelines for this . To report known genotype-based dosing guidelines, or if you are interested in developing guidelines, click here.

PharmGKB has no annotated drug labels with pharmacogenomic information for this . If you know of a drug label with PGx, send us a message.

PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the table.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

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This is a non-comprehensive list of genetic tests with pharmacogenetics relevance, typically submitted by the manufacturer and manually curated by PharmGKB. The information listed is provided for educational purposes only and does not constitute an endorsement of any listed test or manufacturer.

A more complete listing of genetic tests is found at the Genetic Testing Registry (GTR).

PGx Test Variants Assayed Related Drugs?

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page on the appropriate tab.

Links in the "Drugs" column lead to PharmGKB Drug Pages.

List of all PTGS2 variant annotations

Variant?
(142)
Alternate Names ? Drugs ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs12042763 186651876G>T, 2684C>A, 38140518G>T
G > T
Not Available
rs20417 -899G>C, 186650321C>G, 38138963C>G, 4239G>C, COX-2 G-765C, PTGS2:-765G>C
C > G
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3218622 186646005C>T, 38134647C>T, 683G>A, 8555G>A, Arg228His
C > T
Missense
Arg228His
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3218625 11019G>A, 1759G>A, 186643541C>T, 38132183C>T, Gly587Arg
C > T
Missense
Gly587Arg
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4648276 186645488A>G, 38134130A>G, 9072T>C, 970+111T>C
A > G
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs4648287 10610T>C, 1406-56T>C, 186643950A>G, 38132592A>G
A > G
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs5272 10723A>G, 1463A>G, 186643837T>C, 38132479T>C, Glu488Gly
T > C
Missense
Glu488Gly
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs5273 10792T>C, 1532T>C, 186643768A>G, 38132410A>G, Val511Ala
A > G
Missense
Val511Ala
rs5275 *427T>C, 11502T>C, 186643058A>G, 38131700A>G, COX-2 8473T>C, PTGS2 exon10+837T>C, PTGS2: 6498T>C, PTGS2:8473T>C
A > G
3' UTR
VIP No Clinical Annotations available No Variant Annotations available
rs689466 -1195G>A, -1329A>G, 186650751T>C, 3809A>G, 38139393T>C, COX-2 -1195G>A
T > C
5' Flanking
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 142

Overview

Alternate Names:  None
Alternate Symbols:  COX2
PharmGKB Accession Id: PA293

Details

Cytogenetic Location: chr1 : q25.2 - q25.3
GP mRNA Boundary: chr1 : 186640944 - 186649559
GP Gene Boundary: chr1 : 186637944 - 186659559
Strand: minus
The mRNA boundaries are calculated using the gene's default feature set from NCBI, mapped onto the UCSC Golden Path. PharmGKB sets gene boundaries by expanding the mRNA boundaries by no less than 10,000 bases upstream (5') and 3,000 bases downstream (3') to allow for potential regulatory regions.

Background
The PTGS2 gene codes for prostaglandin G/H synthase-2, which catalyses the first two steps in the metabolism of arachadonic acid (AA). Prostaglandin G/H synthase-2 has two active sites, a hydroperoxidase and a cyclooxygenase (COX) site, and is colloquially termed COX-2. The bisfunctional enzyme carries out the bis-dioxygenation and reduction of AA to form prostaglandin (PG)G2 and H2. PGH2 is then converted to other PGs including PGD2, PGE2, PGF2alpha, PGI2 and thromboxane (TX) A2 which are lipid modulators of inflammation. COX-2 is the target for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) including those that were purposefully designed (pd) to be selective for COX-2 (pdNSAIDs, coxibs). PTGS2 is the paralogue of PTGS1 which codes for the COX-1 enzyme (see Annotated PGx Gene Information for PTGS1). While both enyzmes carry out the same endogenous reactions there are dramatic differences in the pattern of their expression, in terms of regulators of expression, location and timing that suggest crucial differences in function. The hypothesis that COX-1 is predominantly responsible for homeostatic functions including the protection of the gastric mucosa whereas COX-2 is responsible for pathogenic and inflammatory responses led to the development of selective COX-2 inhibitors, particularly to treat pain in individuals at risk for stomach ulcers with traditional NSAIDs. It is now realized that this simple designation of roles does not adequately explain the intricate balance between these two enyzmes [Article:20059330]. The withdrawal of the pdNSAIDs, rofecoxib and valdecoxib, and limited marketing of etoricoxib and lumiracoxib, due to increased risk for cardiovascular and hepatotoxic events [Article:15486258] has highlighted the limitations of knowledge about PTGS2 biology and NSAID pharmacology.

The PTGS2 gene encompasses approximately 8.6 kb on chromosome 1 and codes for a 4 kb mRNA [Article:18952571]. PTGS2 is an immediate-early response gene not expressed constitutively in most cells [Article:12885872]. However, constitutive PTGS2 expression does occur in brain, kidney, blood vessels and the female reproductive tract [Article:10761955]. PTGS2 can be induced in inflammation and non-inflammatory processes such as in renal cells in response to salt exposure, vascular endothelium in response to laminar flow, or in the gastric mucosa in healing ulcers [Article:20059330]. Depending on the cell type and stimulus different PGs are produced (see Figure 2 from [Article:20059330] for an overview of the different PGs from different cell types and their downstream actions). PTGS2 has been shown to be overexpressed in several cancer cell lines, animal models and human cancers [Article:11857443].

PTGS2 gene regulation occurs at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels [Article:12885872]. PTGS2 expression is induced by tumor promoters, growth factors, oncogenes and cytokines [Article:15313405]. There are multiple signaling pathways that can lead to the activation of the PTGS2 gene promoter (see [Article:15313405] for a review). The PTGS2 promoter contains transcription factor binding sites for C/EBP, NFkappaB, AP-1, Sp1 and a TATA box [Article:15313405]. PTGS2 has AU rich elements (AREs) in the 3'UTR that controls the degradation of the mRNA and the translation to protein [Article:12885872]. The AREs promote the degradation of the mRNA but ARE binding proteins such as CUGBP2 and HuR (ELAV1) can stabilize the message [Article:19788855] although others have shown CUGBP2 inhibits PTGS2 translation [Article:17383427]. Inhibition of MAPK p38 (MAPK14) by dexamethasone has been shown to destabilize PTGS2 mRNA but the specific ARE binding proteins involved in this action are not known [Article:11154265]. Recently, binding of microRNAs has been shown to regulate PTGS2 expression in mouse uterus during embryo implantation although the biological significance of this is not known [Article:17848513].

There is also post-translational control that regulates COX-2 protein degradation. This occurs via two pathways: the first involves N\-glycosylation of the C-terminus of the protein, the second involves substrate-dependent suicide activation [Article:18203712]. COX-2 protein contains additional residues compared to COX-1 including a 27-amino acid instability motif (27-IM) that regulates posttranslational N\-glycosylation of Asn-594 [Article:18203712]. COX-2 protein is abundantly located in the endoplasmic reticulum. When the N\-glycosyl group is processed the protein is translocated to the cytoplasm where it undergoes proteasomal degradation [Article:18203712].

COX-2 is a homodimer and an integral membrane protein found in the ER lumen [PMID:18203712]. There are several crystal structures available of the mouse COX-2 protein alone (5COX) and bound to substrates AA (1CVU), diclofenac (1PXX), flurbiprofen (3PGH), and indomethicin (4COX) [see PDB\]. The COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes are 60% identical at sequence level although differ in their affinity for different NSAIDs, both traditional (t)NSAIDs as well as those purposefully designed against COX-2 (pdNSAIDs) which also can effect COX-1 at high concentrations [Articles:18952571, 19602986]. An estimate of the selectivity spectrum for COX-2 suggests that lumiracoxib = etoricoxib (most selective for COX-2) > rofecoxib >> valdecoxib > celecoxib ~ diclofenac ~ meloxicam ~ etodolac. Ibuprofen and naproxen are non-isoform selective NSAIDs [Article:19602986]. Timing and dosage of the NSAID as well as enzyme selectivity effects the relative inhibition of the two isoforms (see [Article:19602986] for a graphical representation of this 3 dimensional relationship).

Extensive studies in mice using targeted deletions of PTGS2 in the whole animal and in particular tissues have identified many of the different roles and products of the gene under different conditions, reviewed in [Articles:16720359, 17164135]. The double knock out of both PTGS1 and PTGS2 results in mice that die on day 1 after birth due to failure of the ductus arteriosus to close [Article:11158594]. Persistence of the ductus arteriosus is thought to be COX-2 dependent since mice with PTGS2 deleted but functional PTGS1 still have high mortality due to this defect [Article:11158594]. Deletion or inhibition of PTGS2 results in severe kidney malformations [Article:16720359], increases the vasoconstrictive response to angiotensin II [Article:12093889] and elevates basal blood pressure in some mouse strains [Articles:16614756, 19940265]. Deletion of PTGS2 can also result in cardiomyopathy [Articles:7477380, 19376970]. Although PTGS2 knockout male mice are normal with respect to reproduction, PTGS2 knockout female mice have reproductive defects [Article:9346237]. The study of PTGS2 manipulated animal models has provided good supporting evidence to underpin the observations of NSAID action in humans.

PTGS2 variation
There are over 100 putative variants reported for PTGS2, although to date there are no non-synonymous amino acid substitutions with frequencies that would be considered common enough to be polymorphisms (dbSNP and ALFRED accessed 4/2010). There are some non-coding and synonymous variants that have been studied in several contexts, the most well studied is PTGS2:(-765)G>C (rs20417)[Article:18085997](for more details see links below).

The majority of studies of PTGS2 variants have looked at epidemiological risk for cancer [Articles:19060633, 19488068, 19965896] or cardiovascular diseases [Articles:19748095, 19046748, 17495879, 17350020, 16458279, 16479190] with a few also examining risk for Alzheimer's disease [Articles:20110601, 17234302, 16309832], asthma [Articles:18489027, 17573729, 15544595, 15316498], lupus [Article:16871410], rheumatoid arthritis [Articles:18381795, 16821264], osteoarthritis [Article:18471798], diabetes [Article:12920574] and periodontitis [PMIDs:20177132, 19236532]. A smaller number of studies have looked at PTGS2 variation and drug [Articles:16678543, 16401468, 17495879, 19046748, 17178263] or diet interaction [Articles:15150618, 15550453, 19930591, 19318492, 17066444, 19056642]. Variants in PTGS2 have been shown to influence rofecoxib responses to pain after surgery [Article:16678543]. Variants in PTGS2 were shown to effect cardiovascular disease in aspirin users in the ARIC study [Article:17495879]. In a small study of variants impacting rofecoxib and celecoxib response in healthy volunteers, only one variant in PTGS2 was polymorphic in the group studied (rs5273) and this was not associated with any phenotype [Article:16401468]. A variant of PTGS2 was shown not to modulate celecoxib effects on PG production [Article:17178263]. These studies are discussed further with respect to the variants tested (see links below).

The identification of variants that impact NSAID responses with respect to efficacy of pain control, inflammation and cancer prevention and development of side effects such as gastrontestinal toxicity and cardiovascular events is of great clinical importance. A collaborative multidisciplinary multisite consortium has been formed to address these issues (see the Pentacon website).

Note: The PTGS2 gene is found on the minus chromosomal strand. Please note that for standardization, the PharmGKB presents all allele base pairs on the positive chromosomal strand, therefore the alleles within our variant annotations will differ (in a complementary manner) from those in this VIP summary that are given on the minus strand as reported in the literature.

Citation PharmGKB summary: very important pharmacogene information for PTGS2. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Thorn Caroline F, Grosser Tilo, Klein Teri E, Altman Russ B. PubMed
History

Submitted by Caroline F. Thorn

Variant Summaries rs20417, rs5275, rs689466
Drugs
Diseases

Splice Variant Summaries

PTGS2:COX2a

A splice variant, COX2a, was observed in platelets of patients after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) [Article:15543317]. COX2a has a partial deletion of exon 5 resulting in a frameshift and premature stop codon. Recent evidence showed that despite the premature stop codon, ribosomal framshifting can allow protein to be translated [Article:18064329]. The COX2a protein differs biochemically and pharmacologically from COX2, as it has a lower molecular weight, does not generate PGs and may not react in the same way to COX2 inhibitors [Article:18064329].

Note: The PTGS2 gene is found on the minus chromosomal strand. Please note that for standardization, the PharmGKB presents all allele base pairs on the positive chromosomal strand, therefore the alleles within our variant annotations will differ (in a complementary manner) from those in this VIP summary that are given on the minus strand as reported in the literature.

Primary Evidence: PMID:15543317

PharmGKB Curated Pathways

Pathways created internally by PharmGKB based primarily on literature evidence.

  1. Acetaminophen Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Stylized diagram showing acetaminophen metabolism and transport in the liver and kidney.
  1. Celecoxib Pathway, Pharmacodynamics
    Stylized cell depicting the mechanism of action of celecoxib and candidate genes interacting with celecoxib and involved in the regulation of cell cycle, apoptosis and angiogenesis by celecoxib.
  1. Etoposide Pathway, Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics
    Etoposide cellular disposition and effects.
  1. Glucocorticoid Pathway - Transcription Regulation, Pharmacodynamics
    Model displaying genes which may be involved in the nuclear complex formed that regulates transcription in response to glucocorticoids.
  1. Ibuprofen Pathway, Pharmacodynamics
    Stylized cell depicting the mechanism of action of ibuprofen (IBU).

External Pathways

Links to non-PharmGKB pathways.

  1. Calcineurin-regulated NFAT-dependent transcription in lymphocytes - (Pathway Interaction Database NCI-Nature Curated)
  2. Calcium signaling in the CD4+ TCR pathway - (Pathway Interaction Database NCI-Nature Curated)
  3. COX reactions - (Reactome via Pathway Interaction Database)
  4. Prostanoid hormones - (Reactome via Pathway Interaction Database)
  5. S1P1 pathway - (Pathway Interaction Database NCI-Nature Curated)
  6. Signaling mediated by p38-alpha and p38-beta - (Pathway Interaction Database NCI-Nature Curated)
No related genes are available

Curated Information ?

Curated Information ?

Publications related to PTGS2: 59

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetic insights into migraine treatment in children. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Gentile Giovanna, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenomics as a risk mitigation strategy for chemotherapeutic cardiotoxicity. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Jensen Brian C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Atenolol Induced HDL-C Change in the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses (PEAR) Study. PloS one. 2013. McDonough Caitrin W, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic and genomic predictors of anti-TNF response. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Prajapati Rita, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Interaction networks of lithium and valproate molecular targets reveal a striking enrichment of apoptosis functional clusters and neurotrophin signaling. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2011. Gupta A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
PharmGKB summary: very important pharmacogene information for PTGS2. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Thorn Caroline F, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Use of aspirin and other nonsteroidal antiinflammatory medications in relation to prostate cancer risk. American journal of epidemiology. 2010. Salinas Claudia A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
A large-scale candidate gene approach identifies SNPs in SOD2 and IL13 as predictive markers of response to preoperative chemoradiation in rectal cancer. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Ho-Pun-Cheung A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic polymorphisms and the cardiovascular risk of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The American journal of cardiology. 2010. St Germaine Christine G, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Polymorphic human prostaglandin H synthase-2 proteins and their interactions with cyclooxygenase substrates and inhibitors. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Liu W, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Growth factor regulation of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (Ptgs2) expression in colonic mesenchymal stem cells. The Journal of biological chemistry. 2010. Walker Monica R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Role of cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipoxygenase polymorphisms in Alzheimer's disease in a population from northern Italy: implication for pharmacogenomics. Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD. 2010. Listì Florinda, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Evolving novel anti-HER2 strategies. The lancet oncology. 2009. Jones Kellie L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Prostaglandin synthase 2/cyclooxygenase 2 (PTGS2/COX2) 8473T>C polymorphism associated with prognosis for patients with colorectal cancer treated with capecitabine and oxaliplatin. Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology. 2009. Kim Jong Gwang, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Role of inflammation gene polymorphisms on pain severity in lung cancer patients. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology. 2009. Reyes-Gibby Cielito C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics in cardiovascular antithrombotic therapy. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2009. Marín Francisco, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Variability in the response to cyclooxygenase inhibitors: toward the individualization of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy. Journal of investigative medicine : the official publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research. 2009. Grosser Tilo. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Variation in eicosanoid genes, non-fatal myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. Atherosclerosis. 2009. Lemaitre Rozenn N, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genes that mediate breast cancer metastasis to the brain. Nature. 2009. Bos Paula D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The genetics of antiplatelet drug resistance. Clinical genetics. 2009. Feher G, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Interaction of cyclooxygenase-2 variants and smoking in pancreatic cancer: a possible role of nucleophosmin. Gastroenterology. 2009. Zhao Dan, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genome-wide association scan identifies a prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 variant involved in risk of knee osteoarthritis. American journal of human genetics. 2008. Valdes Ana M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Clinical use and pharmacological properties of selective COX-2 inhibitors. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2008. Shi Shaojun, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Acceleration of cardiovascular disease by a dysfunctional prostacyclin receptor mutation: potential implications for cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition. Circulation research. 2008. Arehart Eric, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Increased risk of incident stroke associated with the cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) G-765C polymorphism in African-Americans: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Atherosclerosis. 2008. Kohsaka Shun, et al. PubMed
Cyclooxygenase polymorphisms and risk of cardiovascular events: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Lee C R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics of EGFR and VEGF inhibition. Drug discovery today. 2007. Pander Jan, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Pyrosequencing of polymorphisms in the COX-2 gene (PTGS2) with reported clinical relevance. Pharmacogenomics. 2007. Skarke Carsten, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Alternative splicing of platelet cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA in patients after coronary artery bypass grafting. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2007. Censarek Petra, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
STAT3 polymorphism predicts interferon-alfa response in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2007. Ito Noriyuki, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Variable platelet response to aspirin and clopidogrel in atherothrombotic disease. Circulation. 2007. Maree Andrew O, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
COX-2 suppresses tissue factor expression via endocannabinoid-directed PPARdelta activation. The Journal of experimental medicine. 2007. Ghosh Mallika, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Aspirin and the risk of colorectal cancer in relation to the expression of COX-2. The New England journal of medicine. 2007. Chan Andrew T, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The pharmacogenetics of antiplatelet drugs. Current opinion in investigational drugs (London, England : 2000). 2007. Marín Francisco, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Cyclin D1 and epidermal growth factor polymorphisms associated with survival in patients with advanced colorectal cancer treated with Cetuximab. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2006. Zhang Wu, et al. PubMed
Genetically mediated interindividual variation in analgesic responses to cyclooxygenase inhibitory drugs. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Lee Yun-Sil, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
The cyclooxygenase 2 genetic variant -765G>C does not modulate the effects of celecoxib on prostaglandin E2 production. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Skarke Carsten, et al. PubMed
Marked interindividual variability in the response to selective inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2. Gastroenterology. 2006. Fries Susanne, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Hippocampal upregulation of the cyclooxygenase-2 gene following neonatal clomipramine treatment (a model of depression). The pharmacogenomics journal. 2006. Cassano P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Identification of functional genetic variants in cyclooxygenase-2 and their association with risk of esophageal cancer. Gastroenterology. 2005. Zhang Xuemei, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Cardiovascular risk associated with celecoxib in a clinical trial for colorectal adenoma prevention. The New England journal of medicine. 2005. Solomon Scott D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
PTGS2 (COX-2) -765G > C promoter variant reduces risk of colorectal adenoma among nonusers of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology. 2005. Ulrich Cornelia M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Cardiovascular events associated with rofecoxib in a colorectal adenoma chemoprevention trial. The New England journal of medicine. 2005. Bresalier Robert S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Complications of the COX-2 inhibitors parecoxib and valdecoxib after cardiac surgery. The New England journal of medicine. 2005. Nussmeier Nancy A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Colorectal adenoma risk is modified by the interplay between polymorphisms in arachidonic acid pathway genes and fish consumption. Carcinogenesis. 2005. Siezen Christine L E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors induce COX-2 gene expression in murine macrophages: role of MAPK cascades and promoter elements for CREB and C/EBPbeta. Experimental cell research. 2004. Chen Jui-Ching, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Signal transduction pathways regulating cyclooxygenase-2 expression: potential molecular targets for chemoprevention. Biochemical pharmacology. 2004. Chun Kyung-Soo, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Interaction between cyclooxygenase-2 gene polymorphism and dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on colon cancer risk: the Singapore Chinese Health Study. British journal of cancer. 2004. Koh W-P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Relationship between COX-2 specific inhibitors and hypertension. Hypertension. 2004. Solomon Daniel H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
A polymorphism in the cyclooxygenase 2 gene as an inherited protective factor against myocardial infarction and stroke. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. 2004. Cipollone Francesco, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Overexpression of the embryonic-lethal abnormal vision-like protein HuR in ovarian carcinoma is a prognostic factor and is associated with increased cyclooxygenase 2 expression. Cancer research. 2004. Denkert Carsten, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
COX-2 inhibition and cancer: experimental findings and clinical correlates. The West Virginia medical journal. 2004. Roberts Elizabeth Gail, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The RNA-binding protein HuR regulates the expression of cyclooxygenase-2. The Journal of biological chemistry. 2003. Sengupta Sibani, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Many actions of cyclooxygenase-2 in cellular dynamics and in cancer. Journal of cellular physiology. 2002. Cao Yang, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
COX-2-selective inhibitors in the treatment of arthritis. Cleveland Clinic journal of medicine. 2002. Schnitzer Thomas J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Dexamethasone destabilizes cyclooxygenase 2 mRNA by inhibiting mitogen-activated protein kinase p38. Molecular and cellular biology. 2001. Lasa M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Celecoxib, a COX-2--specific inhibitor: the clinical data. American journal of orthopedics (Belle Mead, N.J.). 1999. Fort J. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Repression of cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2 release by dexamethasone occurs by transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms involving loss of polyadenylated mRNA. The Journal of biological chemistry. 1998. Newton R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthases (cyclooxygenases)-1 and -2. The Journal of biological chemistry. 1996. Smith W L, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

Entrez Gene:
5743
OMIM:
600262
UCSC Genome Browser:
NM_000963
RefSeq RNA:
NM_000963
RefSeq Protein:
NP_000954
RefSeq DNA:
AC_000044
AC_000133
NC_000001
NT_004487
NW_001838533
NW_926128
UniProtKB:
PGH2_HUMAN (P35354)
Ensembl:
ENSG00000073756
GenAtlas:
PTGS2
GeneCard:
PTGS2
MutDB:
PTGS2
ALFRED:
LO047741X
HuGE:
PTGS2
Comparative Toxicogenomics Database:
5743
ModBase:
P35354
HumanCyc Gene:
HS01115
HGNC:
9605

Common Searches