Gene:
DRD4
dopamine receptor D4

PharmGKB contains no dosing guidelines for this . To report known genotype-based dosing guidelines, or if you are interested in developing guidelines, click here.

PharmGKB has no annotated drug labels with pharmacogenomic information for this . If you know of a drug label with PGx, send us a message.

PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

? = Mouse-over for quick help

This is a non-comprehensive list of genetic tests with pharmacogenetics relevance, typically submitted by the manufacturer and manually curated by PharmGKB. The information listed is provided for educational purposes only and does not constitute an endorsement of any listed test or manufacturer.

A more complete listing of genetic tests is found at the Genetic Testing Registry (GTR).

PGx Test Variants Assayed Related Drugs?

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page on the appropriate tab.

Links in the "Drugs" column lead to PharmGKB Drug Pages.

Variant?
(138)
Alternate Names / Tag SNPs ? Drugs ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs11246226 *103+485C>A, 581191C>A, 641191C>A, 8887C>A
C > A
Intronic
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 138

Overview

Alternate Names:  None
Alternate Symbols:  None
PharmGKB Accession Id: PA27480

Details

Cytogenetic Location: chr11 : p15.5 - p15.5
GP mRNA Boundary: chr11 : 637305 - 640706
GP Gene Boundary: chr11 : 627305 - 643706
Strand: plus
The mRNA boundaries are calculated using the gene's default feature set from NCBI, mapped onto the UCSC Golden Path. PharmGKB sets gene boundaries by expanding the mRNA boundaries by no less than 10,000 bases upstream (5') and 3,000 bases downstream (3') to allow for potential regulatory regions.

PharmGKB Curated Pathways

Pathways created internally by PharmGKB based primarily on literature evidence.

  1. Nicotine Pathway (Dopaminergic Neuron), Pharmacodynamics
    Representation of genes involved in nicotine effects in dopaminergic neurons.

External Pathways

Links to non-PharmGKB pathways.

PharmGKB contains no links to external pathways for this gene. To report a pathway, click here.

No related genes are available

Curated Information ?

Evidence Drug
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
methylphenidate

Curated Information ?

Evidence Disease
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Autism Spectrum Disorder

Publications related to DRD4: 24

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Influence of a Dopamine Pathway Additive Genetic Efficacy Score on Smoking Cessation: Results from Two Randomized Clinical Trials of Bupropion. Addiction (Abingdon, England). 2013. David Sean P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Positive effects of methylphenidate on hyperactivity are moderated by monoaminergic gene variants in children with autism spectrum disorders. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2013. McCracken J T, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The DRD4 Exon III VNTR, Bupropion, and Associations With Prospective Abstinence. Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. 2012. Bergen Andrew W, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics of antidepressant drugs: current clinical practice and future directions. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Narasimhan Sneha, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetic testing to predict antipsychotic-induced weight gain: a systematic review. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Risselada Arne J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pediatric pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic studies: the current state and future perspectives. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2011. Russo Roberta, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Breaking Barriers in the Genomics and Pharmacogenetics of Drug Addiction. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Ho M K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenomic implications of variants of monoaminergic-related genes in geriatric psychiatry. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Shiroma Paulo R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Systematic analysis of dopamine receptor genes (DRD1-DRD5) in antipsychotic-induced weight gain. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Müller D J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Dopamine D4 receptor gene variation moderates the efficacy of bupropion for smoking cessation. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Leventhal A M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
A current update on ADHD pharmacogenomics. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Kieling Christian, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Clozapine, GABA(B), and the treatment of resistant schizophrenia. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Daskalakis Z J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic polymorphisms in dopamine- and serotonin-related genes and treatment responses to risperidone and perospirone. Psychiatry investigation. 2009. Tsutsumi Atsushi, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Association study of tardive dyskinesia and five DRD4 polymorphisms in schizophrenia patients. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2009. Zai C C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetics of dopamine receptors and drug addiction: a comprehensive review. Behavioural pharmacology. 2009. Le Foll Bernard, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
DRD4 48 bp VNTR but not 5-HT 2C Cys23Ser receptor polymorphism is related to antipsychotic-induced weight gain. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2009. Popp J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Systematic meta-analyses and field synopsis of genetic association studies in schizophrenia: the SzGene database. Nature genetics. 2008. Allen Nicole C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Association of dopamine, serotonin, and nicotinic gene polymorphisms with methylphenidate response in ADHD. American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics. 2008. Tharoor Hema, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Physiogenomic analysis of localized FMRI brain activity in schizophrenia. Annals of biomedical engineering. 2008. Windemuth Andreas, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic variation in the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene and smoking cessation: follow-up of a randomised clinical trial of transdermal nicotine patch. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2008. David S P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics of methylphenidate response in preschoolers with ADHD. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 2006. McGough James, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2A6, MAOA, DBH, DRD4, and 5HT2A genotypes, smoking behaviour and cotinine levels in 1518 UK adolescents. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2005. Huang Shuwen, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Indian ethnic populations characterized by dopamine (D4) receptor VNTR polymorphism. Annals of human biology. 2005. Ghosh Anu, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Dopamine D4 receptor 48-bp repeat polymorphism: no association with response to antipsychotic treatment, but association with catatonic schizophrenia. Molecular psychiatry. 2000. Kaiser R, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

Entrez Gene:
1815
OMIM:
126452
143465
168600
601696
UCSC Genome Browser:
NM_000797
RefSeq RNA:
NM_000797
RefSeq Protein:
NP_000788
RefSeq DNA:
AC_000054
AC_000143
NC_000011
NG_021241
NT_009237
NW_001838016
NW_924962
UniProtKB:
DRD4_HUMAN (P21917)
Ensembl:
ENSG00000069696
GenAtlas:
DRD4
GeneCard:
DRD4
MutDB:
DRD4
ALFRED:
LO000227L
HuGE:
DRD4
Comparative Toxicogenomics Database:
1815
ModBase:
P21917
HumanCyc Gene:
HS00968
IUPHAR Receptor:
D4 (217)
HGNC:
3025

Common Searches