Gene:
DRD2
dopamine receptor D2

PharmGKB contains no dosing guidelines for this . To report known genotype-based dosing guidelines, or if you are interested in developing guidelines, click here.

PharmGKB has no annotated drug labels with pharmacogenomic information for this . If you know of a drug label with PGx, send us a message.

PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the table.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

? = Mouse-over for quick help

This is a non-comprehensive list of genetic tests with pharmacogenetics relevance, typically submitted by the manufacturer and manually curated by PharmGKB. The information listed is provided for educational purposes only and does not constitute an endorsement of any listed test or manufacturer.

A more complete listing of genetic tests is found at the Genetic Testing Registry (GTR).

PGx Test Variants Assayed Related Drugs?

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page on the appropriate tab.

Links in the "Drugs" column lead to PharmGKB Drug Pages.

List of all DRD2 variant annotations

Variant?
(142)
Alternate Names ? Drugs ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1076560 113283688C>A, 16846104C>A, 67314G>T, 724-83G>T, 811-83G>T
C > A
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs1079598 -31-870T>C, 113296274A>G, 16858690A>G, 54728T>C
A > G
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1110976 113284519T>G, 16846935T>G, 66483A>C, 724-914A>C, 810+578A>C
T > G
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs1124493 1052-653A>C, 113282295T>G, 1139-653A>C, 16844711T>G, 68707A>C
T > G
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1125394 -31-1781A>G, 113297185T>C, 16859601T>C, 53817A>G
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs12364283 -1189T>C, 113346955A>G, 16909371A>G, 4047T>C
A > G
5' Flanking
rs1799732 -487_-486insC, 113346252_113346253insG, 16908668_16908669insG, 4749_4750insC, DRD2: -141C Ins/Del
- > G
5' Flanking
No VIP available CA VA
rs1799978 -585A>G, 113346351T>C, 16908767T>C, 4651A>G, DRD2: -241A>G, DRD2:A-241G
T > C
5' Flanking
rs1800497 113270828G>A, 16833244G>A, 17316G>A, 2137G>A, 32806C>T, DRD2 Taq1A, DRD2:32806C>T, DRD2:Taq1A, DRD2:Taq1A A1, DRD2:TaqIA allele, Glu713Lys, Taq1A
G > A
Missense
Glu713Lys
rs1801028 113283484G>C, 16845900G>C, 67518C>G, 845C>G, 932C>G, DRD2:1097C>G, DRD2:Ser311Cys, Ser282Cys, Ser311Cys
G > C
Missense
Ser282Cys
No VIP available CA VA
rs2283265 113285536C>A, 16847952C>A, 65466G>T, 723+607G>T, 724-353G>T
C > A
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs2440390 113286878T>C, 16849294T>C, 533-545A>G, 64124A>G
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2734833 113292920G>A, 16855336G>A, 285+2169C>T, 58082C>T
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2734841 1052-134T>G, 113281776A>C, 1139-134T>G, 16844192A>C, 69226T>G
A > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2734842 *1175C>G, 113280274G>C, 16842690G>C, 70728C>G
G > C
3' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4436578 -31-11361G>A, 113306765C>T, 16869181C>T, 44237G>A
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4460839 -32+24002G>A, -986G>A, 113321796C>T, 16884212C>T, 29206G>A
C > T
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4648317 -32+14266C>T, 113331532G>A, 16893948G>A, 19470C>T
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs6275 113283477A>G, 16845893A>G, 67525T>C, 852T>C, 939T>C, His284=, His313=
A > G
Synonymous
His284His
rs6277 113283459G>A, 16845875G>A, 67543C>T, 870C>T, 957C>T, C957T, DRD2: C957T, DRD2:1035C>T, DRD2:1122C>T, DRD2:957C>T, Pro290=, Pro319=
G > A
Synonymous
Pro290Pro
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs6279 *376C>G, 113281073G>C, 16843489G>C, 69929C>G
G > C
3' UTR
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 142

Overview

Alternate Names:  None
Alternate Symbols:  None
PharmGKB Accession Id: PA27478

Details

Cytogenetic Location: chr11 : q23.2 - q23.2
GP mRNA Boundary: chr11 : 113280317 - 113346001
GP Gene Boundary: chr11 : 113277317 - 113356001
Strand: minus
The mRNA boundaries are calculated using the gene's default feature set from NCBI, mapped onto the UCSC Golden Path. PharmGKB sets gene boundaries by expanding the mRNA boundaries by no less than 10,000 bases upstream (5') and 3,000 bases downstream (3') to allow for potential regulatory regions.

Dopamine is a catecholamine neurotransmitter and in the central nervous system it controls a variety of functions including cognition, emotion, locomotor activity, food intake and endocrine system regulation [Article:9457173]. In the periphery, dopamine modulates cardiovascular and renal function, hormone secretion, and gastrointestinal motility [Article:9457173]. Several pathological conditions such as Parkinson's disease (PD), schizophrenia, restless leg syndrome, and endocrine tumors e.g. pituitary adenomas have been linked to dysregulation of dopaminergic signal transmission [Articles:9457173, 19929252].

The dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) is one of five different dopamine receptors that have been identified in humans and shows high expression in both the pituitary gland and the central nervous system [Article:9760208]. The dopamine receptors belong to the family of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). They are grouped into D1-like receptors, including DRD1 and DRD5, generally associated with stimulatory functions, and D2-like receptors, including DRD2, DRD3, and DRD4, generally associated with inhibitory functions [Article:9457173]. The distinct subfamily of GPCRs, to which DRD2, DRD3, and DRD4 belong, was likely derived from gene duplication prior to the vertebrate expansion; these receptors are also known to share similar pharmacological profiles [Articles:12836695, 14597267].

In 1989, Grandy et al. cloned [Article:2532362] and mapped the DRD2 gene to the 11q22-q23 junction by in situ hybridization [Article:2573278]. The gene is interrupted by 6 introns [Article:2532362]. Alternative splicing of this gene results in short (D2S) and long (D2L) isoform [Article:2531847]. The short isoform is also known as D2(415), whereas the long form is known as D2(444). The difference between the long and short isoforms is the inclusion of an alternatively spliced exon that accounts for the 29 extra amino acids found in third cytoplasmic loop in the protein structure of the long isoform [Article:10654668]. D2L is primarily located postsynaptically whereas D2S functions as a presynaptic autoreceptor [Article:11089973]. The two isoforms have similar pharmacological characteristics [Articles:9457173, 17413183]. The length modification of the third cytoplasmatic loop suggests that there may be downstream signaling differences between the two isoforms. Differences in Gi protein subtype preferences and in regulation of receptor internalization were found for D2S and D2L [Articles:11089973, 8890457, 2531656, 7706278, 7916015, 14684845]. A third longer isoform was reported in brains from patients who died with psychosis, but this isoform has not been fully characterized [Article:10719223]. A study, which investigated regulatory polymorphisms in DRD2 gene, showed that the T allele of two highly linked SNPs in intron 5, (rs2283265) (G > T) and intron 6, (rs1076560) (G > T) shift splicing from D2S to D2L [Article:18077373].

Many dopamine receptor agonists that bind to the D2-like family of dopamine receptors are used as antiparkinsonian medications, such as apomorphine, bromocriptine, cabergoline, dihydroergocryptine, lisuride, pergolide, piribedil, pramipexole, ropinirole and rotigotine [Articles:16485914, 18808942]. Most antipsychotics antagonize the DRD2 as part of their pharmacological profile but also act at a number of other neurotransmitter receptors including other dopamine receptor subtypes, serotonin and histamine receptors [Articles:17629962, 19486266, 19689327]. First generation or typical antipsychotic drugs such as chlorpromazine and haloperidol cause both antipsychotic actions and many side effects, which are contributed to their high affinity DRD2 antagonism [Article:19909227]. Side effects of antipsychotics include risk of tardive dyskinesia, extrapyramidal side effects, and hyperprolactinemia [Article:19909227]. Olanzapine, quetiapine, and ziprasidone are second generation or atypical antipsychotics that have a more pronounced serotonin antagonism than dopamine antagonism but still antagonize DRD2 [Article:19909227]. Risperidone, another second generation antipsychotic, has a more balanced serotonin-dopamine antagonism profile [Article:7520908]. Aripiprazole [Article:10327430], and bifeprunox [Article:19346948] are the newest atypical antipsychotic drugs [Article:20010712]. Unlike other antipsychotics, aripiprazole and bifeprunox act as partial DRD2 agonists. Aplindore, another partial DRD2 agonist, was originally developed as an antipsychotic and is currently being studied as a potential treatment for PD [Articles:19834698, 20010712]. Kapur and Seeman also postulated a fast dissociation hypothesis based on a study of clozapine and quetiapine towards D2 receptor, and suggested that it is the possible explanation for the low extrapyramidal side effects induced by these 2 drugs as compared to other atypical and typical antipsychotics [Article:11229973].

More than 200 polymorphisms have been identified in the DNA encompassing the genomic sequence of this gene; most are in the introns and the downstream flanking region [Articles:2573278, 7916015, 1979357, 1679742, 1837284, 1684859, 8471125, 8533775], but some are in the coding [Article:8277546] and the upstream promoter regions [Article:9097961]. Allele frequencies of a number of these polymorphisms have been determined in different populations see The ALlele FREquency Database for DRD2.
Variants of the DRD2 gene have been associated with alcoholism and other addictive disorders such as cocaine, nicotine and opioid dependence, mood disorders, schizophrenia, and movement disorders, reviewed in [Article:12497624]. DRD2 variants are not only relevant to disease susceptibility but have been associated with the pharmacogenetics of several antipsychotics [Article:20194480]. Also DRD2 is among several candidate genes that have been reported to be associated with the efficacy of bupropion and nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation [Article:18781857]. The four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), discussed in more detail in the important variant section below, are the most commonly investigated SNPs in the DRD2 gene.

Note: The DRD2 gene is found on the minus chromosomal strand. Please note that for standardization, the PharmGKB presents all allele base pairs on the positive chromosomal strand, therefore the alleles within our variant annotations will differ (in a complementary manner) from those in this VIP summary that are given on the minus strand as reported in the literature.

Citation PharmGKB summary: dopamine receptor D2. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Mi Huaiyu, Thomas Paul D, Ring Huijun Z, Jiang Ruhong, Sangkuhl Katrin, Klein Teri E, Altman Russ B. PubMed
History

Submitted by Huaiyu Mi (PNAT), Huijun Z. Ring, Ruhong Jiang, Caryn Lerman (PNAT), Katrin Sangkuhl, Paul Thomas (PNAT)

Variant Summaries rs1799732, rs1800497, rs1801028, rs6277
Drugs
Drug (1)
Diseases

Splice Variant Summaries

DRD2:long

This variant encodes the long form.

mRNA sequence and GenBank accession ID of reference sequence: NM_000795
Product and GenBank accession ID of reference sequence: dopamine receptor D2 isoform long, NP_000786

Primary Evidence: PMID:2531847

DRD2:short

This variant encodes the short isoform.

mRNA sequence and GenBank accession ID of reference sequence: NM_016574
Product and GenBank accession ID of reference sequence: dopamine receptor D2 isoform short, NP_057658

Primary Evidence: PMID:2531847

PharmGKB Curated Pathways

Pathways created internally by PharmGKB based primarily on literature evidence.

  1. Nicotine Pathway (Dopaminergic Neuron), Pharmacodynamics
    Representation of genes involved in nicotine effects in dopaminergic neurons.

External Pathways

Links to non-PharmGKB pathways.

  1. regulation of ck1/cdk5 by type 1 glutamate receptors - (BioCarta via Pathway Interaction Database)
No related genes are available

Curated Information ?

Curated Information ?

Publications related to DRD2: 106

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Combined effect of common gene variants on response to drug withdrawal therapy in medication overuse headache. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Cargnin Sarah, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Familial risk for alcohol dependence and developmental changes in BMI: the moderating influence of addiction and obesity genes. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Lichenstein Sarah D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Parkinson's disease pharmacogenomics: new findings and perspectives. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Schumacher-Schuh Artur F, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenomics in psychiatry: the relevance of receptor and transporter polymorphisms. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Reynolds Gavin P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Use of magnetic resonance imaging in pharmacogenomics. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Viviani Roberto, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Lack of influence of DAT1 and DRD2 gene variants on antidepressant response in generalized anxiety disorder. Human psychopharmacology. 2014. Saung Wint Thu, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
DRD2/CHRNA5 Interaction on Prefrontal Biology and Physiology during Working Memory. PloS one. 2014. Di Giorgio Annabella, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacodynamic genetic variants related to antipsychotic adverse reactions in healthy volunteers. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. López-Rodríguez Rosario, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association of genetic variation in pharmacodynamic factors with methadone dose required for effective treatment of opioid addiction. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Levran Orna, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
ANKK1 and DRD2 pharmacogenetics of disulfiram treatment for cocaine abuse. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. Spellicy Catherine J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenomics of bipolar disorder. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Severino Giovanni, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics of clinical response to risperidone. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Llerena Adrián, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association of polymorphisms in pharmacogenetic candidate genes (OPRD1, GAL, ABCB1, OPRM1) with opioid dependence in European population: a case-control study. PloS one. 2013. Beer Beate, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
The role of single nucleotide polymorphism of D2 dopamine receptor gene on major depressive disorder and response to antidepressant treatment. Psychiatry research. 2012. Wang Yingcheng, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Dopamine transporter DAT and receptor DRD2 variants affect risk of lethal cocaine abuse: a gene-gene-environment interaction. Translational psychiatry. 2013. Sullivan D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenomic associations with weight gain in olanzapine treatment of patients without schizophrenia. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. 2012. Houston John P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics of antidepressant drugs: current clinical practice and future directions. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Narasimhan Sneha, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Impact of genetic polymorphisms in ABCB1, CYP2B6, OPRM1, ANKK1 and DRD2 genes on methadone therapy in Han Chinese patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Hung Chin-Chuan, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Dopamine-related genes and spontaneous smoking cessation in ever-heavy smokers. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Breitling Lutz P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetic testing to predict antipsychotic-induced weight gain: a systematic review. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Risselada Arne J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Sexual dysfunction in male schizophrenia: influence of antipsychotic drugs, prolactin and polymorphisms of the dopamine D2 receptor genes. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Zhang Xiang Rong, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 gene is associated with heroin dependence. Drug and alcohol dependence. 2011. Wang Tzu-Yun, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association of DRD2 and ANKK1 polymorphisms with prolactin increase in olanzapine-treated women. Psychiatry research. 2011. Houston John, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Analysis of 94 Candidate Genes and 12 Endophenotypes for Schizophrenia From the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia. The American journal of psychiatry. 2011. Greenwood Tiffany A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenomics of the RNA world: structural RNA polymorphisms in drug therapy. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Sadee W, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Gene-gene interaction analyses between NMDA receptor subunit and dopamine receptor gene variants and clozapine response. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Hwang Rudi, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Breaking Barriers in the Genomics and Pharmacogenetics of Drug Addiction. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Ho M K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Intronic Polymorphisms Affecting Alternative Splicing of Human Dopamine D2 Receptor Are Associated with Cocaine Abuse. Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 2010. Moyer Robert A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Blood gene expression correlated with tic severity in medicated and unmedicated patients with Tourette Syndrome. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Liao Isaac H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetic analysis of the mGlu2/3 agonist LY2140023 monohydrate in the treatment of schizophrenia. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Liu W, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics of lithium response in bipolar disorder. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. McCarthy Michael J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
DRD2 promoter region variation predicts antipsychotic-induced weight gain in first episode schizophrenia. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Lencz Todd, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenomic implications of variants of monoaminergic-related genes in geriatric psychiatry. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Shiroma Paulo R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
PharmGKB summary: dopamine receptor D2. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Mi Huaiyu, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PharmGKB summary: very important pharmacogene information for CYP2B6. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Thorn Caroline F, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic variation in three candidate genes and nicotine dependence, withdrawal and smoking cessation in hospitalized patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. De Ruyck Kim, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Systematic analysis of dopamine receptor genes (DRD1-DRD5) in antipsychotic-induced weight gain. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Müller D J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
D2 receptor genetic variation and clinical response to antipsychotic drug treatment: a meta-analysis. The American journal of psychiatry. 2010. Zhang Jian-Ping, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
An association analysis of circadian genes in anxiety disorders. Biological psychiatry. 2010. Sipilä Tessa, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Dopamine receptor D2 gene is associated with weight gain in schizophrenic patients under long-term atypical antipsychotic treatment. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Hong Chen-Jee, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Prospective association of dopamine-related polymorphisms with smoking cessation in general care. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Breitling Lutz P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
A genetic schizophrenia-susceptibility region located between the ANKK1 and DRD2 genes. Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry. 2010. Dubertret Caroline, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetic considerations in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy. 2010. Lohoff Falk W, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics of D2 dopamine receptor gene in prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas. Expert opinion on drug metabolism & toxicology. 2010. Filopanti M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Dopamine D2 receptor polymorphisms and susceptibility to alcohol dependence in Indian males: a preliminary study. BMC medical genetics. 2010. Prasad Pushplata, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Evaluation of genetic variability in the dopamine receptor D2 in relation to behavioral inhibition and impulsivity/sensation seeking: an exploratory study with d-amphetamine in healthy participants. Experimental and clinical psychopharmacology. 2009. Hamidovic Ajna, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
A common variant in DRD3 gene is associated with risperidone-induced extrapyramidal symptoms. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2009. Gassó P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic modulation of the pharmacological treatment of pain. Pharmacology & therapeutics. 2009. Lötsch Jörn, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Clozapine, GABA(B), and the treatment of resistant schizophrenia. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Daskalakis Z J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Predicting age-specific dosing of antipsychotics. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Uchida H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Association of the DRD2 and DRD3 polymorphisms with response to pramipexole in Parkinson's disease patients. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2009. Liu Ying-Zi, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association of the dopamine D2 receptor gene with alcohol dependence: haplotypes and subgroups of alcoholics as key factors for understanding receptor function. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2009. Kraschewski Adrian, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic variants altering dopamine D2 receptor expression or function modulate the risk of opiate addiction and the dosage requirements of methadone substitution. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2009. Doehring Alexandra, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Variants of the dopamine D2 receptor gene and risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia in children and adolescents. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2009. Calarge Chadi A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Effects of DRD2/ANKK1 gene variations and clinical factors on aripiprazole efficacy in schizophrenic patients. Journal of psychiatric research. 2009. Shen Yu-Chih, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetics of dopamine receptors and drug addiction: a comprehensive review. Behavioural pharmacology. 2009. Le Foll Bernard, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia: role of dopaminergic pathway gene polymorphisms. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Gupta Meenal, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Association of the DRD2 gene Taq1A polymorphism and smoking behavior: a meta-analysis and new data. Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. 2009. Munafò Marcus R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Correlates of response to Olanzapine in a North Indian Schizophrenia sample. Psychiatry research. 2008. Thomas Pramod, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Movement disorders associated with aripiprazole use: a case series. The International journal of neuroscience. 2009. Hall Deborah A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association between ADORA2A and DRD2 polymorphisms and caffeine-induced anxiety. Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 2008. Childs Emma, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Variants of dopamine and serotonin candidate genes as predictors of response to risperidone treatment in first-episode schizophrenia. Pharmacogenomics. 2008. Ikeda Masashi, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association of dopamine and opioid receptor genetic polymorphisms with response to methadone maintenance treatment. Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry. 2008. Crettol Séverine, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Relation between obesity and blunted striatal response to food is moderated by TaqIA A1 allele. Science (New York, N.Y.). 2008. Stice E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Dopamine D2 receptor gene polymorphisms and response to cabergoline therapy in patients with prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2008. Filopanti M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Gene polymorphism influencing treatment response in psychotic patients in a naturalistic setting. Journal of psychiatric research. 2008. Alenius Malin, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic underpinnings of tardive dyskinesia: passing the baton to pharmacogenetics. Pharmacogenomics. 2008. Thelma Bk, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association between dopamine-related polymorphisms and plasma concentrations of prolactin during risperidone treatment in schizophrenic patients. Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry. 2008. Yasui-Furukori Norio, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Systematic meta-analyses and field synopsis of genetic association studies in schizophrenia: the SzGene database. Nature genetics. 2008. Allen Nicole C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Naturalistic pharmacogenetic study of treatment resistance to typical neuroleptics in European-Brazilian schizophrenics. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2008. Kohlrausch Fabiana B, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia and polymorphic variations in COMT, DRD2, CYP1A2 and MnSOD genes: a meta-analysis of pharmacogenetic interactions. Molecular psychiatry. 2008. Bakker P R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Taq1A polymorphism in the dopamine D2 receptor gene predicts brain metabolic response to aripiprazole in healthy male volunteers. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2008. Kim Euitae, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2D6 and DRD2 genes differentially impact pharmacodynamic sensitivity and time course of prolactin response to perphenazine. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2007. Aklillu Eleni, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
The relationship between the therapeutic response to risperidone and the dopamine D2 receptor polymorphism in Chinese schizophrenia patients. The international journal of neuropsychopharmacology / official scientific journal of the Collegium Internationale Neuropsychopharmacologicum (CINP). 2007. Xing Qinghe, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Meta-analysis of two dopamine D2 receptor gene polymorphisms with tardive dyskinesia in schizophrenia patients. Molecular psychiatry. 2007. Zai C C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The DRD2 TaqI-B polymorphism and its relationship to smoking abstinence and withdrawal symptoms. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2007. Robinson J D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association analysis of the dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) SNP rs1076560 in alcoholic patients. Neuroscience letters. 2007. Sasabe Toshikazu, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Risk factors for extrapyramidal symptoms during treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, including cytochrome P-450 enzyme, and serotonin and dopamine transporter and receptor polymorphisms. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. 2006. Hedenmalm Karin, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Risperidone-related weight gain: genetic and nongenetic predictors. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. 2006. Lane Hsien-Yuan, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
DRD2 promoter region variation as a predictor of sustained response to antipsychotic medication in first-episode schizophrenia patients. The American journal of psychiatry. 2006. Lencz Todd, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Role of functional genetic variation in the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) in response to bupropion and nicotine replacement therapy for tobacco dependence: results of two randomized clinical trials. Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006. Lerman Caryn, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association study of 12 polymorphisms spanning the dopamine D(2) receptor gene and clozapine treatment response in two treatment refractory/intolerant populations. Psychopharmacology. 2005. Hwang Rudi, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Candidate genes for antidepressant response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment. 2005. Lotrich Francis E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Response to chlorpromazine treatment may be associated with polymorphisms of the DRD2 gene in Chinese schizophrenic patients. Neuroscience letters. 2005. Wu Shengnan, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Striatal dopaminergic D2 receptor occupancy and clinical efficacy in psychosis exacerbation: a 123I-IBZM study with ziprasidone and haloperidol. Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry. 2005. Corripio Iluminada, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Synonymous mutations in the human dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) affect mRNA stability and synthesis of the receptor. Human molecular genetics. 2003. Duan Jubao, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
D2 dopamine receptor gene in psychiatric and neurologic disorders and its phenotypes. American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics. 2003. Noble Ernest P. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Effect of DRD2, 5-HT2A, and COMT genes on antipsychotic response to risperidone. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2003. Yamanouchi Y, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
The -141C Ins/Del polymorphism in the dopamine D2 receptor gene promoter region is associated with anxiolytic and antidepressive effects during treatment with dopamine antagonists in schizophrenic patients. Pharmacogenetics. 2001. Suzuki A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Association study of dopamine receptor gene polymorphisms with drug-induced hallucinations in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Pharmacogenetics. 2000. Makoff A J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Lack of association between a polymorphism in the promoter region of the dopamine-2 receptor gene and clozapine response. Pharmacogenetics. 1998. Arranz M J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Functional polymorphism of -141C Ins/Del in the dopamine D2 receptor gene promoter and schizophrenia. Psychiatry research. 1998. Ohara K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
A global survey of haplotype frequencies and linkage disequilibrium at the DRD2 locus. Human genetics. 1998. Kidd K K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
A functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the dopamine D2 receptor gene is associated with schizophrenia. Human molecular genetics. 1997. Arinami T, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Dopamine D2 receptors in signal transduction and behavior. Critical reviews in neurobiology. 1997. Picetti R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Evolution of haplotypes at the DRD2 locus. American journal of human genetics. 1995. Castiglione C M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Linkage disequilibria at the D2 dopamine receptor locus (DRD2) in alcoholics and controls. Genomics. 1994. Suarez B K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
No structural mutation in the dopamine D2 receptor gene in alcoholism or schizophrenia. Analysis using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. 1994. Gejman P V, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Schizophrenia: normal sequence in the dopamine D2 receptor region that couples to G-proteins. DNA polymorphisms in D2. Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 1993. Seeman P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
A new TaqI RFLP within intron 2 of human dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2). Nucleic acids research. 1991. Parsian A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Direct sequencing of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) in schizophrenics reveals three polymorphisms but no structural change in the receptor. Genomics. 1991. Sarkar G, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Detection and characterization of additional DNA polymorphisms in the dopamine D2 receptor gene. Genomics. 1991. Hauge X Y, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Population and pedigree studies reveal a lack of association between the dopamine D2 receptor gene and alcoholism. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. 1990. Bolos A M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Cloning of the cDNA and gene for a human D2 dopamine receptor. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1989. Grandy D K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
The human dopamine D2 receptor gene is located on chromosome 11 at q22-q23 and identifies a TaqI RFLP. American journal of human genetics. 1989. Grandy D K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Alternative splicing directs the expression of two D2 dopamine receptor isoforms. Nature. 1989. Giros B, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

Entrez Gene:
1813
OMIM:
126450
159900
UCSC Genome Browser:
NM_000795
RefSeq RNA:
NM_000795
NM_016574
RefSeq Protein:
NP_000786
NP_057658
RefSeq DNA:
AC_000054
AC_000143
NC_000011
NG_008841
NT_033899
NW_001838042
NW_925173
UniProtKB:
DRD2_HUMAN (P14416)
Ensembl:
ENSG00000149295
GenAtlas:
DRD2
GeneCard:
DRD2
MutDB:
DRD2
ALFRED:
LO000168P
HuGE:
DRD2
Comparative Toxicogenomics Database:
1813
ModBase:
P14416
HumanCyc Gene:
HS07602
IUPHAR Receptor:
D2 (215)
HGNC:
3023

Common Searches