Gene:
CYP1A2
cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily A, polypeptide 2

PharmGKB contains no dosing guidelines for this . To report known genotype-based dosing guidelines, or if you are interested in developing guidelines, click here.

PharmGKB gathers information regarding PGx on FDA drug labels from the FDA's "Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labels", and from FDA-approved FDA and EMA-approved (European Medicines Agency) EMA labels brought to our attention. Excerpts from the label and downloadable highlighted label PDFs are manually curated by PharmGKB.

Please note that some drugs may have been removed from or added to the FDA's "Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labels" without our knowledge. We periodically check the table for additions to this table and update PharmGKB accordingly.

There is currently no such list for European drug labels - we are working with the EMA to establish a list of European Public Assessment Reports (EPAR)s that contain PGx information. We are constructing this list by initially searching for drugs for which we have PGx-containing FDA drug labels - of these 44 EMA EPARs were identified and are being curated for pgx information.

We welcome any information regarding drug labels containing PGx information approved by the FDA, EMA or other Medicine Agencies around the world - please contact feedback.


European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for olanzapine and CYP1A2, CYP2D6

Informative PGx

Summary

The EMA European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) for olanzapine (Zalasta) contains information regarding the metabolism of the drug by the enzymes CYP1A2 and CYP2D6: factors that induce or inhibit CYP1A2 may alter the concentration of olanzapine and thus may require dosage monitoring. The EPAR does not mention pharmacogenetics or testing of genetic variants in these genes.

Annotation

The CYP2D6 inhibitor fluoxetine is noted not to have a significant effect on olanzapine pharmacokinetics.

Excerpts from the olanzapine (Zalasta) EPAR:

Inhibition of CYP1A2 Fluvoxamine, a specific CYP 1A2 inhibitor, has been shown to significantly inhibit the metabolism of olanzapine. The mean increase in olanzapine Cmax following fluvoxamine was 54% in female non-smokers and 77% in male smokers. The mean increase in olanzapine AUC was 52% and 108% respectively. A lower starting dose of olanzapine should be considered in patients who are using fluvoxamine or any other CYP1A2 inhibitors, such as ciprofloxacin. A decrease in the dose of olanzapine should be considered if treatment with an inhibitor of CYP 1A2 is initiated.


Fluoxetine (a CYP2D6 inhibitor), single doses of antacid (aluminium, magnesium) or cimetidine have not been found to significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of olanzapine.

This information is highlighted in the following sections:
Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction, pharmacokinetic properties.

For the complete drug label text with sections containing pharmacogenetic information highlighted, see the olanzapine EMA drug label.

*Disclaimer: The contents of this page have not been endorsed by the EMA and are the sole responsibility of PharmGKB.


PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the table.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

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This is a non-comprehensive list of genetic tests with pharmacogenetics relevance, typically submitted by the manufacturer and manually curated by PharmGKB. The information listed is provided for educational purposes only and does not constitute an endorsement of any listed test or manufacturer.

A more complete listing of genetic tests is found at the Genetic Testing Registry (GTR).

PGx Test Variants Assayed Related Drugs?

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page on the appropriate tab.

Links in the "Drugs" column lead to PharmGKB Drug Pages.

Variant?
(138)
Alternate Names / Tag SNPs ? Drugs ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available CA VA *1A N/A N/A N/A
VIP No VIP available VA *1C N/A N/A N/A
VIP CA VA *1F N/A N/A N/A
VIP No VIP available VA *1K N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs11636419 *171A>G, 37718A>G, 45838157A>G, 75047600A>G
A > G
3' UTR
rs12720461 -10+113C>T, 31469C>T, 45831908C>T, 729C>T, 730T>G, 75041351C>T, part of CYP1A2*K
C > T
Intronic
rs2069514 (-2964)G>A, 28338G>A, 3860G>A, 45828777G>A, 75038220G>A, CYP1A2*1C
G > A
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2069522 -2015T>C, 29351T>C, 45829790T>C, 75039233T>C
T > C
5' Flanking
No VIP available CA VA
rs2069526 -10+103T>G, 31459T>G, 45831898T>G, 739T>G, 740T>G, 75041341T>G, CYP1A2*1E
T > G
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs2470890 +, 1548C>T, 295T>C, 37544C>T, 45837983C>T, 75047426C>T, Asn516=, CYP1A2*1B, CYP1A2:1545T>C, CYP1A2:1548T>C, CYP1A2:5347T>C, CYP1A2:Asn516Asn, CYP1A2:Ex7
C > T
Synonymous
Asn516Asn
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2472299 23518A>G, 45823957A>G, 75033400A>G
A > G
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2472300 24027A>G, 45824466A>G, 75033909A>G
A > G
Not Available
No VIP available CA VA
rs2472304 1042+43G>A, 34356G>A, 45834795G>A, 75044238G>A
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs35694136 -1635delT, 29731delT, 45830170delT, 75039613delT
T > -
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3743484 1043-65G>C, 34518G>C, 45834957G>C, 75044400G>C
G > C
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs4646425 33399C>T, 45833838C>T, 75043281C>T, 832-249C>T
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs4646427 1253+81T>C, 35810T>C, 45836249T>C, 75045692T>C
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs72547516 1156A>G, 1156A>T, 34696A>G, 34696A>T, 45835135A>G, 45835135A>T, 75044578A>G, 75044578A>T, CYP1A2*4, CYP1A2:Ile386Phe, Ile386Phe, Ile386Val, rs72547516 A>T
A > T
A > G
Missense
Ile386Val
Ile386Phe
No VIP available CA VA
rs72547517 1367G>A, 37363G>A, 45837802G>A, 75047245G>A, Arg456His, CYP1A2*8, CYP1A2:Arg456His, rs72547517 G>A
G > A
Missense
Arg456His
rs762551 -9-154C>A, 32035C>A, 45832474C>A, 75041917C>A, CYP1A2*1F, CYP1A2:734C>A
C > A
Intronic
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 138

Overview

Alternate Names:  None
Alternate Symbols:  CP12; P3-450
PharmGKB Accession Id: PA27093

Details

Cytogenetic Location: chr15 : q24.1 - q24.1
GP mRNA Boundary: chr15 : 75041184 - 75048941
GP Gene Boundary: chr15 : 75031184 - 75051941
Strand: plus
The mRNA boundaries are calculated using the gene's default feature set from NCBI, mapped onto the UCSC Golden Path. PharmGKB sets gene boundaries by expanding the mRNA boundaries by no less than 10,000 bases upstream (5') and 3,000 bases downstream (3') to allow for potential regulatory regions.

Background
CYP1A2 is part of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) family of drug metabolizing enzymes. The CYP1A2 gene is found in a cluster with CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 on chromosome 15 [Article:19590965]. CYP1A2 and CYP1A1 share a 5' flanking region of approximately 23kb which contains shared regulatory elements although the genes are positioned back to back and transcription occurs in the opposite directions [Article:16505155]. The CYP1A2 gene spans around 7.8 kb and features seven exons and six introns, the first being a 55-bp-long non-coding exon. CYP1A2 is a 515-residue protein with a molecular mass of 58,294 Da [Article:19590965].

CYP1A2 is an important metabolizing enzyme in the liver, comprising approximately 13% of all CYP protein (compare to CYP2D6 at 2%) [Article:10889552]. There are over 100 substrates reported for CYP1A2 including many clinically important drugs (eg. clozapine, tacrine), procarcinogens (eg. benzopyrene and aflatoxin b1) and endogenous substrates (eg. steroids and arachidonic acid) [Article:19590965]. However, compared to other CYPs there have been relatively few reports of PGx relationships. This may be explained by the smaller number of prescription drugs for which CYP1A2 is a metabolizing enzyme, 9% compared to 37% for CYP3A4/5, 17% or CYP2C9 and 15% for CYP2D6, and that for many drugs CYP1A2 is not the sole metabolizing enzyme or active at the rate-limiting step [Article:18695978]. This may also be due to fewer reported variants that impact CYP1A2 activity. The genetic component of variation in CYP1A2 activity is estimated at up to 75% with environmental factors making up the remaining difference such as smoking (induction) and oral contraceptive use in women (inhibition) [Article:12172216]. However, a recent pathway-based analysis in human liver samples estimated that the genetic variation of CYP1A2 activity may only account for 42%, 38% and 33% of the catalytic activity, protein expression and mRNA levels, respectively [Article:21918647]. Given the predominant role of CYP1A2 in activation of toxic xenobiotics compared to its metabolism of prescription drugs, there are many epidemiological reports examining the role of variant CYP1A2, metabolism of procarcinogens and cancer risk.

CYP1A2 regulation
CYP1A2 is constitutively highly expressed in liver and is inducible in liver, lung, pancreas, GI tract and brain [Article:19802894]. Drug-drug interactions and interactions with smoking have been reported to alter drug response [Article:19590965]. Smoking, dietary cruciferous vegetables and polyamine hydrocarbons from grilled meats, and omeprazole and other proton pump inhibitors have been shown to induce CYP1A2 [Article:18466106]. Oral contraceptives, fluvoxamine, and fluoroquinolone antibiotics reduce expression [Article:18466106].
The shared promoter of CYP1A2 and CYP1A1 has at least 13 response elements for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, AHR [Article:19802894](see AHR VIP). The transcription factor binding sites are palindromic and so may influence transcription in both directions i.e. either gene promoter. These elements are involved in the activation response to xenobiotics, cruciferous vegetables and polyamine hydrocarbons. Studies examining variants in the promoter have tended to look at their effects on the gene they are closest to.
Omeprazole and primaquine activate both human CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 expression through the common regulatory region in a mechanism that may be independent of AHR [Article:18502397]. Lansoprazole and albendazole also activate CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 although preferentially induce CYP1A1 [Article:18502397]. The nuclear receptor CAR (coded for by NR1I3) transactivates human CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 in human hepatocytes through the common cis-element ER8 [Article:19682433].

CYP1A2 variation
Many variants have been reported for CYP1A2, with some having impact for drug metabolism. For a full list of variants see the CYP allele nomenclature website. No copy number polymorphisms for CYP1A2 have been reported to date [Article:20881513]. There is approximately 40% variability in liver expression of the CYP1A2 gene and 60% variability in caffeine metabolism, the probe drug used most often for CYP1A2 [Article:18466106]. Unlike other drug-metabolizing CYPs few variants that could clearly explain the phenotypic variability in CYP1A2 gene expression or inducibility have been identified [Article:17370067]. The coding sequence variants reported have been seen at very low frequency in White and Asian populations [Article:17370067]. A recent paper examining CYP1A2 variation in Ethiopians suggested that due to the overall greater incidence of variation, including some novel presumable deleterious variants, there could be some individuals devoid of any CYP1A2 activity in this population [Article:20881513].
There is some variability of numbering of variants in the literature, PharmGKB uses the numbering from the CYP allele nomenclature. For details on selected haplotypes and variants of pharmacogenomic interest see CYP1A2:*1F, CYP1A2:*1C, CYP1A2:*1K, CYP1A2: (-163)C>A (rs762551), CYP1A2: (-3860)G>A (rs2069514) and CYP1A2: (-729)C>T (rs12720461).

CYP1A2 drug metabolism
Caffeine is the main probe drug used to assess CYP1A2 activity in vivo. Theophylline and melatonin are also sometimes used as probe drugs whereas in vitro studies often use phenacetin [Article:18466106]. CYP1A2 is responsible for more than 95% of the primary metabolism of caffeine [Article:8491061]. For details of the metabolism of caffeine and the genes involved see the PharmGKB Caffeine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics. Some studies have also examined caffeine as a modulator of disease etiology, looking at intake of caffeine containing foods and beverages with respect to disease risk (see individual variant descriptions for more details). Two recent independent genome wide association studies have looked at the influence of variants on caffeine intake. Interestingly, both found associated variants in the regulatory region of CYP1A2 (rs2472304 and rs2472297) and in its regulator AHR (rs4410790 and rs6968865) [Articles:21490707, 21357676].
CYP1A2 has been shown to be important for dosing of several antipsychotics and both drug efficacy and adverse drug reactions. CYP1A2 is the main CYP isoform involved in clozapine metabolism [Article:19593168]. Case studies have shown ultrarapid metabolizers of clozapine who presented as resistant to treatment, improved patient outcomes were obtained by increased clozapine doses and co-administration with the CYP1A2 inhibitor fluvoxamine [Articles:11763009, 15206669]. There has also been discussion of the interaction of smoking and drug response and the potential dangers of smoking cessation in the patients with schizophrenia [Article:10519459].
CYP1A2 also influences the anti-thrombotic drug clopidogrel. Smoking increases clopidogrel-mediated platelet inhibition [Articles:18687246, 19631365]. This is likely via induction of CYP1A2 causing it to play a larger role in generation of active drug.

Conclusions
Understanding of the pharmacogenomic effects of CYP1A2 variation is still at an early stage compared to that of other CYP enzymes. There is a need for well-defined phenotype groups so that studies have adequate power to discern effects of genomic variants against the background of potential inducers (caffeine, smoking, diet etc). For example the studies of associations of CYP1A2 with antipsychotics have had conflicting results but larger studies where the drugs are specified, or limited to those primarily metabolized by CYP1A2, as well as detailing all inducers and CYP2D6 status may provide a clearer picture. There is also the need to fully assess all other variants before assigning a haplotype, early studies may have mistakenly categorized individuals as CYP1A1*1A or *1F. Recent studies have identified several new predicted haplotypes that include rs762551, including variants such as rs2472304 (2159G>A) and rs2470890 (5347C>T) that were found at high frequencies in an Ethiopian population (43% and 33% respectively) and moderate frequencies in a Japanese population (17.4%, 23%)[Articles:20881513, 15770072]. There is a great need for functional studies to determine the impact of these variants and define whether measurement of rs762551 alone in PGx studies misses the full picture. Caution should be used when inferring activity with probe substrates to other drugs as there may be different autoinduction of CYP1A2.
The presence of allelic imbalance in CYP1A2 expression and the importance of epigenetic genetic variation in influencing CYP1A2 mRNA expression and enzyme activity in vitro using human liver is reported recently [Article:19274061]. Apart from genetic variation, epigenetic and environmental factors play a role in determining inter-individual and inter-ethnic variability in CYP1A2 expression and enzyme activity.

Citation PharmGKB summary: very important pharmacogene information for CYP1A2. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Thorn Caroline F, Aklillu Eleni, Klein Teri E, Altman Russ B. PubMed
History

Submitted by Caroline F. Thorn (PharmGKB)

Variant Summaries rs12720461, rs2069514, rs762551
Haplotype Summaries CYP1A2:*1F, CYP1A2*1C, CYP1A2:*1K
Drugs
Drug Substrate (4)
Drug Inhibitor (1)

Haplotype Overview

Haplotypes are derived from the Human Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Allele Nomenclature Database. The Human Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Allele Nomenclature Database states that nucleotide changes listed below are based on NCBI Reference Sequence NC_000015.9. Note that the nucleotide positions from the Human Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Allele Nomenclature Database do not directly match the given NCBI reference sequence. For questions about nucleotide positions, please contact the Human Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Allele Nomenclature Database directly, as they are the authoritative source on cytochrome P450 nomenclature.

Source: PharmGKB

All alleles in the download file are on the positive chromosomal strand. PharmGKB considers the first haplotype listed in each table as the reference haplotype for that set.

PharmGKB Curated Pathways

Pathways created internally by PharmGKB based primarily on literature evidence.

  1. Acetaminophen Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Stylized diagram showing acetaminophen metabolism and transport in the liver and kidney.
  1. Caffeine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Stylized liver cell showing candidate genes involved in the metabolism of caffeine.
  1. Carbamazepine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Stylized liver cell depicting candidate genes involved in the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine.
  1. Clomipramine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Schematic representation of clomipramine metabolism in human liver.
  1. Clopidogrel Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Clopidogrel metabolism.
  1. Doxepin Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Stylized liver cell showing candidate genes involved in the metabolism of the tricyclic doxepin.
  1. Erlotinib Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Model human liver cell showing genes involved in the transportation and metabolism of Erlotinib.
  1. Estrogen Metabolism Pathway
    Estrogen metabolism in the liver.
  1. Imipramine/Desipramine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of the candidate genes involved in the metabolism of the tricyclic antidepressants imipramine and desipramine.
  1. Phenytoin Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Genes involved in the metabolism of phenytoin in the human liver cell.
  1. Tamoxifen Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Tamoxifen metabolism in the liver.
  1. Theophylline Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Schematic representation of theophylline metabolism in human liver.
  1. Warfarin Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of the candidate genes involved in transport, metabolism and clearance of warfarin.

External Pathways

Links to non-PharmGKB pathways.

  1. Aromatic amines can be N-hydroxylated or N-dealkylated by CYP1A2 - (Reactome via Pathway Interaction Database)
  2. mechanism of acetaminophen activity and toxicity - (BioCarta via Pathway Interaction Database)
  3. P450 Hydroxylations - (Reactome via Pathway Interaction Database)
No related genes are available

Curated Information ?

Evidence Drug Class
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
antipsychotics
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
xenobiotics

Curated Information ?

Publications related to CYP1A2: 192

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Routine assessment of on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity and gene polymorphisms in predicting clinical outcome following drug-eluting stent implantation in patients with stable coronary artery disease. JACC. Cardiovascular interventions. 2013. Viviani Anselmi Chiara, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pregnancy and pharmacogenomics in the context of drug metabolism and response. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Helldén Anders, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Utility of integrated pharmacogenomic testing to support the treatment of major depressive disorder in a psychiatric outpatient setting. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. Hall-Flavin Daniel K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Inhibition of cytochrome p450 enzymes by the e- and z-isomers of norendoxifen. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2013. Liu Jinzhong, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics of olanzapine metabolism. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Söderberg Mao Mao, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
CYP1A2 genetic polymorphisms are associated with early antidepressant escitalopram metabolism and adverse reactions. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Kuo Hsiang-Wei, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Influence of CYP1A1/CYP1A2 and AHR polymorphisms on systemic olanzapine exposure. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. Söderberg Mao M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Anti-Parkinson's disease drugs and pharmacogenetic considerations. Expert opinion on drug metabolism & toxicology. 2013. Agúndez José A G, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic polymorphisms are associated with variations in warfarin maintenance dose in Han Chinese patients with venous thromboembolism. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Zhang Wei, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PharmGKB summary: caffeine pathway. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. Thorn Caroline F, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Effects of CYP2D6*10, CYP3A5*3, CYP1A2*1F, and ABCB1 C3435T polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of flecainide in healthy Chinese subjects. Drug metabolism and drug interactions. 2012. Hu Miao, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic variants in CYP (-1A2, -2C9, -2C19, -3A4 and -3A5), VKORC1 and ABCB1 genes in a black South African population: a window into diversity. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Dandara Collet, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Augmentative effects of fluvoxamine on duloxetine plasma levels in depressed patients. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2011. Paulzen M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
PharmGKB summary: very important pharmacogene information for CYP1A2. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Thorn Caroline F, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Complex Drug Interactions of HIV Protease Inhibitors 2: In Vivo Induction and In Vitro to In Vivo Correlation of Induction of Cytochrome P450 1A2, 2B6 and 2C9 by Ritonavir or Nelfinavir. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2011. Kirby Brian J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Impact of Smoking, Smoking Cessation, and Genetic Polymorphisms on CYP1A2 Activity and Inducibility. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Dobrinas M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium Guidelines for Cytochrome P450-2C19 (CYP2C19) Genotype and Clopidogrel Therapy. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Scott S A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic variation in CYP3A43 explains racial difference in olanzapine clearance. Molecular psychiatry. 2011. Bigos K L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Sequence variants at CYP1A1-CYP1A2 and AHR associate with coffee consumption. Human molecular genetics. 2011. Sulem Patrick, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genistein alters caffeine exposure in healthy female volunteers. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2011. Chen Yao, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genome-Wide Meta-Analysis Identifies Regions on 7p21 (AHR) and 15q24 (CYP1A2) As Determinants of Habitual Caffeine Consumption. PLoS genetics. 2011. Cornelis Marilyn C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenomics of the RNA world: structural RNA polymorphisms in drug therapy. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Sadee W, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic variation in the bioactivation pathway for polycyclic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic amines in relation to risk of colorectal neoplasia. Carcinogenesis. 2011. Wang Hansong, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Coffee, ADORA2A, and CYP1A2: the caffeine connection in Parkinson's disease. European journal of neurology : the official journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies. 2011. Popat R A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Enhanced Clopidogrel Responsiveness in Smokers. Smokers' Paradox Is Dependent on Cytochrome P450 CYP1A2 Status. Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology. 2010. Park Kyung Woo, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Xenobiotic metabolizing and transporter genes: gene-gene interactions in schizophrenia and related disorders. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Gassó Patricia, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
CYP1A2 is more variable than previously thought: a genomic biography of the gene behind the human drug-metabolizing enzyme. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Browning Sarah L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
CYP1A2 genetic polymorphisms are associated with treatment response to the antidepressant paroxetine. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Lin Keh-Ming, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Identifying genomic and developmental causes of adverse drug reactions in children. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Becker Mara L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
In Vitro P450-Mediated Metabolism of Exemestane. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2010. Kamdem Landry K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
The effect of CYP1A2 gene polymorphisms on Theophylline metabolism and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Turkish patients. BMB reports. 2010. Uslu Ahmet, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Caffeine, selected metabolic gene variants, and risk for neural tube defects. Birth defects research. Part A, Clinical and molecular teratology. 2010. Schmidt Rebecca J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Induction of CYP1A2 by heavy coffee consumption is associated with the CYP1A2 -163C>A polymorphism. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2010. Djordjevic Natasa, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Polymorphisms of caffeine metabolism and estrogen receptor genes and risk of Parkinson's disease in men and women. Parkinsonism & related disorders. 2010. Palacios N, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Clopidogrel pathway. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Sangkuhl Katrin, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic profile of patients with epilepsy on first-line antiepileptic drugs and potential directions for personalized treatment. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Grover Sandeep, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Association between CYP2C19*17 and metabolism of amitriptyline, citalopram and clomipramine in Dutch hospitalized patients. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. de Vos A, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, pregnane/steroid X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor in 207 healthy Spanish volunteers. Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine : CCLM / FESCC. 2010. Oliver Paloma, et al. PubMed
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A Phenotype-Genotype Approach to Predicting CYP450 and P-Glycoprotein Drug Interactions With the Mixed Inhibitor/Inducer Tipranavir/Ritonavir. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Dumond J B, et al. PubMed
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Identification of the human cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the two oxidative steps in the bioactivation of clopidogrel to its pharmacologically active metabolite. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2010. Kazui Miho, et al. PubMed
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Metabolism and disposition of the thienopyridine antiplatelet drugs ticlopidine, clopidogrel, and prasugrel in humans. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2010. Farid Nagy A, et al. PubMed
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Functional characterization of eight human cytochrome P450 1A2 gene variants by recombinant protein expression. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Palma B Brito, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics and olanzapine treatment: CYP1A2*1F and serotonergic polymorphisms influence therapeutic outcome. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Laika B, et al. PubMed
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Constitutive androstane receptor transcriptionally activates human CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 genes through a common regulatory element in the 5'-flanking region. Biochemical pharmacology. 2010. Yoshinari Kouichi, et al. PubMed
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Molecular genetics and epigenetics of the cytochrome P450 gene family and its relevance for cancer risk and treatment. Human genetics. 2010. Rodriguez-Antona Cristina, et al. PubMed
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Analysis of human CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 genes and their shared bidirectional promoter in eight world populations. Human mutation. 2010. Jorge-Nebert Lucia F, et al. PubMed
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The role of human CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 variants in pioglitazone metabolism in vitro. Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology. 2009. Muschler Eugen, et al. PubMed
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Effect of hormone metabolism genotypes on steroid hormone levels and menopausal symptoms in a prospective population-based cohort of women experiencing the menopausal transition. Menopause (New York, N.Y.). 2010. Rebbeck Timothy R, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P(450)-dependent toxic effects of primaquine on human erythrocytes. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 2009. Ganesan Shobana, et al. PubMed
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Investigation of the influence of CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 genetic polymorphism on 2-Cyano-3-hydroxy-N-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-2-butenamide (A77 1726) pharmacokinetics in leflunomide-treated patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2009. Bohanec Grabar Petra, et al. PubMed
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Seizures associated with levofloxacin: case presentation and literature review. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2009. Bellon Alfredo, et al. PubMed
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Insights into the substrate specificity, inhibitors, regulation, and polymorphisms and the clinical impact of human cytochrome P450 1A2. The AAPS journal. 2009. Zhou Shu-Feng, et al. PubMed
ABCB1 and cytochrome P450 polymorphisms: clinical pharmacogenetics of clozapine. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. 2009. Jaquenoud Sirot Eveline, et al. PubMed
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Effect of smoking and CYP2D6 polymorphisms on the extent of fluvoxamine-alprazolam interaction in patients with psychosomatic disease. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2009. Sugahara Hideyo, et al. PubMed
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Epigenetic and microRNA-dependent control of cytochrome P450 expression: a gap between DNA and protein. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Gomez Alvin, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of anxiolytic drugs. Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996). 2009. Tiwari Arun K, et al. PubMed
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P2Y(12) inhibitors: differences in properties and mechanisms of action and potential consequences for clinical use. European heart journal. 2009. Wallentin Lars. PubMed
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Relation of genetic polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 gene with clopidogrel resistance after drug-eluting stent implantation in Koreans. The American journal of cardiology. 2009. Lee Jung Myung, et al. PubMed
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Smoking promotes clopidogrel-mediated platelet inhibition in patients receiving dual antiplatelet therapy. Thrombosis research. 2009. Gremmel Thomas, et al. PubMed
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Coffee intake, variants in genes involved in caffeine metabolism, and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer causes & control : CCC. 2009. Kotsopoulos Joanne, et al. PubMed
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Assessment of the impact of renal impairment on systemic exposure of new molecular entities: evaluation of recent new drug applications. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Zhang Y, et al. PubMed
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Coffee consumption, genetic susceptibility and bladder cancer risk. Cancer causes & control : CCC. 2009. Villanueva Cristina M, et al. PubMed
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Duloxetine: a review of its use in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. CNS drugs. 2009. Carter Natalie J, et al. PubMed
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Determination of the inhibitory potential of 6 fluoroquinolones on CYP1A2 and CYP2C9 in human liver microsomes. Acta pharmacologica Sinica. 2008. Zhang Li, et al. PubMed
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Correlates of response to Olanzapine in a North Indian Schizophrenia sample. Psychiatry research. 2008. Thomas Pramod, et al. PubMed
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Functional pharmacogenetics/genomics of human cytochromes P450 involved in drug biotransformation. Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry. 2008. Zanger Ulrich M, et al. PubMed
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Benzodiazepine metabolism: an analytical perspective. Current drug metabolism. 2008. Mandrioli Roberto, et al. PubMed
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Coffee, caffeine-related genes, and Parkinson's disease: a case-control study. Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society. 2008. Facheris Maurizio F, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacokinetics/genotype associations for major cytochrome P450 enzymes in native and first- and third-generation Japanese populations: comparison with Korean, Chinese, and Caucasian populations. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Myrand S P, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphism of CYP1A2 and the toxicity of leflunomide treatment in rheumatoid arthritis patients. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2008. Bohanec Grabar Petra, et al. PubMed
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Genetic underpinnings of tardive dyskinesia: passing the baton to pharmacogenetics. Pharmacogenomics. 2008. Thelma Bk, et al. PubMed
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The relative contribution of human cytochrome P450 isoforms to the four caffeine oxidation pathways: an in vitro comparative study with cDNA-expressed P450s including CYP2C isoforms. Biochemical pharmacology. 2008. Kot Marta, et al. PubMed
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Pathways of carbamazepine bioactivation in vitro. III. The role of human cytochrome P450 enzymes in the formation of 2,3-dihydroxycarbamazepine. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2008. Pearce Robin E, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacodynamics of carbamazepine-mediated induction of CYP3A4, CYP1A2, and Pgp as assessed by probe substrates midazolam, caffeine, and digoxin. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Magnusson M O, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of P450 oxidoreductase: effect of sequence variants on activities of CYP1A2 and CYP2C19. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2008. Agrawal Vishal, et al. PubMed
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Omeprazole transactivates human CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 expression through the common regulatory region containing multiple xenobiotic-responsive elements. Biochemical pharmacology. 2008. Yoshinari Kouichi, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 induction by rifampicin in healthy subjects: determination using the Karolinska cocktail and the endogenous CYP3A4 marker 4beta-hydroxycholesterol. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Kanebratt K P, et al. PubMed
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Prediction of pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions using human hepatocyte suspension in plasma and cytochrome P450 phenotypic data. II. In vitro-in vivo correlation with ketoconazole. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2008. Lu Chuang, et al. PubMed
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Quantitative determination of clopidogrel active metabolite in human plasma by LC-MS/MS. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis. 2008. Takahashi Makoto, et al. PubMed
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The association of cigarette smoking with enhanced platelet inhibition by clopidogrel. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2008. Bliden Kevin P, et al. PubMed
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Variation in CYP1A2 activity and its clinical implications: influence of environmental factors and genetic polymorphisms. Pharmacogenomics. 2008. Gunes Arzu, et al. PubMed
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The ontogeny of drug metabolism enzymes and implications for adverse drug events. Pharmacology & therapeutics. 2008. Hines Ronald N. PubMed
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The influence of smoking on the serum level of duloxetine. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2008. Fric M, et al. PubMed
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The relationship between the response of clinical symptoms and plasma olanzapine concentration, based on pharmacogenetics: Juntendo University Schizophrenia Projects (JUSP). Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2008. Nozawa Motohiro, et al. PubMed
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In vitro and in vivo evaluations of cytochrome P450 1A2 interactions with duloxetine. Clinical pharmacokinetics. 2008. Lobo Evelyn D, et al. PubMed
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Effects of gender and moderate smoking on the pharmacokinetics and effects of the CYP1A2 substrate tizanidine. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2008. Backman Janne T, et al. PubMed
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The environmental genome project: reference polymorphisms for drug metabolism genes and genome-wide association studies. Drug metabolism reviews. 2008. Rieder Mark J, et al. PubMed
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Caffeine as a marker substrate for testing cytochrome P450 activity in human and rat. Pharmacological reports : PR. 2008. Kot Marta, et al. PubMed
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Influence of cytochrome P450 polymorphisms on drug therapies: pharmacogenetic, pharmacoepigenetic and clinical aspects. Pharmacology & therapeutics. 2007. Ingelman-Sundberg Magnus, et al. PubMed
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Association between caffeine intake and risk of Parkinson's disease among fast and slow metabolizers. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2007. Tan Eng-King, et al. PubMed
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Coffee, CYP1A2 genotype and risk of myocardial infarction. Genes & nutrition. 2007. El-Sohemy Ahmed, et al. PubMed
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Genetic susceptibility to Tardive Dyskinesia in chronic schizophrenia subjects: V. Association of CYP1A2 1545 C>T polymorphism. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2007. Tiwari A K, et al. PubMed
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Association of serotonin 2A receptor and lack of association of CYP1A2 gene polymorphism with tardive dyskinesia in a Turkish population. DNA and cell biology. 2007. Boke Omer, et al. PubMed
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Functional polymorphisms of the cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) gene and prolonged QTc interval in schizophrenia. Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry. 2007. Tay Joshua K X, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphism of the adenosine A2A receptor is associated with habitual caffeine consumption. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2007. Cornelis Marilyn C, et al. PubMed
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Effects of daily ingestion of cranberry juice on the pharmacokinetics of warfarin, tizanidine, and midazolam--probes of CYP2C9, CYP1A2, and CYP3A4. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Lilja J J, et al. PubMed
Comparisons of CYP1A2 genetic polymorphisms, enzyme activity and the genotype-phenotype relationship in Swedes and Koreans. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2007. Ghotbi Roza, et al. PubMed
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The CYP1A2 genotype modifies the association between coffee consumption and breast cancer risk among BRCA1 mutation carriers. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology. 2007. Kotsopoulos Joanne, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 3A inhibition by ketoconazole affects prasugrel and clopidogrel pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics differently. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Farid N A, et al. PubMed
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Development of the "Inje cocktail" for high-throughput evaluation of five human cytochrome P450 isoforms in vivo. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Ryu J Y, et al. PubMed
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Impact of CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 polymorphisms on drug metabolism and on insulin and lipid elevations and insulin resistance in clozapine-treated patients. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. 2007. Melkersson Kristina I, et al. PubMed
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In vivo evaluation of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, NAT-2 and xanthine oxidase activities in a Greek population sample by the RP-HPLC monitoring of caffeine metabolic ratios. Biomedical chromatography : BMC. 2007. Begas E, et al. PubMed
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Appropriate phenotyping procedures for drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters in humans and their simultaneous use in the "cocktail" approach. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Fuhr U, et al. PubMed
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ABCB1 and cytochrome P450 genotypes and phenotypes: influence on methadone plasma levels and response to treatment. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Crettol Séverine, et al. PubMed
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Estrogen sulfation genes, hormone replacement therapy, and endometrial cancer risk. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2006. Rebbeck Timothy R, et al. PubMed
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Primaquine: report from CDC expert meeting on malaria chemoprophylaxis I. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene. 2006. Hill David R, et al. PubMed
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Associations between CYP2E1 promoter polymorphisms and plasma 1,3-dimethyluric acid/theophylline ratios. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2006. Yoon Yeomin, et al. PubMed
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A common regulatory region functions bidirectionally in transcriptional activation of the human CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 genes. Molecular pharmacology. 2006. Ueda Rika, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 2C19 loss-of-function polymorphism is a major determinant of clopidogrel responsiveness in healthy subjects. Blood. 2006. Hulot Jean-Sébastien, et al. PubMed
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Dominant contribution of P450 3A4 to the hepatic carcinogenic activation of aflatoxin B1. Chemical research in toxicology. 2006. Kamdem Landry K, et al. PubMed
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Association of CYP2D6 and CYP1A2 gene polymorphism with tardive dyskinesia in Chinese schizophrenic patients. Acta pharmacologica Sinica. 2006. Fu Yan, et al. PubMed
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Coffee, CYP1A2 genotype, and risk of myocardial infarction. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. 2006. Cornelis Marilyn C, et al. PubMed
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Association of CYP1A2 genetic polymorphisms with hepatocellular carcinoma susceptibility: a case-control study in a high-risk region of China. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2006. Chen Xiaoping, et al. PubMed
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Cancer treatment and pharmacogenetics of cytochrome P450 enzymes. Investigational new drugs. 2005. van Schaik Ron H N. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450s and other enzymes in drug metabolism and toxicity. The AAPS journal. 2006. Guengerich F Peter. PubMed
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Overview of the pharmacogenetics of asthma treatment. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2006. Weiss S T, et al. PubMed
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Functional analysis of six human aryl hydrocarbon receptor variants in a Japanese population. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2005. Koyano Satoru, et al. PubMed
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Caffeine intake, CYP1A2 polymorphism and the risk of recurrent pregnancy loss. Molecular human reproduction. 2005. Sata Fumihiro, et al. PubMed
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Ezetimibe: a review of its metabolism, pharmacokinetics and drug interactions. Clinical pharmacokinetics. 2005. Kosoglou Teddy, et al. PubMed
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Clinical pharmacokinetics of imatinib. Clinical pharmacokinetics. 2005. Peng Bin, et al. PubMed
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Genetic susceptibility to tardive dyskinesia in chronic schizophrenia subjects: I. Association of CYP1A2 gene polymorphism. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2005. Tiwari A K, et al. PubMed
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Time response of cytochrome P450 1A2 activity on cessation of heavy smoking. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2004. Faber Mirko S, et al. PubMed
Nonresponse to clozapine and ultrarapid CYP1A2 activity: clinical data and analysis of CYP1A2 gene. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. 2004. Eap Chin B, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 1A2 is a major determinant of lidocaine metabolism in vivo: effects of liver function. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2004. Orlando Rocco, et al. PubMed
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The effect of echinacea (Echinacea purpurea root) on cytochrome P450 activity in vivo. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2004. Gorski J Christopher, et al. PubMed
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Some aspects of genetic polymorphism in the biotransformation of antidepressants. Thérapie. 2004. Brøsen Kim. PubMed
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Identification of a novel splice-site mutation in the CYP1A2 gene. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2003. Allorge Delphine, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphism of CYP1A2 in Ethiopians affecting induction and expression: characterization of novel haplotypes with single-nucleotide polymorphisms in intron 1. Molecular pharmacology. 2003. Aklillu Eleni, et al. PubMed
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Preliminary electrochemical characterisation of cytochrome P4501A2-clozapine interaction. IEE proceedings. Nanobiotechnology. 2003. Antonini M, et al. PubMed
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Polymorphisms in the CYP1A2 gene and theophylline metabolism in patients with asthma. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2003. Obase Yasushi, et al. PubMed
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Effects of prototypical microsomal enzyme inducers on cytochrome P450 expression in cultured human hepatocytes. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2003. Madan Ajay, et al. PubMed
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The effect of smoking and cytochrome P450 CYP1A2 genetic polymorphism on clozapine clearance and dose requirement. Pharmacogenetics. 2003. van der Weide Jan, et al. PubMed
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Human extrahepatic cytochromes P450: function in xenobiotic metabolism and tissue-selective chemical toxicity in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology. 2003. Ding Xinxin, et al. PubMed
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Association of caffeine intake and CYP1A2 genotype with ovarian cancer. Nutrition and cancer. 2003. Goodman Marc T, et al. PubMed
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Update on caffeine consumption, disposition and action. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 2002. Mandel H G. PubMed
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Nuclear pregnane x receptor and constitutive androstane receptor regulate overlapping but distinct sets of genes involved in xenobiotic detoxification. Molecular pharmacology. 2002. Maglich Jodi M, et al. PubMed
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The interindividual differences in the 3-demthylation of caffeine alias CYP1A2 is determined by both genetic and environmental factors. Pharmacogenetics. 2002. Rasmussen Birgitte B, et al. PubMed
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The N-demethylation of the doxepin isomers is mainly catalyzed by the polymorphic CYP2C19. Pharmaceutical research. 2002. Härtter Sebastian, et al. PubMed
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Effect of interferon alpha-ribavirin bitherapy on cytochrome P450 1A2 and 2D6 and N-acetyltransferase-2 activities in patients with chronic active hepatitis C. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2002. Becquemont Laurent, et al. PubMed
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Inducibility of CYP1A2 by omeprazole in vivo related to the genetic polymorphism of CYP1A2. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2002. Han Xing-Mei, et al. PubMed
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Triethylenethiophosphoramide is a specific inhibitor of cytochrome P450 2B6: implications for cyclophosphamide metabolism. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2002. Rae James M, et al. PubMed
Treatment-resistance to clozapine in association with ultrarapid CYP1A2 activity and the C-->A polymorphism in intron 1 of the CYP1A2 gene: effect of grapefruit juice and low-dose fluvoxamine. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. 2001. Ozdemir V, et al. PubMed
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Caffeine metabolism and the risk of spontaneous abortion of normal karyotype fetuses. Obstetrics and gynecology. 2001. Signorello L B, et al. PubMed
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Med-psych drug-drug interactions update. Psychosomatics. 2002. Armstrong Scott C, et al. PubMed
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In vitro evaluation of valproic acid as an inhibitor of human cytochrome P450 isoforms: preferential inhibition of cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9). British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2001. Wen X, et al. PubMed
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Olanzapine disposition in humans is unrelated to CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 phenotypes. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2001. Hägg S, et al. PubMed
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Lack of association between a functional polymorphism of the cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) gene and tardive dyskinesia in schizophrenia. American journal of medical genetics. 2001. Schulze T G, et al. PubMed
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Roles of cytochromes P450 1A2, 2A6, and 2C8 in 5-fluorouracil formation from tegafur, an anticancer prodrug, in human liver microsomes. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2000. Komatsu T, et al. PubMed
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Formation of a dihydroxy metabolite of phenytoin in human liver microsomes/cytosol: roles of cytochromes P450 2C9, 2C19, and 3A4. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2000. Komatsu T, et al. PubMed
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CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 4-hydroxylate propranolol and both reactions exhibit racial differences. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 2000. Johnson J A, et al. PubMed
A functional polymorphism of the cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) gene: association with tardive dyskinesia in schizophrenia. Molecular psychiatry. 2000. Basile V S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
In vitro inhibition and induction of human hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes by modafinil. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2000. Robertson P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Expression and induction of CYP1A1/1A2, CYP2A6 and CYP3A4 in primary cultures of human hepatocytes: a 10-year follow-up. Xenobiotica; the fate of foreign compounds in biological systems. 2000. Meunier V, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Equally potent inhibitors of cholesterol synthesis in human hepatocytes have distinguishable effects on different cytochrome P450 enzymes. Biopharmaceutics & drug disposition. 2000. Cohen L H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Could discontinuing smoking be hazardous for patients administered clozapine medication? A case report. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 1999. Skogh E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Determination of the human cytochrome P450 isoforms involved in the metabolism of zolmitriptan. Xenobiotica; the fate of foreign compounds in biological systems. 1999. Wild M J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Functional significance of a C-->A polymorphism in intron 1 of the cytochrome P450 CYP1A2 gene tested with caffeine. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 1999. Sachse C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic polymorphism in the 5'-flanking region of human CYP1A2 gene: effect on the CYP1A2 inducibility in humans. Journal of biochemistry. 1999. Nakajima M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Roles of CYP2A6 and CYP2B6 in nicotine C-oxidation by human liver microsomes. Archives of toxicology. 1999. Yamazaki H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Metabolism of ropivacaine in humans is mediated by CYP1A2 and to a minor extent by CYP3A4: an interaction study with fluvoxamine and ketoconazole as in vivo inhibitors. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 1998. Arlander E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Differences in interactions of SSRIs. International clinical psychopharmacology. 1998. Brøsen K. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Inhibitory effects of antiarrhythmic drugs on phenacetin O-deethylation catalysed by human CYP1A2. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 1998. Kobayashi K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Rate of caffeine metabolism and risk of spontaneous abortion. American journal of epidemiology. 1998. Fenster L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Involvement of human CYP1A isoenzymes in the metabolism and drug interactions of riluzole in vitro. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 1997. Sanderink G J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Reappraisal of human CYP isoforms involved in imipramine N-demethylation and 2-hydroxylation: a study using microsomes obtained from putative extensive and poor metabolizers of S-mephenytoin and eleven recombinant human CYPs. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 1997. Koyama E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Metabolism of the calcium antagonist, mibefradil (POSICOR, Ro 40-5967). Part III. Comparative pharmacokinetics of mibefradil and its major metabolites in rat, marmoset, cynomolgus monkey and man. Xenobiotica; the fate of foreign compounds in biological systems. 1997. Wiltshire H R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Identification of three cytochrome P450 isozymes involved in N-demethylation of citalopram enantiomers in human liver microsomes. Pharmacogenetics. 1997. Rochat B, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Imipramine demethylation in vivo: impact of CYP1A2, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 1997. Madsen H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Disposition of fluvoxamine in humans is determined by the polymorphic CYP2D6 and also by the CYP1A2 activity. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 1996. Carrillo J A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Identification of human liver cytochrome P450 isoforms involved in the in vitro metabolism of cyclobenzaprine. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 1996. Wang R W, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Clinical pharmacokinetics. 1996. Baumann P. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Cytochromes P450, 1A2, and 2C9 are responsible for the human hepatic O-demethylation of R- and S-naproxen. Biochemical pharmacology. 1996. Miners J O, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Cyp1a2(-/-) null mutant mice develop normally but show deficient drug metabolism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1996. Liang H C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Human cytochromes P4501A1 and P4501A2: R-warfarin metabolism as a probe. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 1995. Zhang Z, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Multiple forms of cytochrome P450 are involved in the metabolism of ondansetron in humans. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 1995. Dixon C M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Determination of human hepatic cytochrome P4501A2 activity in vitro use of tacrine as an isoenzyme-specific probe. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 1995. Spaldin V, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Cytochrome P4502D6 genotype does not determine response to clozapine. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 1995. Arranz M J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Imipramine metabolism in relation to the sparteine and mephenytoin oxidation polymorphisms--a population study. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 1995. Madsen H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Metabolism of theophylline by cDNA-expressed human cytochromes P-450. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 1995. Ha H R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Metabolism and bioactivation of clozapine by human liver in vitro. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 1995. Pirmohamed M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and interactions of psychotropic drugs: a five-year update. International journal of psychiatry in medicine. 1995. Shen W W. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Coadministration of fluvoxamine increases serum concentrations of haloperidol. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. 1994. Daniel D G, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Interindividual variations in human liver cytochrome P-450 enzymes involved in the oxidation of drugs, carcinogens and toxic chemicals: studies with liver microsomes of 30 Japanese and 30 Caucasians. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 1994. Shimada T, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
O-demethylation of epipodophyllotoxins is catalyzed by human cytochrome P450 3A4. Molecular pharmacology. 1994. Relling M V, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Cytochrome P450 isozymes involved in propranolol metabolism in human liver microsomes. The role of CYP2D6 as ring-hydroxylase and CYP1A2 as N-desisopropylase. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 1994. Masubuchi Y, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The use of caffeine for enzyme assays: a critical appraisal. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 1993. Kalow W, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Increase of cytochrome P450IA2 activity by omeprazole: evidence by the 13C-[N-3-methyl]-caffeine breath test in poor and extensive metabolizers of S-mephenytoin. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 1992. Rost K L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Biotransformation of caffeine, paraxanthine, theobromine and theophylline by cDNA-expressed human CYP1A2 and CYP2E1. Pharmacogenetics. 1992. Gu L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The effect of three different oral doses of verapamil on the disposition of theophylline. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 1992. Stringer K A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Differences in the cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes involved in the 2-hydroxylation of oestradiol and 17 alpha-ethinyloestradiol. Relative activities of rat and human liver enzymes. The Biochemical journal. 1990. Ball S E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Selective induction of propranolol metabolism by smoking: additional effects on renal clearance of metabolites. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 1987. Walle T, et al. PubMed
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Ticlopidine-theophylline interaction. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 1987. Colli A, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

Entrez Gene:
1544
OMIM:
124060
UCSC Genome Browser:
NM_000761
RefSeq RNA:
NM_000761
RefSeq Protein:
NP_000752
RefSeq DNA:
AC_000058
AC_000147
NC_000015
NG_008431
NT_010194
NW_001838219
NW_925907
ALFRED:
LO000303G
HuGE:
CYP1A2
Comparative Toxicogenomics Database:
1544
ModBase:
P05177
HumanCyc Gene:
HS06728
HGNC:
2596

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