Gene:
ABCB1
ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP), member 1

PharmGKB contains no dosing guidelines for this . To report known genotype-based dosing guidelines, or if you are interested in developing guidelines, click here.

PharmGKB gathers information regarding PGx on FDA drug labels from the FDA's "Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labels", and from FDA-approved FDA and EMA-approved (European Medicines Agency) EMA labels brought to our attention. Excerpts from the label and downloadable highlighted label PDFs are manually curated by PharmGKB.

Please note that some drugs may have been removed from or added to the FDA's "Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labels" without our knowledge. We periodically check the table for additions to this table and update PharmGKB accordingly.

There is currently no such list for European drug labels - we are working with the EMA to establish a list of European Public Assessment Reports (EPAR)s that contain PGx information. We are constructing this list by initially searching for drugs for which we have PGx-containing FDA drug labels - of these 44 EMA EPARs were identified and are being curated for pgx information.

We welcome any information regarding drug labels containing PGx information approved by the FDA, EMA or other Medicine Agencies around the world - please contact feedback.


last updated 09/15/2014

European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for aliskiren and ABCB1

Informative PGx

Summary

The EMA European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) for aliskiren (Rasilez HCT) does not contain pharmacogenetic information. It contains information regarding the role of ABCB1 (P-gp, MDR1) in intestinal absorption and biliary secretion of aliskiren, and concomitant use of aliskiren with potent P-gp inhibitors is contraindicated.

Annotation

The EMA-approved drug aliskiren is tagged with P-gp (encoded by the ABCB1 gene) in Article:24433361.

Excerpt from the aliskiren (Rasilez HCT) EPAR:

P-glycoprotein interactions: MDR1/Mdr1a/1b (P-gp) was found to be the major efflux system involved in intestinal absorption and biliary excretion of aliskiren in preclinical studies. Rifampicin, which is an inducer of P-gp, reduced aliskiren bioavailability by approximately 50% in a clinical study. Other inducers of P-gp (St. John’s wort) might decrease the bioavailability of aliskiren. Although this has not been investigated for aliskiren, it is known that P-gp also controls tissue uptake of a variety of substrates and P-gp inhibitors can increase the tissue-to-plasma concentration ratios. Therefore, P-gp inhibitors may increase tissue levels more than plasma levels. The potential for drug interactions at the P-gp site will likely depend on the degree of inhibition of this transporter.

For the complete drug label text with sections containing pharmacogenetic information highlighted, see the aliskiren EMA drug label.

*Disclaimer: The contents of this page have not been endorsed by the EMA and are the sole responsibility of PharmGKB.

Genes and/or phenotypes found in this label

  • ABCB1
    • Contraindications section, Drug interactions section, Warnings and precautions section, metabolism/PK
    • source: European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label

PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the table.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

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This is a non-comprehensive list of genetic tests with pharmacogenetics relevance, typically submitted by the manufacturer and manually curated by PharmGKB. The information listed is provided for educational purposes only and does not constitute an endorsement of any listed test or manufacturer.

A more complete listing of genetic tests is found at the Genetic Testing Registry (GTR).

PGx Test Variants Assayed Related Drugs?

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page on the appropriate tab.

Links in the "Drugs" column lead to PharmGKB Drug Pages.

Variant?
(138)
Alternate Names / Tag SNPs ? Drugs ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available No VIP available VA *1 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *2 (PMID: 11503014) N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *2 (PMID: 12893986) N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA
rs10248420 182579T>C, 2481+788T>C, 25197829A>G, 87164986A>G
A > G
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs10267099 -330-48366C>T, 123-1378G>A, 25311603G>A, 68805C>T, 87278760G>A
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs10276036 1000-44G>A, 167367G>A, 25213041C>T, 87180198C>T, ABCB1: IVS9 ¿44a>G
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs10280101 193980T>G, 25186428A>C, 2686-3393T>G, 87153585A>C
A > C
Intronic
rs1045642 208920T>A, 208920T>C, 25171488A>G, 25171488A>T, 3435T>A, 3435T>C, 87138645A>G, 87138645A>T, ABCB1*6, ABCB1: 3435C>T, ABCB1: C3435T, ABCB1: c.3435C>T, ABCB1:3435C>T, Ile1145=, Ile1145Ile, MDR1 3435C>T, MDR1 C3435T, PGP C3435T, c.3435C>T, mRNA 3853C>T
A > T
A > G
Synonymous
Ile1145Ile
rs1128503 1236T>C, 167964T>C, 25043506A>G, 87550285A>G, ABCB1 1236C>T, ABCB1*8, ABCB1: c.1236T>C, ABCB1:1236C>T, ABCB1:1236T>C, Gly412=, Gly412Gly, mRNA 1654T>C, p.Gly412Gly
A > G
Not Available
Gly412Gly
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1186745 213618G>T, 25166790C>A, 3637-182G>T, 87133947C>A
C > A
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1186746 213572A>G, 25166836T>C, 3637-228A>G, 87133993T>C
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs11983225 186045A>G, 2482-707A>G, 25194363T>C, 87161520T>C
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs12720067 178209G>A, 2320-695G>A, 25202199C>T, 87169356C>T
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs1922242 173898T>A, 2065-76T>A, 25206510A>T, 87173667A>T
A > T
Intronic
rs2032582 186947T>A, 186947T>G, 25193461A>C, 25193461A>T, 2677A, 2677G, 2677T, 2677T>A, 2677T>G, 3095G>T/A, 87160618A>C, 87160618A>T, 893 Ala, 893 Ser, 893 Thr, ABCB1*7, ABCB1: 2677G>T/A, ABCB1: 2677T/A>G, ABCB1: A893S, ABCB1: G2677T/A, ABCB1: c.2677G>T/A, ABCB1:2677G>A/T, ABCB1:2677G>T/A, ABCB1:A893T, Ala893Ser/Thr, MDR1, MDR1 G2677T/A, Ser893Ala, Ser893Thr, mRNA 3095G>T/A, p.Ala893Ser/Thr
A > C
A > T
Missense
Ser893Ala
Ser893Thr
No VIP available CA VA
rs2032583 187004T>C, 25193404A>G, 2685+49T>C, 87160561A>G
A > G
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2032588 1350+44C>T, 168122C>T, 25212286G>A, 87179443G>A
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2229107 208906T>A, 25171502A>T, 3421T>A, 87138659A>T, ABCB: S1141T, Ser1141Thr
A > T
Missense
Ser1141Thr
No VIP available CA VA
rs2229109 1199G>A, 1199G>T, 167756G>A, 167756G>T, 25212652C>A, 25212652C>T, 87179809C>A, 87179809C>T, ABCB1: c.1199G>A, Ser400Asn, Ser400Ile, mRNA 1617G>A, p.Ser400Asn
C > T
C > A
Missense
Ser400Asn
Ser400Ile
No VIP available CA VA
rs2235015 148001G>T, 25232407C>A, 287-25G>T, 87199564C>A
C > A
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs2235040 181815G>A, 2481+24G>A, 25198593C>T, 87165750C>T
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2235047 209033T>G, 25171375A>C, 3489+59T>G, 87138532A>C
A > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2235048 209054C>T, 25171354G>A, 3489+80C>T, 87138511G>A
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs2235067 197643G>A, 25182765C>T, 2786+170G>A, 87149922C>T
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs28401781 199237G>A, 25181171C>T, 2927+314G>A, 87148328C>T
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs3213619 -129T>C, 117372T>C, 25263036A>G, 87230193A>G, ABCB1:T-129C
A > G
5' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3747802 -440T>C, 25375429A>G, 458+2615A>G, 4979T>C, 509+2615A>G, 87342586A>G
A > G
5' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3789243 117+4196T>C, 126679T>C, 25253729A>G, 87220886A>G
A > G
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs3842 *193A>G, 214199A>G, 24997271T>C, 87504050T>C
T > C
Not Available
No VIP available CA VA
rs4148737 176413A>G, 2212-372A>G, 25203995T>C, 87171152T>C
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs4148739 186516A>G, 2482-236A>G, 25193892T>C, 87161049T>C
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs4148740 195462T>C, 25184946A>G, 2686-1911T>C, 87152103A>G
A > G
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs4728709 -330-3208C>T, 113963C>T, 25266445G>A, 87233602G>A
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs72552784 201651G>A, 25178757C>T, 2995G>A, 87145914C>T, ABCB1: c.2995G>A, Ala999Thr, mRNA 3413G>A, p.Ala999Thr
C > T
Missense
Ala999Thr
No VIP available CA VA
rs7787082 190514C>T, 25189894G>A, 2685+3559C>T, 87157051G>A
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs9282564 118125A>G, 25262283T>C, 61A>G, 87229440T>C, ABCB1: c.61A>G, Asn21Asp, mRNA 479A>G, p.Asn21Asp
T > C
Missense
Asn21Asp
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 138

Overview

Alternate Names:  multidrug resistance protein 1
Alternate Symbols:  ABC20; CD243; GP170; MDR1; P-gp
PharmGKB Accession Id: PA267

Details

Cytogenetic Location: chr7 : q21.12 - q21.12
GP mRNA Boundary: chr7 : 87133179 - 87342639
GP Gene Boundary: chr7 : 87130179 - 87352639
Strand: minus
The mRNA boundaries are calculated using the gene's default feature set from NCBI, mapped onto the UCSC Golden Path. PharmGKB sets gene boundaries by expanding the mRNA boundaries by no less than 10,000 bases upstream (5') and 3,000 bases downstream (3') to allow for potential regulatory regions.

ABCB1 Description
ABCB1 (MDR1) is one of many ubiquitous adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) genes present in all kingdoms of life that is responsible for cellular homeostasis [Articles:15052411, 9099718, 7765321]. ABC genes encode transporter and channel proteins possessing multiple membrane-spanning domains that form a pore, and intracellular nucleotide-binding domains for ATP-dependent translocation of substrates or ions across the cell membrane [Articles:15052411, 12045106, 10331089]. Although bacterial ABC proteins function as both importers and exporters [Article:14630327], all eukaryotic ABC proteins are efflux pumps [Articles:15052411, 11907151]. ABCB1 is one of forty-nine putative members in the superfamily of human ABC transporters [Articles:1869973, 18154452] within sub-family B (MDR/TAP), which is one of seven phylogenetically distinct sub-families [Article:12045106] with overlapping substrate specificity [Article:18668431] (see Wageningen University website: www.nutrigene.4t.com/humanabc.htm).

Molecular and protein structure
ABCB1 was first cloned by Riordan and colleagues in 1985 [Article:2863759]. The gene lies less than 25 kilobases (kb) from ABCB4 on chromosome 7q21.12 (UCSC Genome Browser, March 2006 Assembly (hg18)). Analysis of human cell lines, liver tissue, and lymphocytes consistently show ABCB1 to contain 29 exons in a genomic region spanning 209.6 kb [Article:16146331] (Entrez GeneID: 5243, GenBank accession NT_007933). The two most 5' exons are untranslated. Two primary transcriptional start regions exist: a proximal promoter in exon 1 and intron 1 for constitutive expression, and a cryptic distal promoter that is active in drug-selected cell lines and cancer patient samples for overexpression of the protein product. The ABCB1 promoter region contains a few low-frequency polymorphisms and is relatively invariant compared to other genes in the genome [Article:16608921].

The messenger RNA (mRNA) is 4872 base pairs in length, including the 5' untranslated region (UTR) (RefSeq accession NM_000927.3), which gives rise to a protein that is 1280 amino acids in length, named P-glycoprotein (P-gp) [Article:16146331]. The secondary structure of P-gp reveals two homologous halves to the protein, each containing six transmembrane domains and a nucleotide-binding domain (see image per Fung et al. [Article:19285158] as adapted from Ambudkar et al. [Article:10331089]). The existence and number of putative splice variants is undetermined [Article:16146331]. Alternative transcripts for ABCB1 have been predicted from sequence alignments with human complementary DNA (cDNA) (see ABCB1 in AceView), protein sequences, and expressed sequence tags [Article:[16708052]. P-gp is post-translationally modified by phosphorylation and N-glycosylation. Differential phosphorylation of P-gp by kinases have been shown to influence P-gp activity [Articles:10790147, 16309179].

A number of mechanistic observations have been made from low-resolution crystal structures for P-gp in bacteria [Article:12777401] and Chinese hamster ovary cells [Article:9099718], and from a high-resolution structure of the mouse homolog with 87% sequence identity to humans (see Protein Data Bank accession 3G60, 3G5U, and 3G61) [Article:19325113]. The twelve transmembrane helices form a toroidal protein with an aqueous pore (see image from Higgins et al. [Article:9099718]). Two nucleotide-binding domains for the protein lie in the cytoplasm. The pore is lined with hydrophobic and aromatic amino acids at the extracellular-facing half of the pore, while the cytosolic-facing portion of the pore contains polar, charged residues [Article:19325113]. Structural analysis reveals two openings in the protein that open into the lipid bilayer and permit extraction of substrates directly from the membrane upon the passive diffusion of substrates into the cell (see image from Aller et al. [Article:19325113]) [Articles:9099718, 12777401]. Several highly conserved residues within the pore are able to recognize a diverse range of substrates. The protein exhibits high conformational flexibility to allow for structural rearrangements in binding and effluxing substrates [Article:19325113]. Substrate-bound images reveal the capacity to distinguish stereoisomers and simultaneously bind multiple substrates at overlapping binding sites. The ability to bind substrates in close proximity to one another provides a mechanistic rationale for observed functional interactions between co-administered substrates (e.g. allosteric, competitive and non-competitive inhibition, and cooperativity) [Articles:9300798, 18668431, 19325102].

Tissue distribution and function
P-gp is expressed in a polarized manner in the plasma membrane of cells in barrier and elimination organs, where it has protective and excretory function [Article:11913728]. It plays an important role in the first-pass elimination of orally administered drugs to limit their bioavailability by effluxing them at the lumen-facing epithelia of the small intestine and colon, and the bile-facing canaliculi of the liver. It eliminates substrates from the systemic circulation at the urine-facing side of the brush border membrane of proximal tubules in the kidney, and again via biliary excretion. It restricts permeability of drugs into 'sanctuary' organs from the apical or serosal side of blood-tissue barriers (e.g. blood-brain, blood-cerebral spinal fluid, blood-placenta, blood-testis barriers) [Article:15276711]. P-gp expression in the adrenal cortex is thought to play a role in hormone transport and homeostasis, and glucorcorticoid resistance [Articles:12844331, 10331089]. In lymphocytes and other immunological and blood components P-gp putatively plays a role in viral resistance and in trafficking cytokines and enveloped viruses [Articles:10331089, 8765502, 10698966]. P-gp is also thought to be important for steroid partitioning and lipid homeostasis in the periphery and central nervous system [Articles:12379510, 19285054, 12844331]. Intracellular P-gp has been detected in the endoplasmic reticulum, vesicles, and the nuclear envelope, and has been associated with cell trafficking machinery with unknown function [Article:18560012]. Relevant to the clinical challenge of multi-drug resistance, P-gp is overexpressed in numerous tissues transformed by cancer.

Physiological role
P-gp was discovered in 1970 by Biedler and colleagues who observed the phenomenon of multi-drug resistance (MDR) conferred by a cell surface protein in mammalian cell lines. This membrane protein conferred up to a 2500-fold increase in drug resistance to actinomycin D and cross-resistance to a single exposure of mithramycin, vinblastine, vincristine, puromycin, daunomycin, demecolcine, and mitomycin C [Article:5533992]. The 170 kilo Dalton (kD) phospho-glycoprotein, or 'permeability' glycoprotein, was identified as the cause for reduced cellular drug exposure [Article:990323] by its active extrusion of drugs from the cell [Articles:1203765, 2900833]. The physiological impact of this multi-drug efflux pump was appreciated in 1994 by Schinkel and colleagues who observed a 100-fold increase in the brain penetration of antiparasitic medication, ivermectin, in genetically engineered mice lacking abcb1 [Article:7910522]. Animals naturally deficient for abcb1 were also found to exhibit neurological and fetal drug toxicity due to a breach in the blood-brain and blood-placenta barriers where P-gp is normally active [Articles:9299600, 19171022]. A 4-base pair deletion (ABCB1-1 Delta) was subsequently identified as the cause of the non-functioning allele in dogs [Article:19171022], which led to proposed dosing changes in veterinary medicine [Articles:9934933, 19411645]. In humans, spontaneous deletion of ABCB1 has not been described, but a nonfunctional variant was found in two heterozygous individuals in which a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), T3587G, results in an isoleucine to serine change at residue 1196 in the second ATP-binding domain of P-gp [Article:16648557]. However, in one heterozygous subject tested, the SNP was not shown to affect the clearance of the P-gp substrate, SN-38, after parenteral irinotecan administration [Articles:16648557, 14646693]. The frequency of the 3587 G allele was 1:300 in a Japanese population, thus homozygotes with two copies of the non-functioning 1196Ser allele would be very rare (1:100,000).

Numerous common coding variants in ABCB1 have been studied for their potential influence on P-gp expression, function, and disease risk. Genetic associations with molecular or clinical phenotypes have largely been inconsistent [Articles:12406646, 14749689, 16969364]. As a result, no adjustments in drug dosing have been recommended for individuals carrying sequence variants of ABCB1 in humans, and replication studies are needed to understand the influence of ABCB1 genetics on disease susceptibility. Current clinical considerations for P-gp are therefore related to its important role in (1) multi-drug resistance, and (2) drug-drug interactions, derived primarily from its broad substrate specificity and variable intrinsic and drug-induced expression [Article:17933685].

Compounds that interact with P-gp
P-gp recognizes and effluxes a multitude of structurally and biochemically unrelated substrates (cyclic, linear, basic, uncharged, zwitterionic, negatively charged, hydrophobic, aromatic, non-aromatic, amphipathic), from 250 to 4,000 molecular weight ISBN: [9780123695208], [Articles:18560012, 15072439], sufficiently indeterminate to predict in drug design [Article:11907151]. Substrates include xenobiotics, endogenous compounds (e.g. peptides (including beta-amyloids), steroid hormones, lipids, phospholipids, cholesterol, and cytokines) [Article:9300798], pharmaceuticals [Article:16454744], neutraceuticals (e.g. St. John's wort), dietary compounds (e.g. grapefruit juice, green tea) ISBN: [9781588293138, [Article:15072439] , and other compounds, which may also modulate P-gp activity [Article:19545213]. P-gp compounds can act as substrates, inhibitors, inducers, and repressors; and citations refer to P-gp compounds as being in more than one category, depending upon the circumstance [Article:18668431]. Modulation of ABCB1 gene expression and/or P-gp activity by various mechanisms consequently influences P-gp-mediated drug disposition.

Repressors of P-gp, including certain antineoplastic agents that act at nuclear receptors [Article:17048260], or endotoxin [Article:14709616], cobalamin [Article:17982279], and atorvastatin [Articles:18156365, 19543298], potentiate the action of substrates; while rifampin (rifampicin) [Article:10411543] and cell stress signals induce P-gp-mediated drug resistance [Articles:17982279, 18156365, 18560012]. Another mechanism for P-gp-related pharmacoresistance to cytotoxic agents is hypothesized to relate to the cell stress signals they induce [Articles:18699730, 19638996]. Upregulation of ABCB1 gene expression can occur at gene promoter sequences via transactivation [Articles:15072439, 18668431, 19460946], for example, by the pregnane X receptor (NR1I2, PXR) gene in response to substrates that may have overlapping specificity for P-gp [Article:18560012]; or induction can occur independent of nuclear receptors [Article:15258100]. Alternatively, epigenetic inactivation of P-gp can occur by DNA methylation at specific nucleotide sequences within the promoter sequence, called CpG islands, as has been observed in some cancer tissues [Article:15326379]; or downregulation of P-gp can also occur by mechanisms other than by DNA methylation, for example, in response to cobalamin, a vitamin B-12 derivative [Article:17982279].

Drug interactions
Many studies have characterized the interactions between P-gp compounds, since concomitant administration can substantially alter the pharmacokinetics of the compounds involved [Article:17933685]. Research has focused on both the deleterious and beneficial effects of interactions between P-gp compounds: (1) interactions that potentially affect drug safety and efficacy [Article:9300798], and (2) interactions exploited to optimize drug delivery.

Drug safety and efficacy are major health concerns, particulary for drugs with a narrow therapeutic index and/or large clinical effect [Article:17168768]. A number of drug interactions of clinical relevance are cited as warnings in the drug labels. For example, the drug label for the contraceptive, Trinessa (Watson Pharma, Inc.), warns against potential drug inefficacy when coadministered with compounds that induce P-gp (e.g. rifampin, St. John's wort, protease inhibitors, carbamazepine, and barbiturates). The drug label for the antidiarrheal, loperamide (Imodium, McNeil Consumer Healthcare), warns against neurotoxic side effects when coadministered with P-gp inhibitors (e.g. quinidine, ritonavir) since this gut-targeted optiate relies upon P-gp to prohibit intestinal absorption and entry into the central nervous system [Article:19372478].

Interactions between compounds are substrate-specific, concentration-dependent [Article:9300798], and tissue-specific [Article:16537797]. For example, unlike the drug-potentiating interaction between quinine [Articles:11014404, 14583678] or ritonavir [Article:16304151] on loperamide, the potent P-gp inhibitor, tariquidar, does not produce the same analgesic effects, despite its efficient inhibition of P-gp in lymphocytes. This is presumably due to tissue-specific factors [Article:16537797]. Concentration is another important determinant of drug interactions. For example, at the therapeutic concentration for the beta blocker and P-gp substrate, propranolol (Innopran Xl, Reliant Pharmaceuticals, Inc.), propranolol disposition is not affected by modulation of P-gp by other compounds. Other influences include key pharmacokinetic genes that affect the disposition of substrates for P-gp. For example, P-gp and cytochrome P450 3A4 metabolizing enzyme (CYP3A4) overlap in tissue distribution and specificity for a substantial number of substrates, inducers, and inhibitors [Articles:7619215, 15276711]. Furthermore, genes responsible for the disposition of a drug can act synergistically [Article:16435171]. Marchetti et al. cite clinically relevant drug interactions influenced by the interplay of ABCB1 with other genes in the disposition of P-gp compounds, such as paclitaxel and cyclosporine A (CsA) (via CYP3A4 inhibition), digoxin and rifampin (via CYP3A4 induction), and topotecan and elacridar (via ABCG2 inhibition) [Article:17766652].

Multi-drug resistance
Drug resistance by multiple mechanisms [Articles:2892943, 12712010, 15641020, 16454744, 18699730] accounts for more than 90% treatment failure in metastatic cancer [Articles:15641020, 18286284]. Multi-drug resistance from intrinsic (drug-naive) and acquired (drug-induced) over-expression of P-gp [Article:2892943] is a notable impediment to brain-targeted therapies (e.g. antiepileptics, neuro-antiretrovirals) and chemotherapies ISBN: [9781402059636], [Articles:16011870, 11907151, 17048260, 18627414]. P-gp expression predicts between 30 to 40% of treatment failure in epilepsy [Articles:10331089, 15072439, 18199522] and is correlated with drug non-response in acute myeloid leukemia [Article:18056183], childhood neuroblastoma [Article:1682809] and sarcoma [Article:1968964], and other cancers [Article:8504063]. The relationship between P-gp expression with non-response to chemotherapy and drug-induced upregulation of P-gp according to tumor type is nicely reviewed by Takara et al. [Article:16454744].

Known interactions between substrates and modulators of P-gp have been exploited in drug development and treatment protocols to overcome low drug delivery. Inhibitors of P-gp, such as formulary excipients (e.g. tocopherol (vitamin E preparation, TPGS 1000) and Cremophor EL) [Articles:8118035, 9520143, 17367162] and approved drugs, are clinically used to enhance the delivery of P-gp substrates. Verapamil and cyclosporine A (CsA) are examples of the first-generation of 'P-gp reversal agents' [Article:16454744] used in combination with antineoplastic agents, such as doxorubicin, vincristine, and paclitaxel to enhance bioavailability [Articles:1676918, 8725386, 12454106, 16969354, 18510173]. However, dose-limiting toxicity of early reversal agents and formulary excipients has led to the development of second-generation antagonists of P-gp, such as valspodar (PSC833), with ten-fold greater potency for P-gp and less side effects [Articles:19949935, 1346494, 12712010].

Substrate interactions with other pharmacokinetic genes affecting the absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination (ADME) of drugs play a significant role in the effectiveness of P-gp reversal agents. Substrate specificity for multiple ADME genes can be advantageous or disadvantageous in adjunct therapy. For example, the mechanism by which both cyclosporine A and valspodar enhance the bioavailability of paclitaxel is owed in part to their inhibition of CYP3A4 [Articles:9698296, 10589748], ABCC2 [Article:17062689], and other elimination-pathway genes (e.g. CYP2J2) [Article:19923256] for paclitaxel. On the other hand, non-specific inhibition of multiple elimination-pathway genes involved in drug clearance can lead to side effects associated with the prolonged half life of the primary drug. As more is known about the gene expression profile of specific pathological conditions, P-gp reversal agent use can be optimized. For example, where redundant drug resistance mechanisms are operant, as with ABCB1, ABCC1 (MRP1), and ABCG2 (BCRP) in acute myeloid leukemia [Articles:14617793, 18699730], inhibition of multiple drug resistance genes can be beneficial. Characterization of the genes responsible for pharmacoresistance in a particular disease or disease stage is used to inform drug treatment. Also, third-generation P-gp reversal agents (e.g. tariquidar (XR9576), zosuquidar (LY335979), laniquidar (R101933), and OC144-093 (ONT093)) with greater specificity for P-gp and less affinity for other ADME genes, have been developed [Articles:10975553, 12712010]. A number of the newer-generation P-gp reversal agents (e.g. tariquidar, valspodar (PSC833), zosuquidar, OC144-093, elacridar (GF120918, GG918), and CBT-1) have shown promise in in vitro and early trials for treatment of epilepsy and cancer [Articles:12712010, 18234154, 15565444, 18234154, 18627414].

P-gp-guided therapy
Techniques to characterize the mechanisms of drug resistance that are operant in individual patients inform treatment with P-gp antagonists as adjuncts in the appropriate case. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) analysis of the P-gp substrate, Tc-99m sestamibi, is used to probe P-gp-positive cells as a way to predict pharmacoresistance to antiepileptics [Article:18627414] and antitumor drugs [Articles:9815718, 19390941]. This technique is shown to be a cost-effective method for pre-selecting responders to lung cancer treatment [Article:19223414]. Tc-99m sestamibi is also used to monitor the efficacy of P-gp reversal agents in sensitizing pharmacoresistant cells to P-gp substrates [Article:15269145]. A phase I clinical trial using vinblastine plus valspodar reversal agent, and Tc-99m sestamibi imaging to monitor the sensitization of P-gp-positive cells, showed increased Tc-99m sestamibi retention in tumor cells of metastatic renal carcinoma patients (and thus presumably, cytotoxic agent, vinblastine) [Article:9815718]. Tariquidar/taxane/anthracycline polytherapy guided by serial Tc-99m sestamibi tumor scans was tried in a phase II clinical trial for breast cancer with acquired pharmacoresistance (Clinical trial ID: NCT00048633 at http://clinicaltrials.gov). Results to date show that cancers exhibiting de novo pharmacoresistance (drug naive), such as leukemias, myeloma, lymphomas, and breast and ovarian cancers, are the most amenable to P-gp modulation with reversal agents as adjunct therapy.

Genetic associations
Disease-causing mutations in fourteen of the ABC superfamily members have been described, as in CFTR (ABCC7) for cystic fibrosis, ABCA4 for macular degeneration, ABCC2 and ABCB11 for biliary dysfunction, and ABCA1, ABCG5, ABCG8, and ABCD1 for fatty acid/lipid disorders [Article:12045106]. A large corpus of literature about sequence variations for ABCB1 exists, however there is no clear consensus regarding the contribution of ABCB1 variation to disease risk [Articles:16969364, 17661727, 18370231]; and despite evidence for inter-individual variability in ABCB1 expression and P-gp function [Articles:7473127, 14965248, 19285158], the genetic contribution is unclear [Article:16969364]. A great number of studies has been carried out to establish the role of ABCB1 genetics in various phenotypes such as P-gp expression, function, drug response, and disease susceptibility with little consensus. Most genotype-phenotype associations are not substantiated by study replication, meaningful sample size, and appropriate multitesting correction. See helpful reviews [Articles:12505329, 12406646, 14749689, 15212152], including a detailed summary by Leschziner et al. of the discordant literature regarding genetic association of ABCB1 SNPs and haplotypes with P-gp expression, activity, drug response, and disease risk [Article:16969364].

Despite much work to ascertain the genetic contribution of ABCB1 on drug disposition and disease susceptibility, the accumulation of studies to date are unclear. Until data is amassed to form a consensus about the role of genetics in P-gp-related phenotypes, the primary clinical focus on P-gp relates to its role in (1) multi-drug resistance, and (2) drug-drug interactions [Article:17933685].

ABCB1 variants
As of April 30, 2009 for build 130 of the Single Nucleotide Polymorphism database (dbSNP), there are 1279 SNPs in the ABCB1 gene region, 62 of which are coding (22 synonymous, 41 non-synonymous, and 1 in the start codon). The number and frequency of SNPs observed varies by ethnicity. Excluding SNPs below 5% allele frequency, there are approximately 124 SNPs observed in Caucasians, 134 in African Americans, 153 in Chinese, and 166 in Japanese (see ABCB1 in HapMap at www.hapmap.org). Additional information is available at the University of California, San Francisco Pharmacogenetics of Membrane Transporters Database (see ABCB1 at http://pharmacogenetics.ucsf.edu).

About 2.6 times fewer (n = 4) SNPs occur in the transmembrane domains compared to the intracellular and extracellular regions of the protein. None of the three prime untranslated region (3'UTR) SNPs are reported to alter mRNA stability [Article:19285158]. The three most common SNPs in the protein coding region are rs1128503 (1236T>C, Gly412Gly), rs2032582 (2677T>G/A, Ser893Ala/Thr), and rs1045642 (3435T>C, Ile1145Ile) [Article:16141795], according to build 130 of (dbSNP). These three SNPs have been the focus of many pharmacokinetic and disease association studies with controversial results [Article:16969364]. Other less frequent variants include -129C>T (5'-UTR), 61A>G (Asn21Asp), and 1199G>A (Ser400Asn), which have been studied in vivo and in vitro. (See coding SNP locations on the secondary structure of P-gp per Fung et al. [Article:19285158] as adapted from Ambudkar et al. [Article:10331089].)

ABCB1 haplotypes
Closely positioned sequence variants tend not to segregate independently with each generation due to linkage disequilibrium (LD). As a result, multiple variant alleles are inherited together on the same physical chromatid in a particular pattern. That is to say that for linked variant alleles, the occurance of one variant allele informs the valence other alleles with a certain level of predictability. For example, alleles from the three most common coding SNPs at nucleotides 1236, 2677, and 3435, are in high LD [Article:16708052] and are observed most frequently as the 893Ala-containing CGC haplotype and 893Ser-containing TTT haplotype in most ethnic groups [Articles:11503014, 12172212, 12893986, 14976162]. Other observed haplotypes extend beyond the exonic region of ABCB1 [Article:16255080]. Leschziner et al. observed LD extending 75 kilobases, linking 3' variant alleles of ABCB1 to coding variant alleles of the adjacent ABC transporter gene, ABCB4 [Article:16708052].

Haplotype structure relates to the location of recombination hot spots and ancestry-specific patterns of LD [Articles:16255080, 18288195]. Tang et al. observed ethnic-specific LD blocks at the ABCB1 locus that are 80, 60, and 40 kilobase in length and distinguish Chinese, Malay, and Indian populations, respectively [Article:12172212]. Similarly, comparison of the mutation rate between Beninese Africans (1 variant per 224 basepairs) and American Africans (1 variant per 172 bp) reflects admixture in the U.S. cohort that differentiates the ABCB1 haplotype structure in these populations [Article:15692830]. Accordingly, haplotype frequencies differ by ethnic group. For example, the 893Ser-containing TTT haplotype occurs relatively infrequently in African Americans compared to Caucasians [Articles:11503014, 12893986] and Asians [Article:12172212].

A haplotype by definition is not bound by a gene region, but gene-specific haplotypes can acquire allelic designations in the literature. Sequence analysis of ABCB1 in different ethnic groups has been performed [Articles:11503014, 12172212, 12893986, 14646693, 15692830, 16708052, 17187507] and led to the designation of "star alleles" [Articles:14646693, 11503014, 12893986], as explained by Robarge et al. [Article:17700589]. Briefly, the designation of ABCB1 star alleles follows rules established by the Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Committee and others for naming haplotypes observed for cytochrome P450 (CYP450), uridinediphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), N-acetyltransferase (NAT), and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) [Articles:10862518, 17700589] genes. Star alleles are defined relative to an arbitrarily established reference sequence, denoted *1. ABCB1*1 contains 1236C, 2677G (893Ala), and 3435C. Many star allele designations for ABCB1 are currently not harmonization in the literature. To illustrate, ABCB1*2, as defined by Kim et al., harbors three coding variants, namely 1236T, 2677T (893Ser), and 3435T [Article:11503014]; while ABCB1*2, as defined by Kroetz et al., contains 3435T (and is reference for 1236C and 2677G (893Ala)) [Article:12893986]. ABCB1*13 per Kroetz et al. (1236T, 2677T (893Ser), 3435T, and 3 intronic SNPs) [Article:12893986] is most similar to ABCB1*2 defined by Kim et al. [Article:11503014] as they are indistinguishable in terms of the coding region and amino acid sequence.

To investigate the regulatory impact of promoter variants on functional phenotypes, haplotype analysis of the promoter region has also been performed [Articles:15280437, 16907707, 16608921, 19072639]. Wang et al. observed a haplotype formed from eight low-frequency variants (<5% minor allele frequency) in the promoter region that accounted for 85% of all haplotypes observed in five ethnic groups [Article:16608921]. They functionally characterized promoter haplotypes observed in Chinese, Malays, Indians, European Americans, and African Americans using an in vitro reporter assay and found significant ethnic-specific differences in promoter activity, although activity differed by the cell line used in the assay (presumably due to cell-specific regulatory factors). Other work has been done to understand the relationship between regulatory and coding variants for ABCB1 and their potential association with endophenotypes. Takane et al. showed that variation in promoter haplotype activity was independent of variation at the synonymous 3435 SNP, and the methylation status of the proximal promoter did not correlate with ABCB1 mRNA expression [Article:15280437]. Jiang et al. found an association between the promoter methylation status and variation in coding SNPs for ABCB1. They showed that lower promoter methylation was associated with the 3435 TT and 893Ala-containing 2677 genotypes, while the 893Ser-containing TTT (1236, 2677, 3435) haplotype was associated with higher methylation [Article:19072639]. More research is needed to elucidate the functional relevance of regulatory variants for ABCB1 and their potential value to predicting P-gp-related phenotypes.

The vast majority of haplotype studies for ABCB1 do not take into account all segregating sites that are used to distinguish ABCB1 star alleles, but interrogate a select few variants. The variant alleles of the three most common coding SNPs, at nucleotides 1236 (rs1128503), 2677 (rs2032582), and 3435 (rs1045642), are in high linkage disequilibrium [Article:16708052]. Genotyping these three common ABCB1 coding SNPs captures a large portion of observed population haplotypes [Articles:11503014, 12893986, 19072639]. The linked variant alleles for 1236-2677-3435 are observed most frequently as the 893Ala-containing CGC haplotype and the 893Ser-containing TTT haplotype in most ethnic groups [Articles:11503014, 12172212, 12893986].

ABCB1 star alleles
ABCB1 star allele designations are currently not harmonized in the literature, and thus are specific to the citation referenced.
ABCB1*1 contains 1236C, 2677G (893Ala), 3435C, as named by Kim et al. 2001 [Article:11503014].
ABCB1*2 contains 1236T, 2677T (893Ser), 3435T, as named by Kim et al. 2001 [Article:11503014] and 1236C, 2677G (893Ala), 3435T, as named by Kroetz et al. 2003 [Article:[12893986].
ABCB1*13 contains 1236T, 2677T (893Ser), 3435T, and three intronic SNPs, as named by Kroetz et al. 2003 [Article:12893986].

Citation Very important pharmacogene summary: ABCB1 (MDR1, P-glycoprotein). Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Hodges Laura M, Markova Svetlana M, Chinn Leslie W, Gow Jason M, Kroetz Deanna L, Klein Teri E, Altman Russ B. PubMed
History

Submitted by Chinn LW, Gow JM (PMT)

Updated by Hodges LM (PharmGKB), Markova SM, Chinn LW, Gow JM, Kroetz DL (PMT)

Variant Summaries rs1045642, rs1128503, rs2032582
Haplotype Summaries ABCB1*1, ABCB1*2 per Kim et al. 2001 [PMID: 11503014], ABCB1*2 per Kroetz et al. 2003 [PMID: 12893986], ABCB1*13 per Kroetz et al. 2003 [PMID: 12893986]
Drugs
Drug Substrate (77)
Actinomycines, aldosterone, amitriptyline, amprenavir, atorvastatin, bromperidol, calcein, carbamazepine, Celiprolol, chlorpromazine, cimetidine, citalopram, clopidogrel, colchicine, corticosteroids, cyclosporine, daunorubicin, dexamethasone, digoxin, diltiazem, docetaxel, domperidone, doxorubicin, doxycycline, erythromycin, etoposide, fexofenadine, gramicidin d, grapefruit juice, imatinib, indinavir, irinotecan, itraconazole, ivermectin, ketoconazole, lamotrigine, lansoprazole, levetiracetam, levofloxacin, loperamide, losartan, lovastatin, melphalan, methylprednisolone, mitomycin, mitoxantrone, morphine, nelfinavir, omeprazole, paclitaxel, pantoprazole, pentazocine, phenobarbital, Phenothiazine derivatives, phenothiazines with aliphatic side-chain, phenytoin, pravastatin, propranolol, quinidine, ranitidine, rifampin, ritonavir, saquinavir, simvastatin, sirolimus, sparfloxacin, tacrolimus, talinolol, teniposide, terfenadine, tetracycline, topotecan, Valspodar, vecuronium, verapamil, vinblastine, vincristine
Drug Inhibitor (68)
amiodarone, amitriptyline, astemizole, atorvastatin, bepridil, Biricodar, bromocriptine, carvedilol, chlorpromazine, clarithromycin, Cremophor EL, curcumin, cyanocobalamin, cyclosporine, desipramine, diltiazem, dipyridamole, disulfiram, Elacridar, erlotinib, erythromycin, felodipine, fluoxetine, flupenthixol, fluphenazine, gefitinib, haloperidol, hydrocortisone, hydroxocobalamin, indinavir, itraconazole, ketoconazole, lansoprazole, maprotiline, mefloquine, midazolam, mifepristone, nelfinavir, nicardipine, nitrendipine, OC144-093, omeprazole, pantoprazole, paroxetine, pentazocine, progesterone, propafenone, quinidine, quinine, R101933, reserpine, ritonavir, saquinavir, sertraline, simvastatin, sirolimus, spironolactone, tacrolimus, tamoxifen, Tariquidar, tetrabenazine, valinomycin, Valspodar, verapamil, vinblastine, vitamin e, XR9051, Zosuquidar
Pathways

Haplotype Overview

Haplotypes are derived from [Article:11503014] and [Article:12893986].

Source: PharmGKB

All alleles in the download file are on the positive chromosomal strand. PharmGKB considers the first haplotype listed in each table as the reference haplotype for that set.

PharmGKB Curated Pathways

Pathways created internally by PharmGKB based primarily on literature evidence.

  1. Acetaminophen Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Stylized diagram showing acetaminophen metabolism and transport in the liver and kidney.
  1. Atorvastatin/Lovastatin/Simvastatin Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Drug-specific representation of the candidate genes involved in transport, metabolism and clearance.
  1. Carbamazepine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Stylized liver cell depicting candidate genes involved in the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine.
  1. Citalopram Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Pharmacokinetics of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram.
  1. Clopidogrel Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Clopidogrel metabolism.
  1. Codeine and Morphine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of the candidate genes involved in metabolism of codeine and morphine.
  1. Doxorubicin Pathway (Cancer Cell), Pharmacodynamics
    Representation of the candidate genes involved in the action of doxorubicin in a stylized cancer cell.
  1. Doxorubicin Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Diagrammatic representation of the transport and metabolism of doxorubicin.
  1. Erlotinib Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Model human liver cell showing genes involved in the transportation and metabolism of Erlotinib.
  1. Etoposide Pathway, Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics
    Etoposide cellular disposition and effects.
  1. Gefitinib Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of the candidate genes involved in the transportation and metabolism of gefitinib.
  1. Irinotecan Pathway, Pharmacodynamics
    Model non-tissue specific cancer cell displaying genes which may be involved in the irinotecan pathway.
  1. Irinotecan Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Model human liver cell showing blood, bile and intestinal compartments, indicating tissue specific involvement of genes in the irinotecan pathway.
  1. Lamivudine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics
    Representation of candidate genes involved in the metabolism of lamivudine and its mechanism of antiviral action.
  1. Methotrexate Pathway (Brain Cell), Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of transport and exchange of methotrexate in the brain.
  1. Methotrexate Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Diagramatic representation of uptake, transport and elimination of methotrexate.
  1. Paroxetine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Genes involved in the metabolism of paroxetine and in the mechanism of action.
  1. Pravastatin Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Drug-specific representation of the candidate genes involved in transport, metabolism and clearance.
  1. Proton Pump Inhibitor Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Omeprazole metabolism in the liver.
  1. Statin Pathway - Generalized, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of the superset of all genes involved in the transport, metabolism and clearance of statin class drugs.
  1. Statin Pathway, Pharmacodynamics
    Genes involved in mediating statin effects on hepatic cholesterol metabolism and consequent effects on plasma lipoprotein transport.
  1. Tacrolimus/Cyclosporine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Schematic representation of tacrolimus and cyclosporine metabolism
  1. Taxane Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of the genes involved in the metabolism and transport of paclitaxel and docetaxel, and the downstream effects of the drugs.
  1. Vinka Alkaloid Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of the genes involved in the metabolism, transport, and downstream effects of the vinca alkaloid vincristine.
  1. Warfarin Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of the candidate genes involved in transport, metabolism and clearance of warfarin.
  1. Zidovudine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics
    Representation of candidate genes involved in the metabolism of zidovudine and its mechanism of antiviral action.

External Pathways

Links to non-PharmGKB pathways.

  1. HIF-1-alpha transcription factor network - (Pathway Interaction Database NCI-Nature Curated)
  2. hypoxia and p53 in the cardiovascular system - (BioCarta via Pathway Interaction Database)
  3. multi-drug resistance factors - (BioCarta via Pathway Interaction Database)

Curated Information ?

Evidence Gene
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NR1I2

Curated Information ?

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afatinib
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aldosterone
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aliskiren
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amiodarone
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amlodipine
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astemizole
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atazanavir
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atenolol
atorvastatin
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axitinib
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bepridil
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bisantrene
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bosutinib monohydrate
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bromocriptine
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bromperidol
calcein
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capecitabine
carbamazepine
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carboplatin
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carvedilol
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chlorambucil
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chlorpromazine
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cimetidine
cisplatin
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clarithromycin
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clomipramine
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clotrimazole
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clozapine
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codeine
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colchicine
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Cremophor EL
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crizotinib
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curcumin
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cyanocobalamin
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cyclophosphamide
cyclosporine
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cytarabine
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dabrafenib
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daunorubicin
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desipramine
dexamethasone
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dextromethorphan
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dicloxacillin
digoxin
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diltiazem
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diphenhydramine
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dipyridamole
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disulfiram
docetaxel
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domperidone
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donepezil
doxorubicin
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doxycycline
efavirenz
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Elacridar
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epirubicin
erlotinib
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erythromycin
etoposide
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felodipine
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fentanyl
fexofenadine
fluorouracil
fluoxetine
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flupenthixol
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fluphenazine
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fluvastatin
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fluvoxamine
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folic acid
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forskolin
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galantamine
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gefitinib
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gemcitabine
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gramicidin d
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grapefruit juice
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haloperidol
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homoharringtonine
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hydrocortisone
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hydroxocobalamin
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hydroxyurea
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idarubicin
imatinib
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indinavir
irinotecan
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
isoniazid
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
itraconazole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
ivermectin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
ketoconazole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
labetalol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available PW
lamivudine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
lamotrigine
lansoprazole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
leucovorin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
levetiracetam
levofloxacin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
liothyronine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
lithium
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
lomitapide
loperamide
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
lopinavir
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
losartan
lovastatin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
maprotiline
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
mefloquine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
melphalan
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
methadone
methotrexate
methylprednisolone
midazolam
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
mifepristone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
mitomycin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
mitotane
mitoxantrone
morphine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
mycophenolate mofetil
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
nefazodone
nelfinavir
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
nevirapine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
nicardipine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
nifedipine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
nilotinib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
nitrendipine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
nortriptyline
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
OC144-093
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
olanzapine
omeprazole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
ondansetron
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
oseltamivir
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
oxaliplatin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
oxycodone
paclitaxel
pantoprazole
paroxetine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
pazopanib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
pentazocine
phenobarbital
phenytoin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
platinum
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ponatinib
pravastatin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
prazosin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
prednisolone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
prednisone
probenecid
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
progesterone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
propafenone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
propranolol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
pyrazinamide
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
quetiapine
quinidine
quinine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
R101933
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
raltegravir
ranitidine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ranolazine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
reserpine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
rhodamine 123
rifampin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
risperidone
ritonavir
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ruxolitinib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
saquinavir
sertraline
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
simeprevir
simvastatin
sirolimus
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
SN-38
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
sofosbuvir
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
sparfloxacin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
spironolactone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
st. john's wort
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
sulfamethoxazole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
sunitinib
tacrolimus
talinolol
tamoxifen
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Tariquidar
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
teniposide
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
tenofovir
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
terfenadine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
tetrabenazine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
tetracycline
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ticagrelor
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
tipifarnib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
topotecan
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
trabectedin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
tramadol
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
trimethoprim
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
valinomycin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
valproic acid
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Valspodar
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
vecuronium
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
venlafaxine
verapamil
vinblastine
vincristine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
vitamin e
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
voriconazole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available PW
warfarin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
XR9051
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
yohimbine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available PW
zidovudine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Zosuquidar

Curated Information ?

Evidence Disease
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
acute cellular rejection
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Acute coronary syndrome
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Adrenocortical Carcinoma
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Alzheimer Disease
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Angina Pectoris
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Arthritis, Rheumatoid
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Autistic Disorder
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
bioavailability
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Breast Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Carcinoma, Renal Cell
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Colitis, Ulcerative
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Colonic Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Colorectal Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Coronary Artery Disease
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Coronary Disease
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
creatine kinase
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Dementia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Depression
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Depressive Disorder
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Depressive Disorder, Major
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Diarrhea
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Drug Hypersensitivity
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Drug Resistance
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Drug Toxicity
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
drug-induced liver injury
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Epilepsies, Partial
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Epilepsy
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Epilepsy, Generalized
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Esophageal Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
event-free survival
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Fractures, Bone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Gastroesophageal Reflux
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Gingival Hyperplasia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
hand-foot syndrome
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Head and Neck Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Heart Failure
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Helicobacter Infections
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Heroin Dependence
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
HIV
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
HIV Infections
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Hyperbilirubinemia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Hypercholesterolemia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Hypertension
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Hypokalemia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Hypotension
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Hypotension, Orthostatic
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Influenza, Human
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Kidney Failure, Chronic
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Kidney Transplantation
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Leukopenia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
liver transplantation
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Multiple Myeloma
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Myalgia unspecified
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Myasthenia Gravis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Myocardial Infarction
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Neurotoxicity Syndromes
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Neutropenia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Opioid-Related Disorders
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Organ Transplantation
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Osteonecrosis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Osteosarcoma
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Ovarian Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Pain
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Pain, Postoperative
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Pancreatic Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Psoriasis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Psychotic Disorders
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Respiratory Insufficiency
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Sarcoma
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Schizophrenia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Stomach Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Thrombosis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Toxic liver disease
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
transplant rejection
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Transplantation
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Tuberculosis

Publications related to ABCB1: 525

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Mechanisms and assessment of statin-related muscular adverse effects. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Moßhammer Dirk, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic polymorphisms in candidate genes predict increased toxicity with methotrexate therapy in Lebanese children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2014. Zgheib Nathalie K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Population pharmacokinetic approach to evaluate the effect of CYP2D6, CYP3A, ABCB1, POR and NR1I2 genotypes on donepezil clearance. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Noetzli Muriel, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic variance in ABCB1 and CYP3A5 does not contribute toward the development of chronic kidney disease after liver transplantation. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2014. Tapirdamaz Ozlem, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Intracellular accumulation of atazanavir/ritonavir according to plasma concentrations and OATP1B1, ABCB1 and PXR genetic polymorphisms. The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy. 2014. D'Avolio Antonio, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Calcineurin inhibitors and hypertension: a role for pharmacogenetics?. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Moes Arthur D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Development of a broad-based ADME panel for use in pharmacogenomic studies. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Brown Andrew Mk, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Expression and activity of ABCG2, but not ABCB1 or OATP1B1, are associated with cholesterol levels: evidence from in vitro and in vivo experiments. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. To Kenneth Kw, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Influence of donor-recipient CYP3A4/5 genotypes, age and fluconazole on tacrolimus pharmacokinetics in pediatric liver transplantation: a population approach. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Guy-Viterbo Vanessa, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Polymorphisms of the vincristine pathway and response to treatment in children with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Ceppi Francesco, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
A pharmacogenetic study of ABCB1 polymorphisms and cyclosporine treatment response in patients with psoriasis in the Greek population. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2014. Vasilopoulos Y, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic factors affecting statin concentrations and subsequent myopathy: a HuGENet systematic review. Genetics in medicine : official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics. 2014. Canestaro William J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PharmGKB summary: tramadol pathway. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2014. Gong Li, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics of drug-induced birth defects: the role of polymorphisms of placental transporter proteins. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Daud Aizati Na, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Clinical implementation of pharmacogenetics in kidney transplantation: calcineurin inhibitors in the starting blocks. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Elens Laure, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetics of platelet inhibitor treatment. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Trenk Dietmar, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Cytochrome P450 Gene Variants, Race, and Mortality Among Clopidogrel Treated Patients Following Acute Myocardial Infarction. Circulation. Cardiovascular genetics. 2014. Cresci Sharon, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MDR1 gene polymorphisms and imatinib response in chronic myeloid leukemia: a meta-analysis. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Zu Bailing, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Interaction of the Efflux Transporters ABCB1 and ABCG2 With Imatinib, Nilotinib, and Dasatinib. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2014. Eadie L N, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic polymorphisms of SLC28A3, SLC29A1 and RRM1 predict clinical outcome in patients with metastatic breast cancer receiving gemcitabine plus paclitaxel chemotherapy. European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990). 2014. Lee Soo-Youn, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association between statin-induced creatine kinase elevation and genetic polymorphisms in SLCO1B1, ABCB1 and ABCG2. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Ferrari Marco, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
A logistic equation to determine the validity of tramadol from related gene polymorphisms and psychological factors. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Zhao Qin, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
The impact of genetic polymorphisms on time required to attain the target tacrolimus levels and subsequent pharmacodynamic outcomes in pediatric kidney transplant patients. Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation : an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia. 2014. Shilbayeh Sireen. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Effect of CYP2D6, CYP2C9 and ABCB1 genotypes on fluoxetine plasma concentrations and clinical improvement in children and adolescent patients. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2014. Gassó P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Relationship of Cyp3a5 Genotype and Abcb1 Diplotype to Tacrolimus Disposition in Brazilian Kidney Transplant Patients. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Cusinato D A C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
The effects of CES1A2 A(-816)C and CYP2C19 loss-of-function polymorphisms on clopidogrel response variability among Chinese patients with coronary heart disease. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2014. Xie Cheng, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
CYP3A5 and CYP3A4, but not ABCB1 polymorphisms affect tacrolimus dose-adjusted trough concentrations in kidney transplant recipients. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Kurzawski Mateusz, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Human pharmacogenomic variation of antihypertensive drugs: from population genetics to personalized medicine. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Polimanti Renato, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Dependence of efavirenz- and rifampicin-isoniazid-based antituberculosis treatment drug-drug interaction on CYP2B6 and NAT2 genetic polymorphisms: ANRS 12154 study in Cambodia. The Journal of infectious diseases. 2014. Bertrand Julie, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacometric characterization of efavirenz developmental pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics in HIV-infected children. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 2014. Salem Ahmed Hamed, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
High interpatient variability of raltegravir CSF concentrations in HIV-positive patients: a pharmacogenetic analysis. The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy. 2014. Calcagno Andrea, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetic-Based Efavirenz Dose Modification: Suggestions for an African Population and the Different CYP2B6 Genotypes. PloS one. 2014. Mukonzo Jackson K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Thymidylate synthase genotype-directed chemotherapy for patients with gastric and gastroesophageal junction cancers. PloS one. 2014. Goff Laura W, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Significance of MDR1 gene polymorphism C3435T in predicting drug response in epilepsy. Epilepsy research. 2013. Shaheen Uzma, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Routine assessment of on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity and gene polymorphisms in predicting clinical outcome following drug-eluting stent implantation in patients with stable coronary artery disease. JACC. Cardiovascular interventions. 2013. Viviani Anselmi Chiara, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Influence of ABCB1 and CYP3A5 genetic polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of quetiapine in healthy volunteers. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. Kim Kyoung-Ah, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
ABCB6, ABCB1 and ABCG1 genetic polymorphisms and antidepressant response of SSRIs in Chinese depressive patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Huang Xiaoye, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetic determinants associated with sunitinib-induced toxicity and ethnic difference in Korean metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients. Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology. 2013. Kim Hye Ryun, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Personalized Tacrolimus Doses Determined by CYP3A5 Genotype for Induction and Maintenance Phases of Kidney Transplantation. Clinical therapeutics. 2013. Vannaprasaht Suda, et al. PubMed
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ABCB1 (MDR1) polymorphisms and ovarian cancer progression and survival: a comprehensive analysis from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium and The Cancer Genome Atlas. Gynecologic oncology. 2013. Johnatty Sharon E, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of ABC and SLC transporters in metastatic colorectal cancer patients receiving first-line FOLFIRI treatment. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. De Mattia Elena, et al. PubMed
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Genetic variants of drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporter (ABCB1) as possible biomarkers for adverse drug reactions in an HIV/AIDS cohort in Zimbabwe. Current HIV research. 2013. Dhoro Milcah, et al. PubMed
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Pharmaceutical and genetic determinants for interindividual differences of tacrolimus bioavailability in renal transplant recipients. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Niioka Takenori, et al. PubMed
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CYP2D6 poor metabolizer status might be associated with better response to risperidone treatment. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. Almoguera Berta, et al. PubMed
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Irreversible hepatotoxicity after administration of trabectedin to a pleiomorphic sarcoma patient with a rare ABCC2 polymorphism: a case report. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Laurenty Anne-Pascale, et al. PubMed
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Levofloxacin-induced seizures in a patient without predisposing risk factors: the impact of pharmacogenetics. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Gervasoni Cristina, et al. PubMed
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ABCB1 and ABCC1 variants associated with virological failure of first-line protease inhibitors antiretroviral regimens in Northeast Brazil patients. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Coelho Antonio V C, et al. PubMed
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Functional G1199A ABCB1 Polymorphism May Have an Effect on Cyclosporine Blood Concentration in Renal Transplanted Patients. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Mostafa-Hedeab Gomaa, et al. PubMed
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Impact of donor and recipient CYP3A5 and ABCB1 genetic polymorphisms on tacrolimus dosage requirements and rejection in Caucasian Spanish liver transplant patients. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Gómez-Bravo Miguel Angel, et al. PubMed
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Conversion from prograf to advagraf in adolescents with stable liver transplants: Comparative pharmacokinetics and 1-year follow-up. Liver transplantation : official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society. 2013. Carcas-Sansuán Antonio J, et al. PubMed
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Genetic determinants of high on-treatment platelet reactivity in clopidogrel treated Chinese patients. Thrombosis research. 2013. Zhang Lanning, et al. PubMed
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Association between CYP2B6 polymorphisms and Nevirapine-induced SJS/TEN: a pharmacogenetics study. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Ciccacci Cinzia, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic study on risperidone long-acting injection: influence of cytochrome P450 2D6 and pregnane X receptor on risperidone exposure and drug-induced side-effects. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. 2013. Choong Eva, et al. PubMed
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ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (1236C>T, 2677G>T, and 3435C>T) do not affect transport activity of human P-glycoprotein. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. Dickens David, et al. PubMed
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Association of ABCB1 genetic polymorphisms with susceptibility to colorectal cancer and therapeutic prognosis. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Wu Huizhe, et al. PubMed
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Challenges in pharmacogenetics. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Cascorbi Ingolf, et al. PubMed
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Association of OPRM1 and COMT single-nucleotide polymorphisms with hospital length of stay and treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. 2013. Wachman Elisha M, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics in major depression: a comprehensive meta-analysis. Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry. 2013. Niitsu Tomihisa, et al. PubMed
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Emerging Transporters of Clinical Importance: An Update from the International Transporter Consortium. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2013. Hillgren Kathleen M, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 genotype has a major influence on labetalol pharmacokinetics in healthy male Chinese subjects. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Chan Sze Wa, et al. PubMed
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Association of ATP-binding cassette transporter variants with the risk of Alzheimer's disease. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Cascorbi Ingolf, et al. PubMed
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The expression profile of ATP-binding cassette transporter genes in breast carcinoma. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Hlaváč Viktor, et al. PubMed
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Relationship of CYP2D6, CYP3A, POR, and ABCB1 genotypes with galantamine plasma concentrations. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2013. Noetzli Muriel, et al. PubMed
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Impact of OATP1B1, MDR1, and CYP3A4 Expression in Liver and Intestine on Interpatient Pharmacokinetic Variability of Atorvastatin in Obese Subjects. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2013. Ulvestad M, et al. PubMed
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ABCB1 polymorphisms are associated with cyclosporine-induced nephrotoxicity and gingival hyperplasia in renal transplant recipients. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. García Montserrat, et al. PubMed
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Influence of the CYP2B6 polymorphism on the pharmacokinetics of mitotane. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. D'Avolio Antonio, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs in rheumatoid arthritis: towards personalized medicine. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Umićević Mirkov Maša, et al. PubMed
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Spaced administration of PA32540 and clopidogrel results in greater platelet inhibition than synchronous administration of enteric-coated aspirin and enteric-coated omeprazole and clopidogrel. American heart journal. 2013. Gurbel Paul A, et al. PubMed
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Mutational analysis clopidogrel resistance and platelet function in patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting. Genomics. 2013. Correll Mick, et al. PubMed
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Association between imatinib transporters and metabolizing enzymes genotype and response in newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia patients receiving imatinib therapy. Haematologica. 2013. Angelini Sabrina, et al. PubMed
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Do drug transporter (ABCB1) SNPs and P-glycoprotein function influence cyclosporine and macrolides exposure in renal transplant patients? Results of the pharmacogenomic substudy within the symphony study. Transplant international : official journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation. 2013. Llaudó Inés, et al. PubMed
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Prediction of the tacrolimus population pharmacokinetic parameters according to CYP3A5 genotype and clinical factors using NONMEM in adult kidney transplant recipients. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Han Nayoung, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and MDR-1 polymorphisms on tacrolimus pharmacokinetics and early renal dysfunction in liver transplant recipients. Gene. 2013. Shi Yunying, et al. PubMed
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Association of carbamazepine major metabolism and transport pathway gene polymorphisms and pharmacokinetics in patients with epilepsy. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Puranik Yogita Ghodke, et al. PubMed
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Idarubicin is superior to daunorubicin in remission induction of de novo acute myeloid leukemia patients with high MDR1 expression. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Shi Pengcheng, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of clinical response to risperidone. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Llerena Adrián, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics as a risk mitigation strategy for chemotherapeutic cardiotoxicity. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Jensen Brian C, et al. PubMed
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Cardiovascular risk among patients on clopidogrel anti-platelet therapy after placement of drug-eluting stents is modified by genetic variants in both the CYP2C19 and ABCB1 genes. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2013. Carlquist J F, et al. PubMed
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Influence of efavirenz pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics on neuropsychological disorders in Ugandan HIV-positive patients with or without tuberculosis: a prospective cohort study. BMC infectious diseases. 2013. Mukonzo Jackson K, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics of acute lymphoid leukemia: new insights into treatment toxicity and efficacy. Hematology / the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology. American Society of Hematology. Education Program. 2013. Relling Mary V, et al. PubMed
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Life-threatening adverse events following therapeutic opioid administration in adults: is pharmacogenetic analysis useful?. Pain research & management : the journal of the Canadian Pain Society = journal de la société canadienne pour le traitement de la douleur. 2013. Madadi Parvaz, et al. PubMed
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Association of CYP3A4/5, ABCB1 and ABCC2 polymorphisms and clinical outcomes of Thai breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen. Pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine. 2013. Sensorn Insee, et al. PubMed
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ABCB1 variation and treatment response in AIDS patients: initial results of the Henan cohort. PloS one. 2013. Zhu Peng, et al. PubMed
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Association of polymorphisms in pharmacogenetic candidate genes (OPRD1, GAL, ABCB1, OPRM1) with opioid dependence in European population: a case-control study. PloS one. 2013. Beer Beate, et al. PubMed
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Atenolol Induced HDL-C Change in the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses (PEAR) Study. PloS one. 2013. McDonough Caitrin W, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomic update on multiple sclerosis: a focus on actual and new therapeutic strategies. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2012. Foti Cuzzola V, et al. PubMed
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Impact of tacrolimus intraindividual variability and CYP3A5 genetic polymorphism on acute rejection in kidney transplantation. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2012. Ro Han, et al. PubMed
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Genetic differences in Native Americans and tacrolimus dosing after kidney transplantation. Transplantation proceedings. 2013. Chakkera H A, et al. PubMed
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The role of MDR1 C3435T gene polymorphism on gingival hyperplasia in Turkish renal transplant patients treated with cyclosporine in the absence of calcium channel blockers. Transplantation proceedings. 2013. Kazancioglu H O, et al. PubMed
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Effects of curcumin on the pharmacokinetics of talinolol in human with ABCB1 polymorphism. Xenobiotica; the fate of foreign compounds in biological systems. 2012. He X, et al. PubMed
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Effect of the CYP2C19*2 and *3 genotypes, ABCB1 C3435T and PON1 Q192R alleles on the pharmacodynamics and adverse clinical events of clopidogrel in Chinese people after percutaneous coronary intervention. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2012. Tang Xiao-Fang, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic polymorphisms contributing to toxicity induced by methotrexate in the southern Spanish population with rheumatoid arthritis. Omics : a journal of integrative biology. 2012. Plaza-Plaza José Cristian, et al. PubMed
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Associations of ABCB1 and IL-10 genetic polymorphisms with sirolimus-induced dyslipidemia in renal transplant recipients. Transplantation. 2012. Sam Wai-Johnn, et al. PubMed
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Effects of CYP2C19 variant alleles on postclopidogrel platelet reactivity and clinical outcomes in an actual clinical setting in China. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. Wu Hongyi, et al. PubMed
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Value of platelet pharmacogenetics in common clinical practice of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. International journal of cardiology. 2012. Verschuren Jeffrey J W, et al. PubMed
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Association study of 27 annotated genes for clozapine pharmacogenetics: validation of preexisting studies and identification of a new candidate gene, ABCB1, for treatment response. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. 2012. Lee Seung-Tae, et al. PubMed
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The effect of CYP3A5 6986A>G and ABCB1 3435C>T on tacrolimus dose-adjusted trough levels and acute rejection rates in renal transplant patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. Terrazzino Salvatore, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP2B6 and ABCB1 SNPs on nevirapine plasma concentrations in Burundese HIV-positive patients using dried sample spot devices. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2012. Calcagno Andrea, et al. PubMed
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Antipsychotic drug dosage and therapeutic response in schizophrenia is influenced by ABCB1 genotypes: a study from a south Indian perspective. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Vijayan Neetha N, et al. PubMed
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The Dual Role of Pharmacogenetics in HIV Treatment: Mutations and Polymorphisms Regulating Antiretroviral Drug Resistance and Disposition. Pharmacological reviews. 2012. Michaud Veronique, et al. PubMed
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Factors associated with the failure of clopidogrel dose-adjustment according to platelet reactivity monitoring to optimize P2Y12-ADP receptor blockade. Thrombosis research. 2012. Bonello Laurent, et al. PubMed
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ABCC2 Polymorphisms and Haplotype are Associated with Drug Resistance in Chinese Epileptic Patients. CNS neuroscience & therapeutics. 2012. Qu Jian, et al. PubMed
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Clinical and genetic factors affecting tacrolimus trough levels and drug-related outcomes in Korean kidney transplant recipients. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2012. Kim In-Wha, et al. PubMed
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Meta-analysis of contribution of genetic polymorphisms in drug-metabolizing enzymes or transporters to axitinib pharmacokinetics. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2012. Brennan Meghan, et al. PubMed
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Influence of genetic polymorphisms on the effect of high- and standard-dose clopidogrel after percutaneous coronary intervention: the GIFT (Genotype Information and Functional Testing) study. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2012. Price Matthew J, et al. PubMed
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The new CYP3A4 intron 6 C>T polymorphism (CYP3A4*22) is associated with an increased risk of delayed graft function and worse renal function in cyclosporine-treated kidney transplant patients. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. Elens Laure, et al. PubMed
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ABCB1 gene variants influence tolerance to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in a large sample of Dutch cases with major depressive disorder. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2012. de Klerk O L, et al. PubMed
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Neurological toxicity after phenytoin infusion in a pediatric patient with epilepsy: influence of CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and ABCB1 genetic polymorphisms. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2012. Dorado P, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C8*3 predicts benefit/risk profile in breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant paclitaxel. Breast cancer research and treatment. 2012. Hertz Daniel L, et al. PubMed
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Prediction of codeine toxicity in infants and their mothers using a novel combination of maternal genetic markers. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2012. Sistonen J, et al. PubMed
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Association of ABCB1 polymorphisms with erlotinib pharmacokinetics and toxicity in Japanese patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Hamada Akinobu, et al. PubMed
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Multi-ethnic distribution of clinically relevant CYP2C genotypes and haplotypes. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2012. Martis S, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19*2 and other genetic variants affecting platelet response to clopidogrel in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Thrombosis research. 2012. Kassimis George, et al. PubMed
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Predicting clopidogrel response using DNA samples linked to an electronic health record. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2012. Delaney J T, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphisms are associated with variations in warfarin maintenance dose in Han Chinese patients with venous thromboembolism. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Zhang Wei, et al. PubMed
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Associations Between ABCB1, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2D6, and CYP3A5 Alleles in Relation to Efavirenz and Nevirapine Pharmacokinetics in HIV-Infected Individuals. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2012. Heil Sandra G, et al. PubMed
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Association of polymorphisms in EPHX1, UGT2B7, ABCB1, ABCC2, SCN1A and SCN2A genes with carbamazepine therapy optimization. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Hung Chin-Chuan, et al. PubMed
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Exploration of CYP450 and drug transporter genotypes and correlations with nevirapine exposure in Malawians. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Brown Kevin C, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of toxicity, plasma trough concentration and treatment outcome with nevirapine-containing regimen in anti-retroviral-naïve HIV-infected adults: an exploratory study of the TRIANON ANRS 081 trial. Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology. 2011. Gozalo Claire, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP2B6 and ABCB1 SNPs on Nevirapine Plasma Concentrations in Burundese HIV-positive Patients Using Dried Sample Spot Devices. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2011. Calcagno A, et al. PubMed
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Effect of CYP2C19*2 and *3 loss-of-function alleles on platelet reactivity and adverse clinical events in East Asian acute myocardial infarction survivors treated with clopidogrel and aspirin. Circulation. Cardiovascular interventions. 2011. Jeong Young-Hoon, et al. PubMed
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Association between DNA-repair polymorphisms and survival in pancreatic cancer patients treated with combination chemotherapy. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Giovannetti Elisa, et al. PubMed
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Genetic variants in CYP (-1A2, -2C9, -2C19, -3A4 and -3A5), VKORC1 and ABCB1 genes in a black South African population: a window into diversity. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Dandara Collet, et al. PubMed
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ABCB1 C3435T polymorphism and response to clopidogrel treatment in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients: a meta-analysis. PloS one. 2012. Su Jia, et al. PubMed
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Meta-analysis on pharmacogenetics of platinum-based chemotherapy in non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. PloS one. 2012. Yin Ji-Ye, et al. PubMed
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Paraoxonase-1 is not a major determinant of stent thrombosis in a Taiwanese population. PloS one. 2012. Chen Dong-Yi, et al. PubMed
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SLC22A1-ABCB1 haplotype profiles predict imatinib pharmacokinetics in Asian patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. PloS one. 2012. Singh Onkar, et al. PubMed
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A new functional CYP3A4 intron 6 polymorphism significantly affects tacrolimus pharmacokinetics in kidney transplant recipients. Clinical chemistry. 2011. Elens Laure, et al. PubMed
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Impact of genetic polymorphisms in ABCB1, CYP2B6, OPRM1, ANKK1 and DRD2 genes on methadone therapy in Han Chinese patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Hung Chin-Chuan, et al. PubMed
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Effect of paraoxonase-1 polymorphism on clinical outcomes in patients treated with clopidogrel after an acute myocardial infarction. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Simon T, et al. PubMed
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In vitro transport profile of carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, eslicarbazepine acetate, and their active metabolites by human P-glycoprotein. Epilepsia. 2011. Zhang Chunbo, et al. PubMed
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Clinical, angiographic, and genetic factors associated with early coronary stent thrombosis. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. 2011. Cayla Guillaume, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomic Prediction of Anthracycline-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Children. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2011. Visscher Henk, et al. PubMed
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ABCB1 polymorphisms and neuropsychiatric adverse events in oseltamivir-treated children during influenza H1N1/09 pandemia. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. L'Huillier Arnaud G, et al. PubMed
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Impact on response and survival of DNA repair single nucleotide polymorphisms in relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma patients treated with thalidomide. Leukemia research. 2011. Cibeira María Teresa, et al. PubMed
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Impact of genetic variants on post-clopidogrel platelet reactivity in patients after elective percutaneous coronary intervention. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Rideg Orsolya, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of calcineurin inhibitors in Brazilian renal transplant patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Santoro Ana, et al. PubMed
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The P450 oxidoreductase *28 SNP is associated with low initial tacrolimus exposure and increased dose requirements in CYP3A5-expressing renal recipients. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. de Jonge Hylke, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphisms and the impact of a higher clopidogrel dose regimen on active metabolite exposure and antiplatelet response in healthy subjects. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Simon T, et al. PubMed
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Impact of interleukin-10 gene polymorphisms on tacrolimus dosing requirements in Chinese liver transplant patients during the early posttransplantation period. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2011. Zhang Xiaoqing, et al. PubMed
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Mycophenolic acid-related diarrhea is not associated with polymorphisms in SLCO1B nor with ABCB1 in renal transplant recipients. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Bouamar Rachida, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic testing to predict antipsychotic-induced weight gain: a systematic review. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Risselada Arne J, et al. PubMed
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High plasma efavirenz level and CYP2B6*6 are associated with efavirenz-based HAART-induced liver injury in the treatment of naïve HIV patients from Ethiopia: a prospective cohort study. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2011. Yimer G, et al. PubMed
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Retrospective study of the impact of pharmacogenetic variants on paclitaxel toxicity and survival in patients with ovarian cancer. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2011. Bergmann Troels K, et al. PubMed
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Transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Müller Fabian, et al. PubMed
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C3435T polymorphism of the ABCB1 gene: impact on genetic susceptibility to peptic ulcers. Pharmacological reports : PR. 2011. Sa¿agacka Aleksandra, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomic association study on the role of drug metabolizing, drug transporters and drug target gene polymorphisms in drug-resistant epilepsy in a north Indian population. Indian journal of human genetics. 2011. Kumari Ritu, et al. PubMed
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Association of ABCB1 gene polymorphisms and their haplotypes with response to antiepileptic drugs: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Haerian Batoul Sadat, et al. PubMed
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An update on ABCB1 pharmacogenetics: insights from a 3D model into the location and evolutionary conservation of residues corresponding to SNPs associated with drug pharmacokinetics. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2011. Wolf S J, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics: the genetics of variable drug responses. Circulation. 2011. Roden Dan M, et al. PubMed
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Perspectives on Epigenetics and Its Relevance to Adverse Drug Reactions. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Kacevska M, et al. PubMed
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ABCB1 gene polymorphisms are associated with the severity of major depressive disorder and its response to escitalopram treatment. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Lin Keh-Ming, et al. PubMed
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ABCB1 Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms Determine Tacrolimus Response in Patients With Ulcerative Colitis. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Herrlinger K R, et al. PubMed
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Drug Interactions Between the Immunosuppressant Tacrolimus and the Cholesterol Absorption Inhibitor Ezetimibe in Healthy Volunteers. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Oswald S, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics of the RNA world: structural RNA polymorphisms in drug therapy. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Sadee W, et al. PubMed
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Lack of Association of OPRM1 and ABCB1 Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms to Oxycodone Response in Postoperative Pain. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2011. Zwisler Stine T, et al. PubMed
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Very important pharmacogene summary: ABCB1 (MDR1, P-glycoprotein). Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Hodges Laura M, et al. PubMed
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Central neurotoxicity in cancer chemotherapy: pharmacogenetic insights. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Froklage Femke Eam, et al. PubMed
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Clinical and genetic correlates of suicidal ideation during antidepressant treatment in a depressed outpatient sample. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Perroud Nader, et al. PubMed
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Identification of CYP2C19*4B: pharmacogenetic implications for drug metabolism including clopidogrel responsiveness. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2011. Scott S A, et al. PubMed
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Global patterns of genetic diversity and signals of natural selection for human ADME genes. Human molecular genetics. 2011. Li Jing, et al. PubMed
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Impact of ABCB1 C3435T polymorphism on lymph node regression in multimodality treatment of locally advanced esophageal cancer. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Narumiya Kosuke, et al. PubMed
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Association study of MDR1 and 5-HT2C genetic polymorphisms and antipsychotic-induced metabolic disturbances in female patients with schizophrenia. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2011. Kuzman M R, et al. PubMed
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Prediction of irinotecan and 5-fluorouracil toxicity and response in patients with advanced colorectal cancer. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2011. Glimelius B, et al. PubMed
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Novel polymorphisms associated with tacrolimus trough concentrations: results from a multicenter kidney transplant consortium. Transplantation. 2011. Jacobson Pamala A, et al. PubMed
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Polymorphisms of GSTP1 is associated with differences of chemotherapy response and toxicity in breast cancer. Chinese medical journal. 2011. Zhang Bai-Lin, et al. PubMed
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Association of pharmacogenetic markers with premature discontinuation of first-line anti-HIV therapy: an observational cohort study. The Journal of infectious diseases. 2011. Lubomirov Rubin, et al. PubMed
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Breaking Barriers in the Genomics and Pharmacogenetics of Drug Addiction. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Ho M K, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C9*3 alleles are associated with stent thrombosis: a case-control study. European heart journal. 2010. Harmsze Ankie M, et al. PubMed
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The C3435T polymorphism in ABCB1 influences atorvastatin efficacy and muscle symptoms in a high-risk vascular cohort. Journal of clinical lipidology. 2011. Hoenig Michel R, et al. PubMed
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MDR1 polymorphism role in patients treated with cetuximab and irinotecan in irinotecan refractory colorectal cancer. Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England). 2010. Paule Bernard, et al. PubMed
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ABCB1 gene polymorphisms are associated with adverse reactions in fluoropyrimidine-treated colorectal cancer patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Gonzalez-Haba Eva, et al. PubMed
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SLCO1B1 genetic polymorphism influences mycophenolic acid tolerance in renal transplant recipients. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Michelon Hugues, et al. PubMed
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Xenobiotic metabolizing and transporter genes: gene-gene interactions in schizophrenia and related disorders. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Gassó Patricia, et al. PubMed
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Pharmocoepigenetics: a new approach to predicting individual drug responses and targeting new drugs. Pharmacological reports : PR. 2011. Baer-Dubowska Wanda, et al. PubMed
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Effect of ABCB1 and ABCC3 polymorphisms on osteosarcoma survival after chemotherapy: a pharmacogenetic study. PloS one. 2011. Caronia Daniela, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic & pharmacokinetic biomarker for efavirenz based ARV and rifampicin based anti-TB drug induced liver injury in TB-HIV infected patients. PloS one. 2011. Yimer Getnet, et al. PubMed
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Intuitive pharmacogenetics: spontaneous risperidone dosage is related to CYP2D6, CYP3A5 and ABCB1 genotypes. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Mas S, et al. PubMed
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The temporal relationship between ABCB1 promoter hypomethylation, ABCB1 expression and acquisition of drug resistance. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Reed K, et al. PubMed
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CYP3A5 *1 allele: impacts on early acute rejection and graft function in tacrolimus-based renal transplant recipients. Transplantation. 2010. Min Sang-Il, et al. PubMed
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Modulation of drug block of the cardiac potassium channel KCNA5 by the drug transporters OCTN1 and MDR1. British journal of pharmacology. 2010. Yang Tao, et al. PubMed
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Long-term efavirenz autoinduction and its effect on plasma exposure in HIV patients. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Ngaimisi E, et al. PubMed
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The impact of thyroid disease on the regulation, expression, and function of ABCB1 (MDR1/P glycoprotein) and consequences for the disposition of digoxin. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Burk O, et al. PubMed
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Doxorubicin pathways: pharmacodynamics and adverse effects. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Thorn Caroline F, et al. PubMed
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Induction of CYP3A4 by vinblastine: Role of the nuclear receptor NR1I2. The Annals of pharmacotherapy. 2010. Smith Nicola F, et al. PubMed
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Characterization of 107 genomic DNA reference materials for CYP2D6, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, VKORC1, and UGT1A1: a GeT-RM and Association for Molecular Pathology collaborative project. The Journal of molecular diagnostics : JMD. 2010. Pratt Victoria M, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP3A5 and MDR1(ABCB1) polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus in Chinese renal transplant recipients. Transplantation proceedings. 2010. Rong G, et al. PubMed
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Association of ABCB1 polymorphisms with the efficacy of ondansetron for postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anaesthesia. 2010. Choi E M, et al. PubMed
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No evidence for induction of ABC transporters in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in humans after 14 days of efavirenz treatment. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 2010. Burhenne Jürgen, et al. PubMed
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Population Pharmacokinetic modelling of the association between 63396C->T Pregnane-X-Receptor (PXR) polymorphism and unboosted atazanavir clearance. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 2010. Schipani Alessandro, et al. PubMed
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Distribution of TYMS, MTHFR, p53 and MDR1 gene polymorphisms in patients with breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Cancer epidemiology. 2010. Henríquez-Hernández Luis Alberto, et al. PubMed
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Clopidogrel and the reduced-function CYP2C19 genetic variant: a limited piece of the overall therapeutic puzzle. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. 2010. Fuster Valentin, et al. PubMed
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Effect of CYP2C19 and ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms on outcomes of treatment with ticagrelor versus clopidogrel for acute coronary syndromes: a genetic substudy of the PLATO trial. Lancet. 2010. Wallentin Lars, et al. PubMed
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Genetic variants in ABCB1 and CYP2C19 and cardiovascular outcomes after treatment with clopidogrel and prasugrel in the TRITON-TIMI 38 trial: a pharmacogenetic analysis. Lancet. 2010. Mega Jessica L, et al. PubMed
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Deciphering calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity: a pharmacological approach. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Pallet Nicolas, et al. PubMed
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Transporter hypothesis of drug-resistant epilepsy: challenges for pharmacogenetic approaches. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Potschka Heidrun. PubMed
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Using genetic and clinical factors to predict tacrolimus dose in renal transplant recipients. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Wang Ping, et al. PubMed
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Association of ABCB1 polymorphisms with survival and in vitro cytotoxicty in de novo acute myeloid leukemia with normal karyotype. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Gréen H, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of risperidone therapy in autism: association analysis of eight candidate genes with drug efficacy and adverse drug reactions. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Correia C T, et al. PubMed
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CYP2B6 polymorphism and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor plasma concentrations in Chinese HIV-infected patients. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2010. Chen Jun, et al. PubMed
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Absence of a general association between ABCB1 genetic variants and response to antiepileptic drugs in epilepsy patients. Biochimie. 2010. Grover Sandeep, et al. PubMed
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PXR-mediated induction of P-glycoprotein by anticancer drugs in a human colon adenocarcinoma-derived cell line. Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology. 2010. Harmsen Stefan, et al. PubMed
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Influence of host genetic factors on efavirenz plasma and intracellular pharmacokinetics in HIV-1-infected patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Elens Laure, et al. PubMed
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Effect of CYP2B6, ABCB1, and CYP3A5 polymorphisms on efavirenz pharmacokinetics and treatment response: an AIDS Clinical Trials Group study. The Journal of infectious diseases. 2010. Ribaudo Heather J, et al. PubMed
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The antinociceptive effect and adverse drug reactions of oxycodone in human experimental pain in relation to genetic variations in the OPRM1 and ABCB1 genes. Fundamental & clinical pharmacology. 2010. Zwisler Stine T, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic interactions between ABCB1 and SLCO1B1 tagging SNPs and the effectiveness of statins in the prevention of myocardial infarction. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Peters Bas J M, et al. PubMed
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Tacrolimus dose requirements and CYP3A5 genotype and the development of calcineurin inhibitor-associated nephrotoxicity in renal allograft recipients. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2010. Kuypers Dirk R J, et al. PubMed
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Genetic factors influencing severe atazanavir-associated hyperbilirubinemia in a population with low UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1*28 allele frequency. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 2010. Park Wan Beom, et al. PubMed
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Donor P-gp polymorphisms strongly influence renal function and graft loss in a cohort of renal transplant recipients on cyclosporine therapy in a long-term follow-up. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Woillard J-B, et al. PubMed
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Prediction of adverse drug reactions using decision tree modeling. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Hammann F, et al. PubMed
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Carriage of cytochrome 2C19 polymorphism is associated with risk of high post-treatment platelet reactivity on high maintenance-dose clopidogrel of 150 mg/day: results of the ACCEL-DOUBLE (Accelerated Platelet Inhibition by a Double Dose of Clopidogrel According to Gene Polymorphism) study. JACC. Cardiovascular interventions. 2010. Jeong Young-Hoon, et al. PubMed
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Genetic profile of patients with epilepsy on first-line antiepileptic drugs and potential directions for personalized treatment. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Grover Sandeep, et al. PubMed
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Dosing tacrolimus based on CYP3A5 genotype: will it improve clinical outcome?. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. van Gelder T, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between the immunosuppressant sirolimus and the lipid-lowering drug ezetimibe in healthy volunteers. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Oswald S, et al. PubMed
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Polymorphisms within the folate pathway predict folate concentrations but are not associated with disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis patients on methotrexate. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Stamp Lisa K, et al. PubMed
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Drug transporter pharmacogenetics in nucleoside-based therapies. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Errasti-Murugarren Ekaitz, et al. PubMed
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Use of pharmacogenetics to optimize immunosuppressive therapy. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2010. Macphee Iain A M. PubMed
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A Phenotype-Genotype Approach to Predicting CYP450 and P-Glycoprotein Drug Interactions With the Mixed Inhibitor/Inducer Tipranavir/Ritonavir. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Dumond J B, et al. PubMed
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Tacrolimus nephrotoxicity: beware of the association of diarrhea, drug interaction and pharmacogenetics. Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany). 2010. Leroy Sandrine, et al. PubMed
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Influence of genetic variation in CYP3A4 and ABCB1 on dose decrease or switching during simvastatin and atorvastatin therapy. Pharmacoepidemiology and drug safety. 2010. Becker Matthijs L, et al. PubMed
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CYP3A5 and ABCB1 polymorphisms influence tacrolimus concentrations in peripheral blood mononuclear cells after renal transplantation. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Capron Arnaud, et al. PubMed
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Role of human placental apical membrane transporters in the efflux of glyburide, rosiglitazone, and metformin. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology. 2010. Hemauer Sarah J, et al. PubMed
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Effect of CYP3A and ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of calcineurin inhibitors: Part II. Clinical pharmacokinetics. 2010. Staatz Christine E, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics of membrane transporters: past, present and future. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Yee Sook Wah, et al. PubMed
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Tumor response is predicted by patient genetic profile in rectal cancer patients treated with neo-adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Cecchin E, et al. PubMed
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MDR1 3435T and 1236T alleles delay disease progression to pediatric AIDS but have no effect on HIV-1 vertical transmission. AIDS (London, England). 2010. Bellusci Carolina P, et al. PubMed
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Influence of pharmacogenetics on response and toxicity in breast cancer patients treated with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide. British journal of cancer. 2010. Bray J, et al. PubMed
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Effect of CYP3A and ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of calcineurin inhibitors: Part I. Clinical pharmacokinetics. 2010. Staatz Christine E, et al. PubMed
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Association of MDR1 and ERCC1 polymorphisms with response and toxicity to cisplatin-based chemotherapy in non-small-cell lung cancer patients. International journal of hygiene and environmental health. 2010. Chen Songjian, et al. PubMed
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Significant effect of polymorphisms in CYP2D6 and ABCC2 on clinical outcomes of adjuvant tamoxifen therapy for breast cancer patients. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2010. Kiyotani Kazuma, et al. PubMed
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Polymorphisms in cytochromes P450 2C8 and 3A5 are associated with paclitaxel neurotoxicity. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Leskelä S, et al. PubMed
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Polymorphisms in genes involved in vincristine pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics are not related to impaired motor performance in children with leukemia. Leukemia research. 2010. Hartman A, et al. PubMed
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ABC transporters in cancer: more than just drug efflux pumps. Nature reviews. Cancer. 2010. Fletcher Jamie I, et al. PubMed
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Functional polymorphisms and methotrexate treatment outcome in recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Kooloos Wouter M, et al. PubMed
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Update on the clinical pharmacogenomics of organ transplantation. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Burckart Gilbert J, et al. PubMed
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MDR1 (C3435T) polymorphism: relation to the risk of breast cancer and therapeutic outcome. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Cizmarikova M, et al. PubMed
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Low N-acetyltransferase 2 activity in isoniazid-associated acute hepatitis requiring liver transplantation. Transplant international : official journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation. 2010. Cramer Jakob P, et al. PubMed
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Transporter pharmacogenetics and statin toxicity. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Niemi M. PubMed
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Nevirapine-induced hepatotoxicity and pharmacogenetics: a retrospective study in a population from Mozambique. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Ciccacci Cinzia, et al. PubMed
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Genetic influences on the pharmacokinetics of orally and intravenously administered digoxin as exhibited by monozygotic twins. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Birkenfeld A L, et al. PubMed
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Population pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics of tacrolimus in de novo pediatric kidney transplant recipients. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Zhao W, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and ABCB1 genotype and hospitalization for phenytoin toxicity. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2009. Hennessy Sean, et al. PubMed
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Taxane Pathway. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2009. Oshiro Connie, et al. PubMed
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Decreased sigmoidal ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein) expression in ulcerative colitis is associated with disease activity. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Ufer Mike, et al. PubMed
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Leveraging learning from a phase III colorectal cancer clinical trial: outcomes, methodology, meta-analysis and pharmacogenetics. Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association. 2010. Goldberg Richard M, et al.