Gene:
BRCA1
breast cancer 1, early onset

On ACMG incidental findings list

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PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

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The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

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This is a non-comprehensive list of genetic tests with pharmacogenetics relevance, typically submitted by the manufacturer and manually curated by PharmGKB. The information listed is provided for educational purposes only and does not constitute an endorsement of any listed test or manufacturer.

A more complete listing of genetic tests is found at the Genetic Testing Registry (GTR).

PGx Test Variants Assayed Related Drugs?

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page on the appropriate tab.

Links in the "Drugs" column lead to PharmGKB Drug Pages.

Variant?
(138)
Alternate Names / Tag SNPs ? Drugs ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
VIP No Clinical Annotations available No Variant Annotations available
chr17:41276046
VIP No Clinical Annotations available No Variant Annotations available
chr17:41209080
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 138

Overview

Alternate Names:  BRCA1/BRCA2-containing complex, subunit 1; protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 53
Alternate Symbols:  BRCC1; PPP1R53; RNF53
PharmGKB Accession Id: PA25411

Details

Cytogenetic Location: chr17 : q21.31 - q21.31
GP mRNA Boundary: chr17 : 41196312 - 41277500
GP Gene Boundary: chr17 : 41193312 - 41287500
Strand: minus
The mRNA boundaries are calculated using the gene's default feature set from NCBI, mapped onto the UCSC Golden Path. PharmGKB sets gene boundaries by expanding the mRNA boundaries by no less than 10,000 bases upstream (5') and 3,000 bases downstream (3') to allow for potential regulatory regions.

BRCA1 is a tumor suppressor gene that was originally identified due to its linkage with breast cancer [Article:7545954], but is expressed in a variety of tissues [Article:16445371]. Many alternative splice forms have been identified, but only a few have been shown to be expressed. Alternative splicing may alter subcellular localization of the protein and possibly its ability to interact with other proteins [Articles:7545954, 16445371]. BRCA1 interacts with many different proteins to form multisubunit complexes that are involved in a host of cellular processes, however, the details of BRCA1 function have yet to be fully elucidated (reviewed in [Article:16445371]).

Mutations in BRCA1 have been shown to be associated with several types of cancer, most notably familial forms of breast cancer and ovarian cancer. One study showed 16 of 37 families at high risk for breast or breast and ovarian cancer have mutations in BRCA1 [Article:8533757]. Other studies of individuals with breast and/or ovarian cancer or at high risk for such cancers have shown that 9%-13% have deleterious mutations in BRCA1 [Articles:11896095, 9333265]. In addition, the presence of mutations in BRCA1 is associated with an increased risk for male breast cancer [Articles:11896095, 12237282]. Results are conflicting as to whether BRCA1 mutations confer an increased risk for prostate cancer [Articles:12237281, 12237282]. Mutation of BRCA1 is also associated with increased risk for pancreatic, uterine, cervical, colon, stomach, and fallopian tube cancers [Articles:12237281, 12237282]. For carriers of BRCA1 mutations, the risk of developing breast cancer by age 70 has been suggested to be between 56% and 90% [Articles:7825587, 12237282, 8460634, 9145676]. The risk of ovarian cancer by age 70 in BRCA1 mutation carriers has been suggested to be between 16% and 63% [Articles:9145676, 7825587, 12237282].

The Breast Cancer Mutation Database includes over 1700 different mutations that have been identified in BRCA1. Mutations in BRCA1 are generally classified as being deleterious (i.e. associated with cancer), neutral, or unclassified [Article:15254424]. Over 30% of the mutations in the Breast Cancer Mutation Database are missense mutations, many of which have been reported only once. These mutations prove difficult in risk assessment. The only potential regulatory mutations that have been identified are truncating mutations that cause nonsense-mediated RNA degradation [Article:15254424]. Altered promoter methylation has also been noted [Articles:11034065, 10208417]. Promoter methylation could silence gene expression and explain why loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in sporadic breast cancer is often not accompanied by mutation of the remaining allele [Article:10208417]. Mutations have also been found at every splice site in the gene. However, most mutations that have been documented are insertions, deletions, or nonsense mutations that lead to premature truncation of the protein [Article:15254424]. In one study, 86% of BRCA1 mutations found were predicted to produce a truncated protein [Article:7837387]. 185delAG and 5382insC are by far the most-widely studied mutations and are described as 'founder' mutations in the Ashkenazi Jew population (see variant pages for details). Clinical testing for BRCA1 mutations, either entire gene sequencing, or detection of founder mutations, is currently available.

In patients with BRCA1 mutations, treatment with tamoxifen appears to reduce the risk of contralateral breast cancer development [Articles:15197194, 11130383, 16331614, 16636335].

Haplotypes
Several haplotype analyses of BRCA1 mutations have been reported [Articles:12466288, 9333265, 15829246] PA150481229. These studies show that despite the large number of mutations identified thus far for BRCA1, most individuals can be segregated into a fairly small number of haplotypes. One analysis found four of ten haplotypes were present in all of the populations they studied (Asian-American, African-American, European-American, and Hispanic-American), and these four haplotypes together accounted for the majority of individuals in each population [Article:12466288]. By far the largest haplotype study on BRCA1 is by Judkins et al., from Myriad Genetic Laboratories PA150481229 [Article:15829246]. They analyzed data for 25,000 individuals and identified ten haplotypes based on 14 common biallelic polymorphisms. These ten haplotypes describe 99% of the chromosomes from the 25,000 individuals and fall into two distinct clades. See also [Articles:15829246, 12466288, 9333265] and BRCA1 Haplotypes: http://preview.pharmgkb.org/gene/PA25411#tabview=tab4&subtab=31.

Please Note: The BRCA1 gene is found on the minus chromosomal strand. Please note that for standardization, the PharmGKB presents all allele base pairs on the positive chromosomal strand, therefore the alleles within our variant annotations will differ (in a complementary manner) from those in this VIP summary that are given on the minus strand as reported in the literature.

Citation
M. Whirl-Carrillo, E.M. McDonagh, J. M. Hebert, L. Gong, K. Sangkuhl, C.F. Thorn, R.B. Altman and T.E. Klein. "Pharmacogenomics Knowledge for Personalized Medicine" Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics (2012) 92(4): 414-417. Full text
History

Submitted by Amy Hodge (July 17, 2006)

Variant Summaries chr17:41276046, chr17:41209080
Drugs
Drug (1)
Diseases

Appendix

See also: Breast Cancer Mutation Database http://research.nhgri.nih.gov/bic/

Haplotype Overview

Haplotypes 1-10 are described in [Article:9333265] and #1-#5 in [Article:21191178].
The haplotypes #1-#5 from [Article:21191178] were found in breast cancer patients. The paper also discusses up to 11 un-named haplotypes commonly found in the population. In the table below, the ancestral sequence (as reported in the paper) is used as the reference sequence.

Source: PharmGKB

All alleles in the download file are on the positive chromosomal strand. PharmGKB considers the first haplotype listed in each table as the reference haplotype for that set.

Curated Information ?

Evidence Gene
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
BRCA2

Curated Information ?

Evidence Drug
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
tamoxifen

Curated Information ?

Publications related to BRCA1: 59

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
EZH2 takes the stage when BRCA1 loses. Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.). 2013. Wang Lan, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Emerging landscape of oncogenic signatures across human cancers. Nature genetics. 2013. Ciriello Giovanni, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ACMG recommendations for reporting of incidental findings in clinical exome and genome sequencing. Genetics in medicine : official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics. 2013. Green Robert C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators and Pharmacogenomic Variation in ZNF423 Regulation of BRCA1 Expression: Individualized Breast Cancer Prevention. Cancer discovery. 2013. Ingle James N, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetic tests in cancer chemotherapy: what physicians should know for clinical application. The Journal of pathology. 2011. Lee Soo-Youn, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Trastuzumab and beyond: sequencing cancer genomes and predicting molecular networks. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Roukos D H. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
A large-scale candidate gene approach identifies SNPs in SOD2 and IL13 as predictive markers of response to preoperative chemoradiation in rectal cancer. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Ho-Pun-Cheung A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
BRCA1 185delAG mutant protein, BRAt, up-regulates maspin in ovarian epithelial cells. Gynecologic oncology. 2010. O'Donnell Joshua D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Functional polymorphisms in the BRCA1 promoter influence transcription and are associated with decreased risk for breast cancer in Chinese women. Journal of medical genetics. 2009. Chan K Y-K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Common breast cancer-predisposition alleles are associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. American journal of human genetics. 2008. Antoniou Antonis C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Identification of susceptibility genes for cancer in a genome-wide scan: results from the colon neoplasia sibling study. American journal of human genetics. 2008. Daley Denise, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
RAD51 135G-->C modifies breast cancer risk among BRCA2 mutation carriers: results from a combined analysis of 19 studies. American journal of human genetics. 2007. Antoniou Antonis C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Contribution of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations to inherited ovarian cancer. Human mutation. 2007. Ramus Susan J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Network modeling links breast cancer susceptibility and centrosome dysfunction. Nature genetics. 2007. Pujana Miguel Angel, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Clinical outcomes of breast cancer in carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. The New England journal of medicine. 2007. Rennert Gad, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The CYP1A2 genotype modifies the association between coffee consumption and breast cancer risk among BRCA1 mutation carriers. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology. 2007. Kotsopoulos Joanne, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Evaluation of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation prevalence, risk prediction models and a multistep testing approach in French-Canadian families with high risk of breast and ovarian cancer. Journal of medical genetics. 2007. Simard Jacques, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Prevention of Brca1-mediated mammary tumorigenesis in mice by a progesterone antagonist. Science (New York, N.Y.). 2006. Poole Aleksandra Jovanovic, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The consensus coding sequences of human breast and colorectal cancers. Science (New York, N.Y.). 2006. Sjöblom Tobias, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Total-genome analysis of BRCA1/2-related invasive carcinomas of the breast identifies tumor stroma as potential landscaper for neoplastic initiation. American journal of human genetics. 2006. Weber Frank, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Ten-year multi-institutional results of breast-conserving surgery and radiotherapy in BRCA1/2-associated stage I/II breast cancer. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2006. Pierce Lori J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Tamoxifen and contralateral breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers: an update. International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer. 2006. Gronwald Jacek, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
BRCA1-associated complexes: new targets to overcome breast cancer radiation resistance. Expert review of anticancer therapy. 2006. Chen Xiaowei, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Coffee consumption and breast cancer risk among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer. 2006. Nkondjock André, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Prevalence of BRCA mutations and founder effect in high-risk Hispanic families. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology. 2005. Weitzel Jeffrey N, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Single nucleotide polymorphisms in clinical genetic testing: the characterization of the clinical significance of genetic variants and their application in clinical research for BRCA1. Mutation research. 2005. Judkins Thaddeus, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Genetic epidemiology of BRCA1. Cancer biology & therapy. 2004. Couch Fergus J. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Understanding germ-line mutations in BRCA1. Cancer biology & therapy. 2004. Szabo Csilla I, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Contralateral breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2004. Metcalfe Kelly, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Hereditary breast cancer in Jews. Familial cancer. 2004. Rubinstein Wendy S. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Hereditary ovarian cancer in Ashkenazi Jews. Familial cancer. 2004. Robles-Díaz Luis, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Haplotype and linkage disequilibrium architecture for human cancer-associated genes. Genome research. 2002. Bonnen Penelope E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Cancer Incidence in BRCA1 mutation carriers. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2002. Thompson Deborah, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Cancer risk estimates for BRCA1 mutation carriers identified in a risk evaluation program. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2002. Brose Marcia S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Clinical characteristics of individuals with germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2: analysis of 10,000 individuals. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2002. Frank Thomas S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The frequency of founder mutations in the BRCA1, BRCA2, and APC genes in Australian Ashkenazi Jews: implications for the generality of U.S. population data. Cancer. 2001. Bahar A Y, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Tamoxifen and risk of contralateral breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: a case-control study. Hereditary Breast Cancer Clinical Study Group. Lancet. 2000. Narod S A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
BRCA1 promoter region hypermethylation in ovarian carcinoma: a population-based study. Cancer research. 2000. Baldwin R L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Methylation of the BRCA1 promoter region in sporadic breast and ovarian cancer: correlation with disease characteristics. Oncogene. 1999. Catteau A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
BRCA1 sequence analysis in women at high risk for susceptibility mutations. Risk factor analysis and implications for genetic testing. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. 1997. Shattuck-Eidens D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
BRCA1 sequence variations in 160 individuals referred to a breast/ovarian family cancer clinic. Institut Curie Breast Cancer Group. American journal of human genetics. 1997. Stoppa-Lyonnet D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Population genetics of BRCA1 and BRCA2. American journal of human genetics. 1997. Szabo C I, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
The risk of cancer associated with specific mutations of BRCA1 and BRCA2 among Ashkenazi Jews. The New England journal of medicine. 1997. Struewing J P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The founder mutations 185delAG and 5382insC in BRCA1 and 6174delT in BRCA2 appear in 60% of ovarian cancer and 30% of early-onset breast cancer patients among Ashkenazi women. American journal of human genetics. 1997. Abeliovich D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Frequency of recurrent BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in Ashkenazi Jewish breast cancer families. Nature medicine. 1996. Tonin P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Ashkenazi Jewish population frequencies for common mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. Nature genetics. 1996. Roa B B, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Two distinct origins of a common BRCA1 mutation in breast-ovarian cancer families: a genetic study of 15 185delAG-mutation kindreds. American journal of human genetics. 1996. Berman D B, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Haplotype and phenotype analysis of six recurrent BRCA1 mutations in 61 families: results of an international study. American journal of human genetics. 1996. Neuhausen S L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Novel inherited mutations and variable expressivity of BRCA1 alleles, including the founder mutation 185delAG in Ashkenazi Jewish families. American journal of human genetics. 1995. Friedman L S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The carrier frequency of the BRCA1 185delAG mutation is approximately 1 percent in Ashkenazi Jewish individuals. Nature genetics. 1995. Struewing J P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
BRCA1 mutations in Ashkenazi Jewish women. American journal of human genetics. 1995. Tonin P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Detection of eight BRCA1 mutations in 10 breast/ovarian cancer families, including 1 family with male breast cancer. American journal of human genetics. 1995. Struewing J P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Mutation analysis of the BRCA1 gene in ovarian cancers. Cancer research. 1995. Takahashi H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
A collaborative survey of 80 mutations in the BRCA1 breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene. Implications for presymptomatic testing and screening. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. 1995. Shattuck-Eidens D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Breast and ovarian cancer incidence in BRCA1-mutation carriers. Breast Cancer Linkage Consortium. American journal of human genetics. 1995. Easton D F, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Common origins of BRCA1 mutations in Canadian breast and ovarian cancer families. Nature genetics. 1994. Simard J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
A strong candidate for the breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1. Science (New York, N.Y.). 1994. Miki Y, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Genetic linkage analysis in familial breast and ovarian cancer: results from 214 families. The Breast Cancer Linkage Consortium. American journal of human genetics. 1993. Easton D F, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
http://www.ashg.org/genetics/ashg/ashgmenu.htm. [URL:http://www.ashg.org/genetics/ashg/ashgmenu.htm]