Gene:
ACE
angiotensin I converting enzyme (peptidyl-dipeptidase A) 1

PharmGKB contains no dosing guidelines for this . To report known genotype-based dosing guidelines, or if you are interested in developing guidelines, click here.

PharmGKB contains no drug labels with pharmacogenomic information for this . To report a drug label with PGx, click here.

PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the table.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

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This is a non-comprehensive list of genetic tests with pharmacogenetics relevance, typically submitted by the manufacturer and manually curated by PharmGKB. The information listed is provided for educational purposes only and does not constitute an endorsement of any listed test or manufacturer.

A more complete listing of genetic tests is found at the Genetic Testing Registry (GTR).

PGx Test Variants Assayed Related Drugs?

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page on the appropriate tab.

Links in the "Drugs" column lead to PharmGKB Drug Pages.

Variant?
(138)
Alternate Names / Tag SNPs ? Drugs ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
rs1799752 16457_16458insATACAGTCACTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTGAGACGGAGTCTCGCTCTGTCGCCC, 2306-119_2306-118insATACAGTCACTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTGAGACGGAGTCTCGCTCTGTCGCCC, 26840042_26840043insATACAGTCACTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTGAGACGGAGTCTCGCTCTGTCGCCC, 584-119_584-118insATACAGTCACTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTGAGACGGAGTCTCGCTCTGTCGCCC, 61565890_61565891insATACAGTCACTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTGAGACGGAGTCTCGCTCTGTCGCCC, ACE D/I
- > ATACAGTCACTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTGAGACGGAGTCTCGCTCTGTCGCCC
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs4291 -262T>A, 26828346T>A, 4761T>A, 61554194T>A
T > A
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4292 -115C>T, 26828493C>T, 4908C>T, 61554341C>T
C > T
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4331 14619A>G, 2193A>G, 26838204A>G, 471A>G, 61564052A>G, Ala157=, Ala731=
A > G
Synonymous
Ala157Ala
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4341 16557G>C, 2306-19G>C, 26840142G>C, 584-19G>C, 61565990G>C
G > C
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs4343 16598G>A, 2328G>A, 26840183G>A, 606G>A, 61566031G>A, ACE:2350A>G in exon 17, ACE:Thr202Thr, Thr202=, Thr776=, tag SNP for ACE:I/D
G > A
Synonymous
Thr202Thr
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4344 17291G>A, 2641+231G>A, 26840876G>A, 61566724G>A, 919+231G>A
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4359 1658+512T>C, 22910T>C, 26846495T>C, 3380+512T>C, 61572343T>C
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4363 1847-6G>A, 1970-6G>A, 25059G>A, 26848644G>A, 3692-6G>A, 61574492G>A
G > A
Intronic
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 138

Overview

Alternate Names:  None
Alternate Symbols:  ACE1; CD143
PharmGKB Accession Id: PA139

Details

Cytogenetic Location: chr17 : q23.3 - q23.3
GP mRNA Boundary: chr17 : 61554422 - 61575741
GP Gene Boundary: chr17 : 61544422 - 61578741
Strand: plus
The mRNA boundaries are calculated using the gene's default feature set from NCBI, mapped onto the UCSC Golden Path. PharmGKB sets gene boundaries by expanding the mRNA boundaries by no less than 10,000 bases upstream (5') and 3,000 bases downstream (3') to allow for potential regulatory regions.

Angiotensin Converting Enzyme, ACE, plays an important role in two pathways which contribute to the regulation of blood pressure, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and the kinin-kallikrien cascade. ACE converts the inactive angiotensin I peptide (also known as Ang I or Ang 1-10) to the active angiotensin II (Ang II or Ang 1-8) (see the RAAS-acting drug Pathways). Angiotensin II has a variety of functions including vasoconstriction and stimulating release of aldosterone, that in turn causes resorption of sodium and water from urine and increases blood pressure. (reviewed in [Article:11931993]. ACE also inactivates the vasodilator bradykinin, a component of the kinin-kallikrien cascade, preventing it from stimulating its receptor (BDKRB2) and the subsequent downstream release of nitric oxide, which relaxes vascular smooth muscle and lower blood pressure [Article:12676166]. In addition ACE has also been shown to have a variety of other interesting substrates and interactions including Amyloid Precursor protein, APP, a major component of plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD) [Articles:17504229, 15733091].

ACE is the target of the ACE inhibitor family of drugs making it a potential PD pharmacogene. However, most evidence to date on polymorphisms in ACE have been with respect to their impact on disease and clinical outcomes rather than drug response (described extensively in OMIM 106180 and various reviews including [Articles:17504229, 16690893, 19497121, 19290794]). More than 300 studies have examined over 100 different conditions including cardiovascular disease, renal disease diabetes and AD but only about half of the studies found significant association [Article:17504229]. ACE inhibitors are standard treatment for hypertension, heart failure, and renal disease [Article:19074621] but there is also discussion about potential use for treatment of AD [Article:17362841].

The ACE gene has been resequenced in African-American and European-American individuals from the Coriell DNA repository and 78 variants and 13 haplotypes were identified [Article:10319862]. The most well known variant in the ACE gene is the insertion/deletion in intron 16, ACE:I/D described in more detail later [Articles:1976655, 16690893]. Other SNPs in ACE have been significantly associated with AD, including rs1800764, rs4267385 and rs4291, and are catalogued in an online repository at http://www.alzgene.org [Article:17192785] (Accessed on 9/9/09). Variants rs4290 and rs7213516 in the ACE promoter have been shown to reduce transcription and have been associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes [Article:18946466].

The ACE gene comprises 26 exons that are alternately spliced to give two isoforms. The predominant isoform contains exons 1-12 and 14-26 and when translated results in a 1306 amino acid protein with two zinc binding catalytic domains (N and C terminal sites). It is expressed in many tissues including kidney, intestine and lung in endothelial, epithelial and neuroepithelial cell types [Articles:11931993, 18449520]. This is referred to as somatic ACE or sACE. There is a truncated isoform expressed only in testis, tACE or gACE/germinal ACE, which contains only the C-terminal catalytic site comprised of exons 13-26 [Articles:10319862, 11931993]. One report mentions a third splice variant, that starts at the same place as tACE but extends through several additional exons, however no additional data was found to support this [Article:17504229].

ACE gene product, angiotensin converting enzyme, is predominantly found attached to the plasma membrane (tissue bound ACE). ACE can be released into plasma (soluble ACE); however this form is not considered to catalyze the cleavage of Ang I to Ang II [Articles:9153279, 1510141]. ACE is an M2 zinc metalloprotease and the active sites have the zinc binding motif HEXXH [Article:18449520]. ACE inhibitor drugs were designed using a rational approach but at that time a structure was not available and they were instead designed on the basis of an assumed mechanistic homology with carboxypeptidase A. A 3d structure for tACE (1o8a) was elucidated in 2003 and also with the ACE inhibitor lisinopril bound (1o86) [Article:12540854]. These structures showed than rather than resembling carboxypeptidase A it looked more similar to neurolysin and may allow for structure-based design of more efficient ACE inhibitors with fewer side effects. Many other crystal structures currently are available in the pdb, several co-crystallized with inhibitors (including 1uze, 1uzf, 2iux).

Adverse drug responses (ADRs) to ACE inhibitors include mild side effects such as cough and serious side effects such as angioedema. These ADRs occur at different frequencies in different racial and ethnic groups, with an increased risk for cough in Asians and women and an increased risk for angioedema in black individuals [Article:16679330]. ACE inhibition is also associated with birth defects, particularly cardiovascular and renal abnormalities, and ACE inhibitors are contraindicated for women who are or may become pregnant [Article:19198819]; [Article:16689556].

Citation PharmGKB summary: very important pharmacogene information for angiotensin-converting enzyme. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Thorn Caroline F, Klein Teri E, Altman Russ B. PubMed
History

Submitted by Caroline F. Thorn

Variant Summaries rs1799752
Drugs
Diseases

PharmGKB Curated Pathways

Pathways created internally by PharmGKB based primarily on literature evidence.

  1. ACE Inhibitor Pathway, Pharmacodynamics
    Model, non-tissue-specific cell displaying genes which may be involved in the ACE inhibitor pathway
  1. Agents Acting on the Renin-Angiotensin System Pathway, Pharmacodynamics
    Genes involved in the pharmacodynamics of the drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.

External Pathways

Links to non-PharmGKB pathways.

PharmGKB contains no links to external pathways for this gene. To report a pathway, click here.

Curated Information ?

Evidence Gene
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
KNG1

Curated Information ?

Curated Information ?

Publications related to ACE: 143

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
An atlas of genetic influences on human blood metabolites. Nature genetics. 2014. Shin So-Youn, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association between migraine and ACE gene (insertion/deletion) polymorphism: the BioBIM study. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Palmirotta Raffaele, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Human pharmacogenomic variation of antihypertensive drugs: from population genetics to personalized medicine. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Polimanti Renato, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic Influence on Exercise-Induced Changes in Physical Function among Mobility-Limited Older Adults. Physiological genomics. 2014. Buford Thomas W, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic variation-optimized treatment benefit of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in patients with stable coronary artery disease: a 12-year follow-up study. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. Lee Jen-Kuang, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics and healthcare outcomes in patients with chronic heart failure. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2012. Kim Kye-Min, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Added value of pharmacogenetic testing in predicting statin response: results from the REGRESS trial. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2012. van der Baan F H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic tailoring of pharmacotherapy in heart failure: optimize the old, while we wait for something new. Journal of cardiac failure. 2012. Talameh Jasmine A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics of antidepressant drugs: current clinical practice and future directions. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Narasimhan Sneha, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Identification of diuretic non-responders with poor long-term clinical outcomes: a 1-year follow-up of 176 non-azotaemic cirrhotic patients with moderate ascites. Clinical science (London, England : 1979). 2011. Yang Ying-Ying, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Polymorphisms, hypertension and thiazide diuretics. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Citterio Lorena, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic variation in renin predicts the effects of thiazide diuretics. European journal of clinical investigation. 2011. Huang Chin-Chou, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Association of Hypertension Drug Target Genes With Blood Pressure and Hypertension in 86 588 Individuals. Hypertension. 2011. Johnson Andrew D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Contribution of deletion in angiotensin-converting enzyme but not A1166C angiotensin II type-1 receptor gene polymorphisms to clinical outcomes in atherothrombotic disease. Archives of medical research. 2011. Le Hello Claire, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenomics: the genetics of variable drug responses. Circulation. 2011. Roden Dan M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
ACE gene polymorphism and serum ACE activity in Iranians type II diabetic patients with macroalbuminuria. Molecular and cellular biochemistry. 2011. Felehgari Vahid, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Interaction of ACE and CYP11B2 genes on blood pressure response to hydrochlorothiazide in Han Chinese hypertensive patients. Clinical and experimental hypertension (New York, N.Y. : 1993). 2011. Li Yun, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Identification of genetic factors associated with susceptibility to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors-induced cough. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Grilo Antonio, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Systematic review of pharmacoeconomic studies of pharmacogenomic tests. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Beaulieu Mathieu, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetic association of hypertension candidate genes with fasting glucose in the GenHAT Study. Journal of hypertension. 2010. Irvin Marguerite R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
The genetics of loop diuretic effects. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Vormfelde S V, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Tailored therapy of ACE inhibitors in stable coronary artery disease: pharmacogenetic profiling of treatment benefit. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Brugts Jasper J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
COC use, ACE/AGT gene polymorphisms, and risk of stroke. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Li Ying, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenomics of antihypertensive drugs: past, present and future. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Johnson Julie A. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Effect of ACE insertion/deletion and 12 other polymorphisms on clinical outcomes and response to treatment in the LIFE study. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Nordestgaard Børge G, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic variability in the ACE gene region surrounding the Alu I/D polymorphism is maintained by balancing selection in human populations. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Cagliani Rachele, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
PharmGKB summary: very important pharmacogene information for angiotensin-converting enzyme. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Thorn Caroline F, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Demonstrating the pharmacogenetic effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on long-term prognosis of diastolic heart failure. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Wu C-K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
A genome-wide association study identifies new loci for ACE activity: potential implications for response to ACE inhibitor. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Chung C-M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
A common variant in DRD3 gene is associated with risperidone-induced extrapyramidal symptoms. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2009. Gassó P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensin II receptor subtype 2 genotypes in type 1 diabetes and severe hypoglycaemia requiring emergency treatment: a case cohort study. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2009. Pedersen-Bjergaard Ulrik, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Lack of association between ACE and bradykinin B2 receptor gene polymorphisms and ACE inhibitor-induced coughing in hypertensive Koreans. Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. 2009. Woo S W, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Cost-effectiveness of ACE inhibitor therapy to prevent dialysis in nondiabetic nephropathy: influence of the ACE insertion/deletion polymorphism. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2009. Vegter Stefan, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Maternal use of antihypertensive drugs in early pregnancy and delivery outcome, notably the presence of congenital heart defects in the infants. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2009. Lennestål Roland, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Variation in Renin-Angiotensin system and salt-sensitivity genes and the risk of diabetes mellitus associated with the use of thiazide diuretics. American journal of hypertension. 2009. Bozkurt Ozlem, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The rationale and design of the PERindopril GENEtic association study (PERGENE): a pharmacogenetic analysis of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy in patients with stable coronary artery disease. Cardiovascular drugs and therapy / sponsored by the International Society of Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy. 2009. Brugts J J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Impact of renin-angiotensin system polymorphisms on renal haemodynamic responsiveness to acute angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Journal of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system : JRAAS. 2009. Volkan-Salanci Bilge, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Significance of genetic polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in cardiovascular and renal disease. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Rudnicki Michael, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Renin-angiotensin system and alpha-adducin gene polymorphisms and their relation to responses to antihypertensive drugs: results from the GENRES study. American journal of hypertension. 2009. Suonsyrjä Timo, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Promoter polymorphisms in ACE (angiotensin I-converting enzyme) associated with clinical outcomes in hypertension. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Johnson A D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ACE (I/D) polymorphism and response to treatment in coronary artery disease: a comprehensive database and meta-analysis involving study quality evaluation. BMC medical genetics. 2009. Kitsios Georgios, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Arrhythmia pharmacogenomics: methodological considerations. Current pharmaceutical design. 2009. Roden Dan M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
High dose Losartan and ACE gene polymorphism in IgA nephritis. Genomic medicine. 2008. Woo Keng-Thye, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacological effects of lipid-lowering drugs recapitulate with a larger amplitude the phenotypic effects of common variants within their target genes. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2008. Knouff Christopher W, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association of angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene polymorphisms with aspirin intolerance in asthmatics. Clinical and experimental allergy : journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2008. Kim T-H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Racial differences in blood pressure response to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in children: a meta-analysis. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Li J S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Polymorphisms affecting gene transcription and mRNA processing in pharmacogenetic candidate genes: detection through allelic expression imbalance in human target tissues. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2008. Johnson Andrew D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics of ACE inhibition in stable coronary artery disease: steps towards tailored drug therapy. Current opinion in cardiology. 2008. Brugts Jasper J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Are we poised to target ACE2 for the next generation of antihypertensives?. Journal of molecular medicine (Berlin, Germany). 2008. Ferreira Anderson J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Angiotensinogen and ACE gene polymorphisms and risk of atrial fibrillation in the general population. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2008. Ravn Lasse S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Abeta-degrading enzymes in Alzheimer's disease. Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland). 2008. Miners James Scott, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Homogeneous assay of rs4343, an ACE I/D proxy, and an analysis in the British Women's Heart and Health Study (BWHHS). Disease markers. 2008. Abdollahi Mohammad Reza, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacoeconomic evaluations of pharmacogenetic and genomic screening programmes: a systematic review on content and adherence to guidelines. PharmacoEconomics. 2008. Vegter Stefan, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Possible association of ACE gene I/D polymorphism with blood pressure--lowering response to hydrochlorothiazide. Biomedical and environmental sciences : BES. 2007. Zhou Yong, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphism predicts the time-course of blood pressure response to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition in the AASK trial. Journal of hypertension. 2007. Bhatnagar Vibha, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Polymorphisms of ACE2 gene are associated with essential hypertension and antihypertensive effects of Captopril in women. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Fan X, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Polymorphism modulates symptomatic response to antiarrhythmic drug therapy in patients with lone atrial fibrillation. Heart rhythm : the official journal of the Heart Rhythm Society. 2007. Darbar Dawood, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Effect of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system gene polymorphisms on blood pressure response to antihypertensive treatment. Chinese medical journal. 2007. Jiang Xiao, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Candidate genes, pathways and mechanisms for alcoholism: an expanded convergent functional genomics approach. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2007. Rodd Z A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Angiotensin II reactivation and aldosterone escape phenomena in renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade: is oral renin inhibition the solution?. Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy. 2007. Athyros Vasilios G, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Is inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system a new treatment option for Alzheimer's disease?. Lancet neurology. 2007. Kehoe Patrick G, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Systematic meta-analyses of Alzheimer disease genetic association studies: the AlzGene database. Nature genetics. 2007. Bertram Lars, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Demystifying the ACE polymorphism: from genetics to biology. Current pharmaceutical design. 2007. Castellon Raquel, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Overview of the pharmacoeconomics of pharmacogenetics. Pharmacogenomics. 2006. Dervieux Thierry, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Association of polymorphisms in the Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene with Alzheimer disease in an Israeli Arab community. American journal of human genetics. 2006. Meng Yan, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Systematic review and meta-analysis of ethnic differences in risks of adverse reactions to drugs used in cardiovascular medicine. BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 2006. McDowell Sarah E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
ACE polymorphisms. Circulation research. 2006. Sayed-Tabatabaei F A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Signaling by the angiotensin-converting enzyme. Circulation research. 2006. Fleming Ingrid. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Hydrochlorothiazide efficacy and polymorphisms in ACE, ADD1 and GNB3 in healthy, male volunteers. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2006. Vormfelde Stefan Viktor, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Effects of maternally administered drugs on the fetal and neonatal kidney. Drug safety : an international journal of medical toxicology and drug experience. 2006. Boubred Farid, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The effect of proinflammatory cytokine gene and angiotensin-converting enzyme polymorphisms on erythropoietin requirements in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Peritoneal dialysis international : journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis. 2006. Sharples Edward J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Does the Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion polymorphism modify the response to ACE inhibitor therapy?--A systematic review. Current controlled trials in cardiovascular medicine. 2005. Scharplatz Madlaina, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Comparison of the effect of enalapril and losartan in conjunction with surgical coronary revascularisation versus revascularisation alone on systemic endothelial function. Heart (British Cardiac Society). 2005. Trevelyan J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetic association of the angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism on blood pressure and cardiovascular risk in relation to antihypertensive treatment: the Genetics of Hypertension-Associated Treatment (GenHAT) study. Circulation. 2005. Arnett Donna K, et al. PubMed
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The angiotensin-converting enzyme gene insertion/deletion polymorphism and effects of quinapril and atorvastatin on haemostatic parameters in patients with coronary artery disease. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2005. Potaczek Daniel P, et al. PubMed
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A1166C angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene polymorphism may predict hemodynamic response to losartan in patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension. The American journal of gastroenterology. 2005. Sookoian Silvia, et al. PubMed
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Mortality in patients with hypertension on angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitor treatment is influenced by the ACE insertion/deletion polymorphism. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2005. Bleumink Gysèle S, et al. PubMed
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Associations of baseline blood pressure levels and efficacy of Benazepril treatment with interaction of alpha-adducin and ACE gene polymorphisms in hypertensives. Clinical and experimental hypertension (New York, N.Y. : 1993). 2005. Yu Yunxian, et al. PubMed
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An association study of 43 SNPs in 16 candidate genes with atorvastatin response. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2005. Thompson J F, et al. PubMed
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A study of the relationships between angiotensin- converting enzyme gene, chymase gene polymorphisms, pharmacological treatment with ACE inhibitor and regression of left ventricular hypertrophy in essential hypertension patients treated with benazepril. Annals of human biology. 2005. He Hong, et al. PubMed
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The thiazide-sensitive Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter gene, C1784T, and adrenergic receptor-beta3 gene, T727C, may be gene polymorphisms susceptible to the antihypertensive effect of thiazide diuretics. Hypertension research : official journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension. 2004. Matayoshi Tetsutaro, et al. PubMed
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Vascular effects of quinapril completely depend on ACE insertion/deletion polymorphism. Journal of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system : JRAAS. 2004. Voors Adriaan A, et al. PubMed
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Acute effects of nifedipine administration in pulmonary haemodynamics and oxygen delivery during exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: implication of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphisms. Clinical physiology and functional imaging. 2004. Kanazawa Hiroshi, et al. PubMed
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Effects of ACE gene insertion/deletion polymorphism on response to spironolactone in patients with chronic heart failure. The American journal of medicine. 2004. Cicoira Mariantonietta, et al. PubMed
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Angiotensinogen gene polymorphisms: relationship to blood pressure response to antihypertensive treatment. Results from the Swedish Irbesartan Left Ventricular Hypertrophy Investigation vs Atenolol (SILVHIA) trial. American journal of hypertension. 2004. Kurland Lisa, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of antihypertensive drug responses. American journal of pharmacogenomics : genomics-related research in drug development and clinical practice. 2004. Schwartz Gary L, et al. PubMed
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Multilocus effects of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system genes on blood pressure response to a thiazide diuretic. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2004. Frazier L, et al. PubMed
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The ACE gene I/D polymorphism is not associated with the blood pressure and cardiovascular benefits of ACE inhibition. Hypertension. 2003. Harrap Stephen B, et al. PubMed
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Effects of captopril administration on pulmonary haemodynamics and tissue oxygenation during exercise in ACE gene subtypes in patients with COPD: a preliminary study. Thorax. 2003. Kanazawa H, et al. PubMed
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ACE gene I/D and NOS3 G894T polymorphisms and response to sildenafil in men with erectile dysfunction. Urology. 2003. Eisenhardt Andreas, et al. PubMed
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Effect of quinapril, quinapril-hydrochlorothiazide, and enalapril on the bone mass of hypertensive subjects: relationship with angiotensin converting enzyme polymorphisms. American journal of hypertension. 2003. Pérez-Castrillón José L, et al. PubMed
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Interaction between angiotensin-converting enzyme and catechol-O-methyltransferase genotypes in schizophrenics with poor response to conventional neuroleptics. European neuropsychopharmacology : the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 2003. Illi Ari, et al. PubMed
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DD ACE gene polymorphism is associated with increased coronary artery endothelial dysfunction: the PREFACE trial. Heart (British Cardiac Society). 2003. Mulder H J G H, et al. PubMed
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Crystal structure of the human angiotensin-converting enzyme-lisinopril complex. Nature. 2003. Natesh Ramanathan, et al. PubMed
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ACE and alpha-adducin polymorphism as markers of individual response to diuretic therapy. Hypertension. 2003. Sciarrone Maria Teresa, et al. PubMed
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Association of polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin system and bradykinin B2 receptor with ACE-inhibitor-related cough. Journal of human hypertension. 2002. Mukae S, et al. PubMed
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Interacting effects of gender and genotype on blood pressure response to hydrochlorothiazide. Kidney international. 2002. Schwartz Gary L, et al. PubMed
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Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-associated angioedema is characterized by a slower degradation of des-arginine(9)-bradykinin. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 2002. Molinaro Giuseppe, et al. PubMed
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Influence of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene insertion/deletion polymorphism on lipoprotein/lipid response to gemfibrozil. Clinical genetics. 2002. Bossé Y, et al. PubMed
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Variants of the CYP11B2 gene predict response to therapy with candesartan. European journal of pharmacology. 2002. Ortlepp Jan R, et al. PubMed
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Relationship of venous thromboembolism and myocardial infarction with the renin-angiotensin system in African-Americans. American journal of hematology. 2002. Hooper W Craig, et al. PubMed
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Quinapril prevents restenosis after coronary stenting in patients with angiotensin-converting enzyme D allele. Circulation journal : official journal of the Japanese Circulation Society. 2002. Okumura Kenji, et al. PubMed
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Influence of angiotensinogen M253T gene polymorphism and an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor on restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention. Atherosclerosis. 2002. Toyofyuku Mamoru, et al. PubMed
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Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene insertion/deletion, not bradykinin B2 receptor -58T/C gene polymorphism, associated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-related cough in Chinese female patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Metabolism: clinical and experimental. 2001. Lee Y J, et al. PubMed
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Angiotensin converting enzyme gene polymorphism predicts blood pressure response to angiotensin II receptor type 1 antagonist treatment in hypertensive patients. Journal of hypertension. 2001. Kurland L, et al. PubMed
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The platelet Pl(A2) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) D allele polymorphisms and the risk of recurrent events after acute myocardial infarction. The American journal of cardiology. 2001. Bray P F, et al. PubMed
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Increased risk for ischaemic events is related to combined RAS polymorphism. Heart (British Cardiac Society). 2001. van Geel P P, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic interactions between beta-blocker therapy and the angiotensin-converting enzyme deletion polymorphism in patients with congestive heart failure. Circulation. 2001. McNamara D M, et al. PubMed
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The ACE gene polymorphism and cough threshold for capsaicin after cilazapril usage. Respiratory medicine. 2001. Takahashi T, et al. PubMed
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Left ventricular hypertrophy with exercise and ACE gene insertion/deletion polymorphism: a randomized controlled trial with losartan. Circulation. 2001. Myerson S G, et al. PubMed
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ACE DD genotype is more susceptible than ACE II and ID genotypes to the antiproteinuric effect of ACE inhibitors in patients with proteinuric non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association. 2000. Ha S K, et al. PubMed
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Predicting response to chronic antihypertensive treatment with fosinopril: the role of angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphism. Cardiovascular drugs and therapy / sponsored by the International Society of Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy. 2000. Stavroulakis G A, et al. PubMed
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Insertion-deletion polymorphism of the ACE gene modulates reversibility of endothelial dysfunction with ACE inhibition. Circulation. 2000. Prasad A, et al. PubMed
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Regression of left ventricular hypertrophy by lisinopril after renal transplantation: role of ACE gene polymorphism. Kidney international. 2000. Hernández D, et al. PubMed
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ACE gene polymorphism in cardiovascular disease: meta-analyses of small and large studies in whites. Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology. 2000. Agerholm-Larsen B, et al. PubMed
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Interactions between angiotensin-I converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism and response of plasma lipids and coronary atherosclerosis to treatment with fluvastatin: the lipoprotein and coronary atherosclerosis study. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2000. Marian A J, et al. PubMed
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ACE genotype and ACE inhibitors induced renoprotection in chronic proteinuric nephropathies1. Kidney international. 2000. Perna A, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic analysis of the effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor on restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. Angiology. 1999. Okamura A, et al. PubMed
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Context-dependent associations of the ACE I/D polymorphism with blood pressure. Hypertension. 1999. Turner S T, et al. PubMed
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The deletion genotype of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme is associated with an increased vascular reactivity in vivo and in vitro. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 1999. Henrion D, et al. PubMed
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DD angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphism is associated with endothelial dysfunction in normal humans. Hypertension. 1999. Butler R, et al. PubMed
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Association between angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphisms and regression of left ventricular hypertrophy in patients treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. The American journal of medicine. 1999. Kohno M, et al. PubMed
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Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphism and reversibility of uremic left ventricular hypertrophy following long-term antihypertensive therapy. Kidney international. 1998. Cannella G, et al. PubMed
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Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphism on progression of renal disease and the influence of ACE inhibition in IDDM patients: findings from the EUCLID Randomized Controlled Trial. EURODIAB Controlled Trial of Lisinopril in IDDM. Diabetes. 1998. Penno G, et al. PubMed
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Three candidate genes and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-related cough: a pharmacogenetic analysis. Hypertension. 1998. Zee R Y, et al. PubMed
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Effect of the insertion/deletion polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene on response to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in patients with heart failure. Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology. 1998. O'Toole L, et al. PubMed
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Angiotensin converting enzyme gene polymorphism and ACE inhibition in diabetic nephropathy. Kidney international. 1998. Jacobsen P, et al. PubMed
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Contribution of angiotensin I converting enzyme gene polymorphism and angiotensinogen gene polymorphism to blood pressure regulation in essential hypertension. American journal of hypertension. 1998. Mondorf U F, et al. PubMed
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Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphism determines the antiproteinuric and systemic hemodynamic effect of enalapril in patients with proteinuric renal disease. Austrian Study Group of the Effects of Enalapril Treatment in Proteinuric Renal Disease. Kidney & blood pressure research. 1998. Haas M, et al. PubMed
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Relationship between the response to the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor imidapril and the angiotensin converting enzyme genotype. American journal of hypertension. 1997. Ohmichi N, et al. PubMed
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Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors promote nitric oxide production in coronary microvessels from failing explanted human hearts. The American journal of cardiology. 1997. Kichuk M R, et al. PubMed
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Bradykinin-induced vasodilation of human coronary arteries in vivo: role of nitric oxide and angiotensin-converting enzyme. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 1997. Kuga T, et al. PubMed
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Angiotensin converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism and short-term renal response to ACE inhibition: role of sodium status. Kidney international. Supplement. 1997. van der Kleij F G, et al. PubMed
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Relationship between the angiotensin converting enzyme gene polymorphism and the effects of enalapril on left ventricular hypertrophy and impaired diastolic filling in essential hypertension: M-mode and pulsed Doppler echocardiographic studies. Journal of hypertension. 1996. Sasaki M, et al. PubMed
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Renal hemodynamic changes induced by captopril and angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphism. Nephron. 1997. Mizuiri S, et al. PubMed
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Effect of deletion polymorphism of angiotensin converting enzyme gene on progression of diabetic nephropathy during inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme: observational follow up study. BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 1996. Parving H H, et al. PubMed
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Prediction of patient responses to antihypertensive drugs using genetic polymorphisms: investigation of renin-angiotensin system genes. Journal of hypertension. 1996. Dudley C, et al. PubMed
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Racial difference in the relationship of an angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene polymorphism to serum angiotensin I-converting enzyme activity. Hypertension. 1996. Bloem L J, et al. PubMed
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Association between angiotensin-converting-enzyme gene polymorphism and failure of renoprotective therapy. Lancet. 1996. van Essen G G, et al. PubMed
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Renin-angiotensin system gene polymorphisms influence blood pressure and the response to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition. Journal of hypertension. 1995. Hingorani A D, et al. PubMed
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Role of the deletion of polymorphism of the angiotensin converting enzyme gene in the progression and therapeutic responsiveness of IgA nephropathy. The Journal of clinical investigation. 1995. Yoshida H, et al. PubMed
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Deletion polymorphism of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene is associated with serum ACE concentration and increased risk for CAD in the Japanese. Circulation. 1994. Nakai K, et al. PubMed
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An insertion/deletion polymorphism in the angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene accounting for half the variance of serum enzyme levels. The Journal of clinical investigation. 1990. Rigat B, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

UniProtKB:
B4DXI3_HUMAN (B4DXI3)
ACE_HUMAN (P12821)
Ensembl:
ENSG00000159640
GenAtlas:
ACE
GeneCard:
ACE
MutDB:
ACE
ALFRED:
LO000205H
HuGE:
ACE
Comparative Toxicogenomics Database:
1636
ModBase:
P12821
P22966
HumanCyc Gene:
HS08412
HGNC:
2707

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