Gene:
CYP3A4
cytochrome P450, family 3, subfamily A, polypeptide 4

PharmGKB contains no dosing guidelines for this . To report known genotype-based dosing guidelines, or if you are interested in developing guidelines, click here.

PharmGKB gathers information regarding PGx on FDA drug labels from the FDA's "Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labels", and from FDA-approved FDA and EMA-approved (European Medicines Agency) EMA labels brought to our attention. Excerpts from the label and downloadable highlighted label PDFs are manually curated by PharmGKB.

Please note that some drugs may have been removed from or added to the FDA's "Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labels" without our knowledge. We periodically check the table for additions to this table and update PharmGKB accordingly.

There is currently no such list for European drug labels - we are working with the EMA to establish a list of European Public Assessment Reports (EPAR)s that contain PGx information. We are constructing this list by initially searching for drugs for which we have PGx-containing FDA drug labels - of these 44 EMA EPARs were identified and are being curated for pgx information.

We welcome any information regarding drug labels containing PGx information approved by the FDA, EMA or other Medicine Agencies around the world - please contact feedback.


Annotated Labels

  1. FDA Label for ticagrelor and CYP3A4
  2. European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for aripiprazole and CYP2D6, CYP3A4
  3. European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for cabazitaxel and CYP3A4
  4. European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for darunavir and CYP3A4
  5. European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for dronedarone and CYP2D6, CYP3A4
  6. European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for fosamprenavir and CYP3A4
  7. European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for gefitinib and CYP2D6, CYP3A4, EGFR
  8. European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for indinavir and CYP3A4
  9. European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for ivabradine and CYP3A4
  10. European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for nelfinavir and CYP3A4
  11. European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for posaconazole and CYP3A4
  12. European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for ritonavir and CYP2D6, CYP3A4
  13. European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for ruxolitinib and CYP3A4
  14. European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for sirolimus and CYP3A4
  15. European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for sunitinib and CYP3A4
  16. European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for telithromycin and CYP3A4
  17. European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for tipranavir and CYP3A4
  18. European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for voriconazole and CYP2C19, CYP2C9, CYP3A4
  19. European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for zonisamide and CYP3A4

last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for ticagrelor and CYP3A4

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Informative PGx

Summary

Ticagrelor is a platelet inhibitor used to reduce the risk of thrombotic cardiovascular events for patients with acute coronary syndrome. It is metabolized primarily by CYP3A4; the label advises against using the drug in conjunction with CYP3A inhibitors and inducers.

There's more of this label. Read more.



last updated 08/21/2014

European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for cabazitaxel and CYP3A4

Informative PGx

Summary

The EMA European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) for cabazitaxel (Jevtana) does not contain pharmacogenetic information. It contains information regarding metabolism by CYP3A, and coadministration of strong CYP3A inhibitors or inducers should be avoided.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 09/17/2014

European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for darunavir and CYP3A4

Informative PGx

Summary

The EMA European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) for darunavir (PREZISTA) does not contain human pharmacogenetic information, but does contain pharmacogenetic information related to the genotype of the HIV virus. It contains information regarding metabolism of darunavir by CYP3A and gives information regarding the coadministration of drugs that are CYP3A substrates, inhibitors or inducers.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 09/16/2014

European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for dronedarone and CYP2D6, CYP3A4

Informative PGx

Summary

The EMA European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) for dronedarone (MULTAQ) states that it is a mild inhibitor of CYP2D6, and that the effect on metoprolol and propranol exposure is much below the difference seen between poor and extensive CYP2D6 metabolisers. It also contains information regarding metabolism of by dronedarone CYP3A4, and that concomitant drugs that are potent CYP3A4 inhibitors are contraindicated and potent CYP3A4 inducers are not recommended.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 09/16/2014

European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for fosamprenavir and CYP3A4

Informative PGx

Summary

The EMA European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) for fosamprenavir (Telzir) does not contain human pharmacogenetic information, but does contain pharmacogenetic information related to the genotype of the HIV virus. Concomitant use of drugs with a narrow therapeutic window that are substrates of CYP3A4 or CYP2D6 is contraindicated.

There's more of this label. Read more.



last updated 09/16/2014

European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for indinavir and CYP3A4

Informative PGx

Summary

The EMA European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) for indinavir (Crixivan) does not contain pharmacogenetic information. It contains information regarding metabolism by CYP3A4 and contraindicates concomitant use of drugs that are CYP3A4 substrates.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 09/16/2014

European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for ivabradine and CYP3A4

Informative PGx

Summary

The EMA European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) for ivabradine (Corlentor) does not contain pharmacogenetic information. It contains information regarding metabolism of ivabradine by CYP3A4, and that concomitant use of potent CYP3A4 inhibitors is contraindicated.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/27/2013

European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for nelfinavir and CYP3A4

Informative PGx

Summary

The EMA European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) for nelfinavir (Viracept) contains information regarding the metabolism of the drug by CYP3A4, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6, and that concomitant use of CYP3A4 substrates or inducers is contraindicated. No genetic information is included.

There's more of this label. Read more.



last updated 09/15/2014

European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for ritonavir and CYP2D6, CYP3A4

Informative PGx

Summary

The EMA European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) for ritonavir (Norvir) does not contain pharmacogenetic information. It contains information regarding use of ritonavir as a pharmacokinetic enhancer for certain drugs to prolong their therapeutic effects. It is a potent inhibitor of CYP3A and CYP2D6-mediated biotransformation, and the EPAR provides a list of drugs contraindicated for concomitant use with ritonavir.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 09/12/2014

European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for ruxolitinib and CYP3A4

Informative PGx

Summary

The EMA European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) for ruxolitinib (Jakavi) does not contain pharmacogenetic information. It contains information regarding metabolism by CYP3A4 and CYP2C9, and suggests dosing adjustments and more frequent monitoring of hematology parameters if co-administered with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors or inducers, or dual inhibitors of CYP3A4 and CYP2C9.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 09/15/2014

European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for sirolimus and CYP3A4

Informative PGx

Summary

The EMA European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) for sirolimus (Rapamune) does not contain pharmacogenetic information. It contains information regarding metabolism by CYP3A4, and recommends therapeutic monitoring and dose adjustments when coadministrated with strong CYP3A inhibitors or inducers.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 09/16/2014

European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for sunitinib and CYP3A4

Informative PGx

Summary

The EMA European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) for sunitinib (SUTENT) does not contain pharmacogenetic information. It contains information regarding metabolism by CYP3A4, and that potent CYP3A4 inhibitors or inducers should be avoided as they may affect sunitinib plasma levels.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 09/16/2014

European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for telithromycin and CYP3A4

Informative PGx

Summary

The EMA European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) for telithromycin (Ketek) does not contain pharmacogenetic information. It contains information regarding metabolism by CYP3A4 and contains information regarding use of concomitant drugs that are CYP3A4 substrates, inhibitors or inducers.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 09/17/2014

European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for tipranavir and CYP3A4

Informative PGx

Summary

The EMA European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) for tipranavir (Aptivus) does not contain human pharmacogenetic information, but does contain pharmacogenetic information related to the genotype of the HIV virus. It contains information regarding metabolism of tipranavir by CYP3A4, and gives information regarding the coadministration of drugs that are CYP3A substrates, inhibitors or inducers.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 08/06/2014

European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for voriconazole and CYP2C19, CYP2C9, CYP3A4

Informative PGx

Summary

The EMA European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) for voriconazole (VFEND) does not contain pharmacogenetic information. It contains warning information regarding the co-administration of drugs that are substrates, inhibitors or activators of CYP3A4, CYP2C9 or CYP2C19 due to drug-drug interactions.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 09/16/2014

European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for zonisamide and CYP3A4

Informative PGx

Summary

The EMA European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) for zonisamide (Zonegran) does not contain pharmacogenetic information. It contains information regarding metabolism by CYP3A4, and recommends dose adjustments if CYP3A4 inducers are taken concomitantly.

There's more of this label. Read more.


PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the table.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

? = Mouse-over for quick help

This is a non-comprehensive list of genetic tests with pharmacogenetics relevance, typically submitted by the manufacturer and manually curated by PharmGKB. The information listed is provided for educational purposes only and does not constitute an endorsement of any listed test or manufacturer.

A more complete listing of genetic tests is found at the Genetic Testing Registry (GTR).

PGx Test Variants Assayed Related Drugs?

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page on the appropriate tab.

Links in the "Drugs" column lead to PharmGKB Drug Pages.

Variant?
(138)
Alternate Names / Tag SNPs ? Drugs ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available CA VA *1 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *1A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *1B N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *1G N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *2 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *4 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *7 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *8 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *9 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *11 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *12 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *18 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *18B N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *22 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs12333983 *1642A>T, 32695A>T, 37386957T>A, 99354114T>A
T > A
3' Flanking
rs12721627 20716C>G, 37398936G>C, 554C>G, 99366093G>C, CYP3A4*16, CYP3A4*16A, CYP3A4:185 Thr>Ser, CYP3A4:554C>G, CYP3A4:658 C>G, CYP3A4:T185S, CYP3A4:Thr185Ser, Thr185Ser
G > C
Missense
Thr185Ser
rs12721634 37414504A>G, 44T>C, 5148T>C, 99381661A>G, CYP3A4*14, CYP3A4:L15P, Leu15Pro
A > G
Missense
Leu15Pro
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1851426 -1232T>C, 37415779A>G, 3873T>C, 99382936A>G
A > G
5' Flanking
No VIP available CA VA
rs2242480 1023+12G>A, 1026+12G>A, 25343G>A, 37394309C>T, 99361466C>T
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs2246709 21090T>C, 37398562A>G, 670+258T>C, 99365719A>G
A > G
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2687116 20866G>T, 37398786C>A, 670+34G>T, 99365943C>A
C > A
Intronic
rs2740574 -392G>A, 37414939C>T, 4713G>A, 5'-flanking region -392A>G, 99382096C>T, CYP3A4*1B, CYP3A4-V, CYP3A4:-392A>G
C > T
5' Flanking
No VIP available CA VA
rs28371759 25183T>C, 37394469A>G, 875T>C, 878T>C, 99361626A>G, CYP3A4*18, L293P, Leu292Pro, Leu293Pro
A > G
Missense
Leu293Pro
No VIP available CA VA
rs35599367 20493C>T, 37399159G>A, 522-191C>T, 99366316G>A, CYP3A4*22
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3735451 1414-124A>G, 1417-124A>G, 30834A>G, 37388818T>C, 99355975T>C
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4646437 21726C>T, 37397926G>A, 671-202C>T, 671-205C>T, 99365083G>A
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4646440 1023+608C>T, 1026+608C>T, 25939C>T, 37393713G>A, 99360870G>A
G > A
Intronic
rs4986907 19382G>A, 37400270C>T, 485G>A, 99367427C>T, Arg162Gln, CYP3A4*15A, CYP3A4:589G>A, CYP3A4:Arg162Gln, CYP3A4:R162Q
C > T
Missense
Arg162Gln
rs4986908 19417G>A, 19417G>C, 37400235C>G, 37400235C>T, 520G>A, 520G>C, 99367392C>G, 99367392C>T, Asp174Asn, Asp174His, CYP3A4*10, CYP3A4:624 G>C, CYP3A4:D174H
C > G
C > T
Missense
Asp174Asn
Asp174His
rs4986909 1244C>T, 1247C>T, 27139C>T, 37392513G>A, 99359670G>A, CYP3A4*13, CYP3A4:1351 C>T, CYP3A4:416 Pro>Leu, CYP3A4:P416L, Pro415Leu, Pro416Leu
G > A
Missense
Pro416Leu
rs4986910 1331T>C, 1334 C allele, 1334T>C, 28285T>C, 37391367A>G, 445Thr allele, 99358524A>G, CYP3A4*3, CYP3A4:M445T, Met444Thr, Met445Thr, mRNA 1438T>C
A > G
Missense
Met445Thr
rs4986913 1396C>T, 1399C>T, 28350C>T, 37391302G>A, 99358459G>A, CYP3A4*19, CYP3A4:1503 C>T, CYP3A4:467 Pro>Ser, CYP3A4:P467S, Pro466Ser, Pro467Ser
G > A
Missense
Pro467Ser
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4986914 -529T>C, 37415076A>G, 4576T>C, 99382233A>G
A > G
5' Flanking
rs4987161 20728T>C, 37398924A>G, 566T>C, 99366081A>G, CYP3A4*17, CYP3A4:189 Phe>Ser, CYP3A4:670 T>C, CYP3A4:F189S, Phe189Ser
A > G
Missense
Phe189Ser
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs6956344 1250+513G>A, 1253+513G>A, 27658G>A, 37391994C>T, 99359151C>T
C > T
Intronic
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 138

Overview

Alternate Names:  None
Alternate Symbols:  None
PharmGKB Accession Id: PA130

Details

Cytogenetic Location: chr7 : q22.1 - q22.1
GP mRNA Boundary: chr7 : 99354583 - 99381811
GP Gene Boundary: chr7 : 99351583 - 99391811
Strand: minus
The mRNA boundaries are calculated using the gene's default feature set from NCBI, mapped onto the UCSC Golden Path. PharmGKB sets gene boundaries by expanding the mRNA boundaries by no less than 10,000 bases upstream (5') and 3,000 bases downstream (3') to allow for potential regulatory regions.

Note: The CYP3A4 gene is found on the minus chromosomal strand. Please note that for standardization, the PharmGKB presents all allele base pairs on the positive chromosomal strand; therefore the alleles within our variant annotations will differ (in a complementary manner) from those in this VIP summary that are given on the minus strand as reported in the literature.

CYP3A4 (cytochrome P450 3A4) encodes a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes. CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 are believed to be the predominant cytochrome P450s expressed in adult human liver, with CYP3A4 thought to dominate in Whites and CYP3A5 in Blacks/African Americans. The two have overlapping substrate specificities. CYP3A4 is responsible for the metabolism of approximately 50-60% of clinical drugs used today, including acetaminophen, codeine, cyclosporine A, diazepam, and erythromycin. It is important for the metabolism of steroid hormones [Articles:9667077, 9054608, 9187528, 3259858].

The complete cDNA sequence was reported by Molowa et al. in 1986 [Article:3460094], and Inoue et al. later mapped the gene to 7q22.1 by fluorescence in situ hybridization [Article:1391968]. The gene is about 27 kb in length and contains 13 exons and 12 introns [Article:8269949].

Linkage results from a Japanese population [Article:14695543] demonstrate that CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 haplotypes are closely linked and that the two genes are in the same gene block, so some effects originally thought to be due to a CYP3A4 allele are probably actually due to a CYP3A5 allele in linkage disequilibrium.

Though extensively studied, most of the CYP3A4 haplotypes have not been indisputably shown to affect expression or activity in terms of pharmacodynamics or pharmacokinetics. One recently discovered rare haplotype, CYP3A4*20, contains a premature stop codon which does result in a truncated protein and complete loss of function [Article:16580902]; this publication also contains excellent overview information for CYP3A4. This haplotype has been identified in only one family (of Brazilian origin) to date.

The g.82,266 (on AF280107 ) polymorphism (part of haplotypes *18B and *19 ) may contribute to variability in response to clopidogrel (which requires metabolism by CYP3A4 to be active). This study was done in a Spanish (White) population of coronary artery disease patients also being treated with aspirin [Article:16645157].
The *16B haplotype has been reported to result in altered paclitaxel metabolite levels in Japanese (Asian) cancer patients [Article:16890579]. One study showed that cancer patients carrying CYP3A4*1B may have a higher rate of docetaxel clearance and so a lower exposure to docetaxel [Article:16765145], though this actually may be due to the linked CYP3A5*1. However, Lewis et al. [Article:17545536] found no significant relationship between CYP3A4*1B and docetaxol clearance in African American (Black or African American) and Caucasian(White) cancer patients.

Chu et al. recently found that white female breast cancer patients who are CYP3A4 *1B carriers may have an increased risk of developing endometrial cancer after tamoxifen treatment when compared with non -*1B carriers [Article:17434921].

In vitro, CYP3A*1B has been reported to lead to increased transcription [Article:14673875], though there have been conflicting results as well [Article:14515058].

Also see Lamba et al. [Article:12406645], Lee and Goldstein[Article:16004554]http://www.imm.ki.se/cypalleles/cyp3a4.htm .

Citation
M. Whirl-Carrillo, E.M. McDonagh, J. M. Hebert, L. Gong, K. Sangkuhl, C.F. Thorn, R.B. Altman and T.E. Klein. "Pharmacogenomics Knowledge for Personalized Medicine" Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics (2012) 92(4): 414-417. Full text
History

Submitted by Alan Shuldiner (PAPI), Michelle Whirl Carillo(PharmGKB), Joan M. Hebert(PharmGKB)

Variant Summaries rs12721627, rs12721634, rs2740574, rs4986907, rs4986908, rs4986909, rs4986910, rs4986913, rs4987161
Haplotype Summaries CYP3A4*1A, CYP3A4*1B (CYP3A4-V) , CYP3A4*1C, CYP3A4*1D, CYP3A4*1E, CYP3A4*1F, CYP3A4*1G, CYP3A4*1H, CYP3A4*1J , CYP3A4*1K, CYP3A4*1L, CYP3A4*1M, CYP3A4*1N, CYP3A4*1P, CYP3A4*1Q, CYP3A4*1R, CYP3A4*1S, CYP3A4*1T, CYP3A4*2, CYP3A4*3, CYP3A4*4, CYP3A4*5, CYP3A4*6, CYP3A4*7, CYP3A4*8, CYP3A4*9, CYP3A4*10, CYP3A4*11, CYP3A4*12, CYP3A4*13, CYP3A4*14, CYP3A4*15A, CYP3A4*15B, CYP3A4*16A, CYP3A4*16B, CYP3A4*17, CYP3A4*18A, CYP3A4*18B, CYP3A4*19, CYP3A4*20
Drugs
Drug Substrate (72)
alfentanil, alprazolam, amlodipine, aprepitant, aripiprazole, astemizole, atorvastatin, buspirone, caffeine, cerivastatin, chlorpheniramine, cilostazol, cisapride, clarithromycin, cocaine, codeine, cyclosporine, dapsone, dextromethorphan, diazepam, diltiazem, docetaxel, domperidone, eplerenone, erythromycin, estradiol, felodipine, fentanyl, finasteride, haloperidol, hydrocortisone, imatinib, indinavir, irinotecan, lercanidipine, levomethadyl acetate, lidocaine, lovastatin, methadone, midazolam, nateglinide, nelfinavir, nifedipine, nisoldipine, nitrendipine, ondansetron, paclitaxel, pimozide, progesterone, propranolol, quetiapine, quinidine, quinine, risperidone, ritonavir, salmeterol, saquinavir, sildenafil, simvastatin, sirolimus, tacrolimus, tamoxifen, telithromycin, terfenadine, testosterone, trazodone, triazolam, verapamil, vincristine, zaleplon, ziprasidone, zolpidem
Diseases

Haplotype Overview

Haplotypes are derived from the Human Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Allele Nomenclature Database (version 3/5/2012 plus changes up to 11/25/2013; PharmGKB update 3/12/2014). The Human Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Allele Nomenclature Database states that nucleotide changes listed below are based on NCBI Reference Sequence AF280107.1. Note that the nucleotide positions from the Human Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Allele Nomenclature Database do not directly match the given NCBI reference sequence. For questions about nucleotide positions, please contact the Human Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Allele Nomenclature Database directly, as they are the authoritative source on cytochrome P450 nomenclature.

PharmGKB has added some alleles below (e.g. the row for *1), inserted for star alleles with subgroups (e.g. A, B etc). These rows reflect only the defining SNP for the star allele to accommodate how the star allele is referred to in the literature.

Source: PharmGKB

All alleles in the download file are on the positive chromosomal strand. PharmGKB considers the first haplotype listed in each table as the reference haplotype for that set.

PharmGKB Curated Pathways

Pathways created internally by PharmGKB based primarily on literature evidence.

  1. Acetaminophen Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Stylized diagram showing acetaminophen metabolism and transport in the liver and kidney.
  1. Anti-diabetic Drug Nateglinide Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Nateglinide metabolism and transport in liver cell
  1. Anti-diabetic Drug Repaglinide Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Repaglinide metabolism and transport in a liver cell.
  1. Atorvastatin/Lovastatin/Simvastatin Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Drug-specific representation of the candidate genes involved in transport, metabolism and clearance.
  1. Caffeine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Stylized liver cell showing candidate genes involved in the metabolism of caffeine.
  1. Carbamazepine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Stylized liver cell depicting candidate genes involved in the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine.
  1. Citalopram Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Pharmacokinetics of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram.
  1. Clomipramine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Schematic representation of clomipramine metabolism in human liver.
  1. Clopidogrel Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Clopidogrel metabolism.
  1. Codeine and Morphine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of the candidate genes involved in metabolism of codeine and morphine.
  1. Cyclophosphamide Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Model human liver cell showing genes involved in the metabolism of cyclophosphamide.
  1. Doxepin Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Stylized liver cell showing candidate genes involved in the metabolism of the tricyclic doxepin.
  1. Efavirenz Pathway, Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics
    Schematic representation of efavirenz metabolism and mechanism of action against HIV.
  1. Erlotinib Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Model human liver cell showing genes involved in the transportation and metabolism of Erlotinib.
  1. Etoposide Pathway, Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics
    Etoposide cellular disposition and effects.
  1. Fluoxetine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of the candidate genes involved in the metabolism of fluoxetine.
  1. Fluvastatin Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Drug-specific representation of the candidate genes involved in transport, metabolism and clearance.
  1. Gefitinib Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of the candidate genes involved in the transportation and metabolism of gefitinib.
  1. Glucocorticoid Pathway - Transcription Regulation, Pharmacodynamics
    Model displaying genes which may be involved in the nuclear complex formed that regulates transcription in response to glucocorticoids.
  1. Ibuprofen Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Stylized diagram of metabolism and transport of ibuprofen in the liver and kidney.
  1. Ifosfamide Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Model human liver cell showing genes involved in the metabolism of ifosfamide.
  1. Imipramine/Desipramine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of the candidate genes involved in the metabolism of the tricyclic antidepressants imipramine and desipramine.
  1. Irinotecan Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Model human liver cell showing blood, bile and intestinal compartments, indicating tissue specific involvement of genes in the irinotecan pathway.
  1. Losartan Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of the candidate genes involved in the metabolism of losartan.
  1. Mycophenolic acid Pathway, Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics
    Schematic representation of mycophenolic acid metabolism.
  1. Nevirapine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of candidate genes involved in biotransformation of nevirapine and its mechanism of action in an infected liver cell.
  1. Paroxetine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Genes involved in the metabolism of paroxetine and in the mechanism of action.
  1. Phenytoin Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Genes involved in the metabolism of phenytoin in the human liver cell.
  1. Platelet Aggregation Inhibitor Pathway, Pharmacodynamics
    Effects of antiplatelet drugs on platelet aggregation pathway.
  1. Proton Pump Inhibitor Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Omeprazole metabolism in the liver.
  1. Statin Pathway - Generalized, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of the superset of all genes involved in the transport, metabolism and clearance of statin class drugs.
  1. Tacrolimus/Cyclosporine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Schematic representation of tacrolimus and cyclosporine metabolism
  1. Tamoxifen Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Tamoxifen metabolism in the liver.
  1. Taxane Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of the genes involved in the metabolism and transport of paclitaxel and docetaxel, and the downstream effects of the drugs.
  1. Theophylline Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Schematic representation of theophylline metabolism in human liver.
  1. Venlafaxine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Stylized cells depicting the metabolism and mechanism of action of venlafaxine.
  1. Vinka Alkaloid Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of the genes involved in the metabolism, transport, and downstream effects of the vinca alkaloid vincristine.
  1. Warfarin Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of the candidate genes involved in transport, metabolism and clearance of warfarin.
  1. Zidovudine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics
    Representation of candidate genes involved in the metabolism of zidovudine and its mechanism of antiviral action.

External Pathways

Links to non-PharmGKB pathways.

  1. P450 Dehydrogenation of alkanes to form alkenes - (Reactome via Pathway Interaction Database)
  2. P450 Epoxidations - (Reactome via Pathway Interaction Database)
  3. Xenobiotics - (Reactome via Pathway Interaction Database)

Curated Information ?

Evidence Gene
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
NR1I2

Curated Information ?

Evidence Drug
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
acenocoumarol
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
acetaminophen
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
afatinib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
alfentanil
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
alprazolam
amlodipine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
anastrozole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
aprepitant
aripiprazole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
arteether
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
artemether
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
artemisinin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
astemizole
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atazanavir
atorvastatin
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
axitinib
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
boceprevir
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
bosutinib monohydrate
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
brentuximab vedotin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
buspirone
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
cabazitaxel
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
caffeine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
carbamazepine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
celecoxib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
cerivastatin
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
cevimeline
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
chlorpheniramine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
cilostazol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
cisapride
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
citalopram
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
clarithromycin
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
clobazam
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
clomipramine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
clopidogrel
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
clozapine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
cocaine
codeine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
crizotinib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available PW
cyclophosphamide
cyclosporine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
dabrafenib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
dapsone
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
darifenacin
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
darunavir
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
dasatinib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
desipramine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
dexlansoprazole
dextromethorphan
diazepam
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
diltiazem
docetaxel
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
domperidone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
donepezil
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
doxepin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
doxorubicin
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
dronedarone
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
drospirenone
No Dosing Guideline available DL CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
efavirenz
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
eliglustat
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
eltrombopag
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
emtricitabine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
epirubicin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
eplerenone
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available PW
erlotinib
erythromycin
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
esomeprazole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
estradiol
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ethinyl estradiol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
etoposide
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
everolimus
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
exemestane
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
felodipine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
fentanyl
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
fesoterodine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
finasteride
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
fluorouracil
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
fluticasone propionate
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available PW
fluvastatin
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
fluvoxamine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
fosamprenavir
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
fulvestrant
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
galantamine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
gefitinib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
gemcitabine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
haloperidol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
hydrocortisone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
ibuprofen
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
iloperidone
imatinib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
imipramine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
indacaterol
indinavir
irinotecan
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ivabradine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ivacaftor
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
lamivudine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
lapatinib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
lercanidipine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
letrozole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
levomethadyl acetate
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
lidocaine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
lomitapide
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
losartan
lovastatin
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
maraviroc
methadone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
methotrexate
midazolam
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
modafinil
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
mycophenolate mofetil
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
mycophenolic acid
nateglinide
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
nefazodone
nelfinavir
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available PW
nevirapine
nifedipine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
nilotinib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
nisoldipine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
nitrendipine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
olanzapine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
omeprazole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
ondansetron
paclitaxel
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
pantoprazole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
paroxetine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
pazopanib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
phenprocoumon
pimozide
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ponatinib
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
posaconazole
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
prasugrel
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
progesterone
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propafenone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
propranolol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
quetiapine
quinidine
quinine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ranolazine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
regorafenib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
rifampin
risperidone
ritonavir
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
rosuvastatin
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ruxolitinib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
salmeterol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
saquinavir
sildenafil
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
simeprevir
simvastatin
sirolimus
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
sorafenib
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
sunitinib
tacrolimus
tamoxifen
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
telaprevir
telithromycin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
teniposide
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
tenofovir
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
terfenadine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
testosterone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
theophylline
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ticagrelor
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
tiotropium
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
tipifarnib
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
tipranavir
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
tolterodine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
tramadol
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
trametinib
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
trastuzumab emtansine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
trazodone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
triazolam
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
vandetanib
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
vardenafil
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
vemurafenib
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
venlafaxine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
verapamil
vincristine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
voriconazole
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
vortioxetine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available PW
warfarin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
zaleplon
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available PW
zidovudine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
ziprasidone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
zolpidem
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
zonisamide

Curated Information ?

Publications related to CYP3A4: 452

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Combined effects of CYP3A5*1, POR*28, and CYP3A4*22 single nucleotide polymorphisms on early concentration-controlled tacrolimus exposure in de-novo renal recipients. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2014. Kuypers Dirk R J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Mechanisms and assessment of statin-related muscular adverse effects. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Moßhammer Dirk, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Population pharmacokinetic modelling to assess the impact of CYP2D6 and CYP3A metabolic phenotypes on the pharmacokinetics of tamoxifen and endoxifen. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. ter Heine Rob, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The influence of genetic polymorphisms on the efficacy and side effects of anastrozole in postmenopausal breast cancer patients. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2014. Abubakar Murtala B, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Comparison of two endogenous biomarkers of CYP3A4 activity in a drug-drug interaction study between midostaurin and rifampicin. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Dutreix Catherine, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
CYP3A4*22 and CYP3A5*3 are associated with increased levels of plasma simvastatin concentrations in the cholesterol and pharmacogenetics study cohort. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2014. Kitzmiller Joseph P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
No association between CYP3A4*22 and statin effectiveness in reducing the risk for myocardial infarction. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Leusink Maarten, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Population pharmacokinetic approach to evaluate the effect of CYP2D6, CYP3A, ABCB1, POR and NR1I2 genotypes on donepezil clearance. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Noetzli Muriel, et al. PubMed
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Association analysis of genetic polymorphisms in genes related to sunitinib pharmacokinetics, specifically clearance of sunitinib and SU12662. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2014. Diekstra M H M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Identification of the effect of multiple polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of simvastatin and simvastatin acid using a population-modeling approach. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2014. Tsamandouras N, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Lopez-Lopez Elixabet, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Development of a broad-based ADME panel for use in pharmacogenomic studies. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Brown Andrew Mk, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Influence of donor-recipient CYP3A4/5 genotypes, age and fluconazole on tacrolimus pharmacokinetics in pediatric liver transplantation: a population approach. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Guy-Viterbo Vanessa, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic factors affecting statin concentrations and subsequent myopathy: a HuGENet systematic review. Genetics in medicine : official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics. 2014. Canestaro William J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Clinical implementation of pharmacogenetics in kidney transplantation: calcineurin inhibitors in the starting blocks. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Elens Laure, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetics of platelet inhibitor treatment. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Trenk Dietmar, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association of CYP3A4*18B and CYP3A5*3 polymorphism with cyclosporine-related liver injury in Chinese renal transplant recipients. International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2014. Xin Hua-Wen, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Functional CYP2B6 variants and virologic response to an efavirenz-containing regimen in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy. 2014. Haas David W, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Adoption of a clinical pharmacogenomics implementation program during outpatient care-initial results of the University of Chicago "1,200 Patients Project". American journal of medical genetics. Part C, Seminars in medical genetics. 2014. O'Donnell Peter H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Grapefruit juice inhibits the metabolic activation of clopidogrel. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2014. Holmberg M T, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic polymorphisms of SLC28A3, SLC29A1 and RRM1 predict clinical outcome in patients with metastatic breast cancer receiving gemcitabine plus paclitaxel chemotherapy. European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990). 2014. Lee Soo-Youn, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
The influence of CYP3A, PPARA, and POR genetic variants on the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus and cyclosporine in renal transplant recipients. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Lunde Ingrid, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PharmGKB summary: ifosfamide pathways, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2014. Lowenberg Daniella, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
CYP3A5 and CYP3A4, but not ABCB1 polymorphisms affect tacrolimus dose-adjusted trough concentrations in kidney transplant recipients. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Kurzawski Mateusz, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Human pharmacogenomic variation of antihypertensive drugs: from population genetics to personalized medicine. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Polimanti Renato, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Dependence of efavirenz- and rifampicin-isoniazid-based antituberculosis treatment drug-drug interaction on CYP2B6 and NAT2 genetic polymorphisms: ANRS 12154 study in Cambodia. The Journal of infectious diseases. 2014. Bertrand Julie, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics and clinical biomarkers for subtherapeutic plasma efavirenz concentration in HIV-1 infected Thai adults. Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics. 2014. Sukasem Chonlaphat, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Effect of CYP3A4*22, CYP3A5*3, and CYP3A Combined Genotypes on Cyclosporine, Everolimus, and Tacrolimus Pharmacokinetics in Renal Transplantation. CPT: pharmacometrics & systems pharmacology. 2014. Moes D J A R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic variation in the 3'-UTR of CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, NR1I2, and UGT2B7: potential effects on regulation by microRNA and pharmacogenomics relevance. Frontiers in genetics. 2014. Swart Marelize, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Relationship between statin type and responsiveness to clopidogrel in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention: a subgroup analysis of the CILON-T trial. Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis. 2014. Suh Jung-Won, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Impact of the CYP3A5, CYP3A4, COMT, IL-10 and POR genetic polymorphisms on tacrolimus metabolism in Chinese renal transplant recipients. PloS one. 2014. Li Chuan-Jiang, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Routine assessment of on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity and gene polymorphisms in predicting clinical outcome following drug-eluting stent implantation in patients with stable coronary artery disease. JACC. Cardiovascular interventions. 2013. Viviani Anselmi Chiara, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Identification and characterization of a defect CYP3A4 genotype in a kidney transplant patient with severely diminished tacrolimus clearance. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2013. Werk Anneke Nina, et al. PubMed
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Impact of CYP3A4*22 Allele on Tacrolimus Pharmacokinetics in Early Period After Renal Transplantation: Toward Updated Genotype-Based Dosage Guidelines. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2013. Elens Laure, et al. PubMed
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Inhibition of cytochrome p450 enzymes by the e- and z-isomers of norendoxifen. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2013. Liu Jinzhong, et al. PubMed
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Common variants in genes coding for chemotherapy metabolizing enzymes, transporters, and targets: a case-control study of contralateral breast cancer risk in the WECARE Study. Cancer causes & control : CCC. 2013. Brooks Jennifer D, et al. PubMed
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CYP3A5 Genotype, but Not CYP3A4*1b, CYP3A4*22, or Hematocrit, Predicts Tacrolimus Dose Requirements in Brazilian Renal Transplant Patients. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2013. Santoro A B, et al. PubMed
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CYP3A4*22 and CYP3A combined genotypes both correlate with tacrolimus disposition in pediatric heart transplant recipients. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Gijsen Violette Mgj, et al. PubMed
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The CYP3A4*22 allele affects the predictive value of a pharmacogenetic algorithm predicting tacrolimus predose concentrations. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Elens Laure, et al. PubMed
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Association between CYP2B6 polymorphisms and Nevirapine-induced SJS/TEN: a pharmacogenetics study. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Ciccacci Cinzia, et al. PubMed
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CYP3A4/5 polymorphisms affect the blood level of cyclosporine and tacrolimus in Chinese renal transplant recipients. International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2013. Li Dan-ying, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic study on risperidone long-acting injection: influence of cytochrome P450 2D6 and pregnane X receptor on risperidone exposure and drug-induced side-effects. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. 2013. Choong Eva, et al. PubMed
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A search for new CYP3A4 variants as determinants of tacrolimus dose requirements in renal-transplanted patients. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. Tavira Beatriz, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics in American Indian populations: analysis of CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP2C9 in the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. Fohner Alison, et al. PubMed
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Effect of CYP3A5 Expression on the Inhibition of CYP3A-Catalyzed Drug Metabolism: Impact on CYP3A-Mediated Drug-Drug Interactions. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2013. Shirasaka Yoshiyuki, et al. PubMed
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Challenges in pharmacogenetics. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Cascorbi Ingolf, et al. PubMed
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Polymorphisms influencing olanzapine metabolism and adverse effects in healthy subjects. Human psychopharmacology. 2013. Cabaleiro Teresa, et al. PubMed
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Malaria pharmacogenomics: return to the future. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Gil Jp. PubMed
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Anti-Parkinson's disease drugs and pharmacogenetic considerations. Expert opinion on drug metabolism & toxicology. 2013. Agúndez José A G, et al. PubMed
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Relationship of CYP2D6, CYP3A, POR, and ABCB1 genotypes with galantamine plasma concentrations. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2013. Noetzli Muriel, et al. PubMed
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Impact of OATP1B1, MDR1, and CYP3A4 Expression in Liver and Intestine on Interpatient Pharmacokinetic Variability of Atorvastatin in Obese Subjects. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2013. Ulvestad M, et al. PubMed
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Evaluation of the effect of SNPs in CYP3A4 and CYP4F2 on the stable phenprocoumon and acenocoumarol maintenance dose. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2013. van Schie Rianne M F, et al. PubMed
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Effects of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 polymorphisms on tacrolimus pharmacokinetics in Chinese adult renal transplant recipients: a population pharmacokinetic analysis. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. Zuo Xiao-Cong, et al. PubMed
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Association between imatinib transporters and metabolizing enzymes genotype and response in newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia patients receiving imatinib therapy. Haematologica. 2013. Angelini Sabrina, et al. PubMed
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CYP3A4/5 combined genotype analysis for predicting statin dose requirement for optimal lipid control. Drug metabolism and drug interactions. 2013. Kitzmiller Joseph Paul, et al. PubMed
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Amlodipine - Not a Significant Contributor to Clopidogrel Non-Response?. Heart (British Cardiac Society). 2013. Kreutz Rolf P, et al. PubMed
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Association of carbamazepine major metabolism and transport pathway gene polymorphisms and pharmacokinetics in patients with epilepsy. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Puranik Yogita Ghodke, et al. PubMed
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Associations between the genotypes and phenotype of CYP3A and the lipid response to simvastatin in Chinese patients with hypercholesterolemia. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Hu Miao, et al. PubMed
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CYP3A4 intron 6 C>T SNP (CYP3A4*22) encodes lower CYP3A4 activity in cancer patients, as measured with probes midazolam and erythromycin. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Elens Laure, et al. PubMed
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CYP3A4*22: promising newly identified CYP3A4 variant allele for personalizing pharmacotherapy. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Elens Laure, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of clinical response to risperidone. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Llerena Adrián, et al. PubMed
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Role of pharmacogenetics in busulfan/cyclophosphamide conditioning therapy prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Hassan Moustapha, et al. PubMed
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Fluticasone Propionate Pharmacogenetics: CYP3A4*22 Polymorphism and Pediatric Asthma Control. The Journal of pediatrics. 2013. Stockmann Chris, et al. PubMed
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CYP3A5 Gene Variation Influences Cyclosporine A Metabolite Formation and Renal Cyclosporine Disposition. Transplantation. 2013. Zheng Songmao, et al. PubMed
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Influence of Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4*1G Polymorphism on the Pharmacokinetics of Tacrolimus, Probability of Acute Cellular Rejection, and mRNA Expression Level of CYP3A5 Rather than CYP3A4 in Living-Donor Liver Transplant Patients. Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin. 2013. Uesugi Miwa, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 3A4*22, PPAR-alpha, and ARNT polymorphisms and clopidogrel response. Clinical pharmacology : advances and applications. 2013. Kreutz Rolf P, et al. PubMed
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Enhancement of hepatic 4-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) through CYP3A4 induction in vitro and in vivo: Implications for drug-induced osteomalacia. Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. 2012. Wang Zhican, et al. PubMed
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Human genetic variation of CYP450 superfamily: analysis of functional diversity in worldwide populations. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Polimanti Renato, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of P450 oxidoreductase: implications in drug metabolism and therapy. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. Hu Lei, et al. PubMed
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Sulforaphane is not an effective antagonist of the human pregnane X-receptor in vivo. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 2012. Poulton Emma Jane, et al. PubMed
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Genetic contribution to variable human CYP3A-mediated metabolism. Advanced drug delivery reviews. 2012. Lamba Jatinder K, et al. PubMed
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CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms and zolpidem metabolism in the Chinese Han population: A pilot study. Forensic science international. 2012. Shen Min, et al. PubMed
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Effects of CYP2C19 variant alleles on postclopidogrel platelet reactivity and clinical outcomes in an actual clinical setting in China. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. Wu Hongyi, et al. PubMed
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Interplay between Vitamin D and the Drug Metabolizing Enzyme CYP3A4. The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology. 2012. Wang Zhican, et al. PubMed
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Human PXR-mediated induction of intestinal CYP3A4 attenuates 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D₃ function in human colon adenocarcinoma LS180 cells. Biochemical pharmacology. 2012. Zheng Xi Emily, et al. PubMed
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Literature based drug interaction prediction with clinical assessment using electronic medical records: novel myopathy associated drug interactions. PLoS computational biology. 2012. Duke Jon D, et al. PubMed
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The Dual Role of Pharmacogenetics in HIV Treatment: Mutations and Polymorphisms Regulating Antiretroviral Drug Resistance and Disposition. Pharmacological reviews. 2012. Michaud Veronique, et al. PubMed
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PharmGKB summary: phenytoin pathway. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. Thorn Caroline F, et al. PubMed
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Meta-analysis of contribution of genetic polymorphisms in drug-metabolizing enzymes or transporters to axitinib pharmacokinetics. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2012. Brennan Meghan, et al. PubMed
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The new CYP3A4 intron 6 C>T polymorphism (CYP3A4*22) is associated with an increased risk of delayed graft function and worse renal function in cyclosporine-treated kidney transplant patients. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. Elens Laure, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C8*3 predicts benefit/risk profile in breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant paclitaxel. Breast cancer research and treatment. 2012. Hertz Daniel L, et al. PubMed
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An inducible cytochrome P450 3A4-dependent vitamin D catabolic pathway. Molecular pharmacology. 2012. Wang Zhican, et al. PubMed
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Induction of CYP2C19 and CYP3A activity following repeated administration of efavirenz in healthy volunteers. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2012. Michaud V, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphisms are associated with variations in warfarin maintenance dose in Han Chinese patients with venous thromboembolism. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Zhang Wei, et al. PubMed
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The population pharmacokinetics of R- and S-warfarin: effect of genetic and clinical factors. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2012. Lane Steven, et al. PubMed
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PharmGKB summary: caffeine pathway. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. Thorn Caroline F, et al. PubMed
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The use of a DNA biobank linked to electronic medical records to characterize pharmacogenomic predictors of tacrolimus dose requirement in kidney transplant recipients. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. Birdwell Kelly A, et al. PubMed
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Exploration of CYP450 and drug transporter genotypes and correlations with nevirapine exposure in Malawians. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Brown Kevin C, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of drugs withdrawn from the market. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Zhang Wei, et al. PubMed
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Genetic variants in CYP (-1A2, -2C9, -2C19, -3A4 and -3A5), VKORC1 and ABCB1 genes in a black South African population: a window into diversity. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Dandara Collet, et al. PubMed
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Population pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics of vincristine in paediatric patients treated for solid tumour diseases. Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology. 2011. Guilhaumou Romain, et al. PubMed
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A new functional CYP3A4 intron 6 polymorphism significantly affects tacrolimus pharmacokinetics in kidney transplant recipients. Clinical chemistry. 2011. Elens Laure, et al. PubMed
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Risk assessment of accidental nortriptyline poisoning: The importance of cytochrome P450 for nortriptyline elimination investigated using a population-based pharmacokinetic simulator. European journal of pharmaceutical sciences : official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2011. Jornil Jakob, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphisms in CYP3A4 are associated with withdrawal symptoms and adverse reactions in methadone maintenance patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Chen Chia-Hui, et al. PubMed
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Ilaprazole, a new proton pump inhibitor, is primarily metabolized to ilaprazole sulfone by CYP3A4 and 3A5. Xenobiotica; the fate of foreign compounds in biological systems. 2011. Seo Kyung-Ah, et al. PubMed
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In vivo CYP3A activity is significantly lower in cyclosporine-treated as compared with tacrolimus-treated renal allograft recipients. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. de Jonge H, et al. PubMed
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Novel CYP3A4 intron 6 single nucleotide polymorphism is associated with simvastatin-mediated cholesterol reduction in The Rotterdam Study. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Elens Laure, et al. PubMed
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Effect of a new functional CYP3A4 polymorphism on calcineurin inhibitors dose requirements and trough blood levels in stable renal transplant patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Elens Laure, et al. PubMed
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The P450 oxidoreductase *28 SNP is associated with low initial tacrolimus exposure and increased dose requirements in CYP3A5-expressing renal recipients. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. de Jonge Hylke, et al. PubMed
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Genotype-guided tamoxifen dosing increases active metabolite exposure in women with reduced CYP2D6 metabolism: a multicenter study. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2011. Irvin William J, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 Polymorphisms and their Relationship with Premature Ovarian Failure in Premenopausal Women with Breast Cancer Receiving Doxorubicin and Cyclophosphamide. The breast journal. 2011. Wessels Alette M, et al. PubMed
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Impact of the CYP3A4*1G polymorphism and its combination with CYP3A5 genotypes on tacrolimus pharmacokinetics in renal transplant patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Miura Masatomo, et al. PubMed
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Transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Müller Fabian, et al. PubMed
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Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium Guidelines for Cytochrome P450-2C19 (CYP2C19) Genotype and Clopidogrel Therapy. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Scott S A, et al. PubMed
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Disease-drug-drug interaction involving tocilizumab and simvastatin in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Schmitt C, et al. PubMed
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Effect of ABCC2 (MRP2) Transport Function on Erythromycin Metabolism. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Franke R M, et al. PubMed
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Pediatric pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic studies: the current state and future perspectives. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2011. Russo Roberta, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics of the RNA world: structural RNA polymorphisms in drug therapy. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Sadee W, et al. PubMed
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Seasonal variation in blood drug concentrations and a potential relationship to vitamin D. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2011. Lindh Jonatan D, et al. PubMed
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Novel polymorphisms associated with tacrolimus trough concentrations: results from a multicenter kidney transplant consortium. Transplantation. 2011. Jacobson Pamala A, et al. PubMed
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Breaking Barriers in the Genomics and Pharmacogenetics of Drug Addiction. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Ho M K, et al. PubMed
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Successful tacrolimus treatment following renal transplant in a HIV-infected patient with raltegravir previously treated with a protease inhibitor based regimen. Drug metabolism and drug interactions. 2011. Cousins Darren, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C9*3 alleles are associated with stent thrombosis: a case-control study. European heart journal. 2010. Harmsze Ankie M, et al. PubMed
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Nuclear receptor-mediated induction of CYP450 by antiretrovirals: functional consequences of NR1I2 (PXR) polymorphisms and differential prevalence in whites and sub-Saharan Africans. Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999). 2010. Svärd Jenny, et al. PubMed
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Pharmocoepigenetics: a new approach to predicting individual drug responses and targeting new drugs. Pharmacological reports : PR. 2011. Baer-Dubowska Wanda, et al. PubMed
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Identifying genomic and developmental causes of adverse drug reactions in children. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Becker Mara L, et al. PubMed
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Induction of CYP3A4 by vinblastine: Role of the nuclear receptor NR1I2. The Annals of pharmacotherapy. 2010. Smith Nicola F, et al. PubMed
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Characterization of 107 genomic DNA reference materials for CYP2D6, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, VKORC1, and UGT1A1: a GeT-RM and Association for Molecular Pathology collaborative project. The Journal of molecular diagnostics : JMD. 2010. Pratt Victoria M, et al. PubMed
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Population Pharmacokinetic modelling of the association between 63396C->T Pregnane-X-Receptor (PXR) polymorphism and unboosted atazanavir clearance. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 2010. Schipani Alessandro, et al. PubMed
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Accurate prediction of dose-dependent CYP3A4 inhibition by itraconazole and its metabolites from in vitro inhibition data. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Templeton I, et al. PubMed
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Impact of genetic polymorphisms and drug-drug interactions on clopidogrel and prasugrel response variability. Current drug metabolism. 2010. Ancrenaz V, et al. PubMed
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Clopidogrel and the reduced-function CYP2C19 genetic variant: a limited piece of the overall therapeutic puzzle. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. 2010. Fuster Valentin, et al. PubMed
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Substrate-specific modulation of CYP3A4 activity by genetic variants of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Agrawal Vishal, et al. PubMed
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Deciphering calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity: a pharmacological approach. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Pallet Nicolas, et al. PubMed
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Using genetic and clinical factors to predict tacrolimus dose in renal transplant recipients. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Wang Ping, et al. PubMed
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Grapefruit juice greatly reduces the plasma concentrations of the OATP2B1 and CYP3A4 substrate aliskiren. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Tapaninen T, et al. PubMed
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In Vitro P450-Mediated Metabolism of Exemestane. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2010. Kamdem Landry K, et al. PubMed
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Gemfibrozil markedly increases the plasma concentrations of montelukast: a previously unrecognized role for CYP2C8 in the metabolism of montelukast. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Karonen T, et al. PubMed
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PharmGKB summary: very important pharmacogene information for CYP2B6. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Thorn Caroline F, et al. PubMed
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Tacrolimus dose requirements and CYP3A5 genotype and the development of calcineurin inhibitor-associated nephrotoxicity in renal allograft recipients. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2010. Kuypers Dirk R J, et al. PubMed
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Association of cyclophosphamide drug-metabolizing enzyme polymorphisms and chemotherapy-related ovarian failure in breast cancer survivors. Fertility and sterility. 2010. Su H Irene, et al. PubMed
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Clopidogrel pathway. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Sangkuhl Katrin, et al. PubMed
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Genetic profile of patients with epilepsy on first-line antiepileptic drugs and potential directions for personalized treatment. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Grover Sandeep, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between the immunosuppressant sirolimus and the lipid-lowering drug ezetimibe in healthy volunteers. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Oswald S, et al. PubMed
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Association between CYP2C19*17 and metabolism of amitriptyline, citalopram and clomipramine in Dutch hospitalized patients. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. de Vos A, et al. PubMed
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Changes in the gene expression profile of gastric cancer cells in response to ibuprofen: a gene pathway analysis. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Bonelli P, et al. PubMed
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Use of pharmacogenetics to optimize immunosuppressive therapy. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2010. Macphee Iain A M. PubMed
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Contributions of human cytochrome P450 enzymes to glyburide metabolism. Biopharmaceutics & drug disposition. 2010. Zhou Lin, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, pregnane/steroid X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor in 207 healthy Spanish volunteers. Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine : CCLM / FESCC. 2010. Oliver Paloma, et al. PubMed
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Identification of the human cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the two oxidative steps in the bioactivation of clopidogrel to its pharmacologically active metabolite. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2010. Kazui Miho, et al. PubMed
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Metabolism and disposition of the thienopyridine antiplatelet drugs ticlopidine, clopidogrel, and prasugrel in humans. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2010. Farid Nagy A, et al. PubMed
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Influence of genetic variation in CYP3A4 and ABCB1 on dose decrease or switching during simvastatin and atorvastatin therapy. Pharmacoepidemiology and drug safety. 2010. Becker Matthijs L, et al. PubMed
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Effect of CYP3A and ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of calcineurin inhibitors: Part II. Clinical pharmacokinetics. 2010. Staatz Christine E, et al. PubMed
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Intronic polymorphism in CYP3A4 affects hepatic expression and response to statin drugs. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Wang D, et al. PubMed
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Effect of CYP3A and ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of calcineurin inhibitors: Part I. Clinical pharmacokinetics. 2010. Staatz Christine E, et al. PubMed
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Polymorphisms in cytochromes P450 2C8 and 3A5 are associated with paclitaxel neurotoxicity. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Leskelä S, et al. PubMed
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SNPs in genes coding for ROS metabolism and signalling in association with docetaxel clearance. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Edvardsen H, et al. PubMed
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Individualizing dosing of irinotecan. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2010. Ratain Mark J, et al. PubMed
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Transporter pharmacogenetics and statin toxicity. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Niemi M. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomic adaptation of antiretroviral therapy: overcoming the failure of lopinavir in an African infant with CYP2D6 ultrarapid metabolism. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2010. Gorny Matthias, et al. PubMed
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Molecular genetics and epigenetics of the cytochrome P450 gene family and its relevance for cancer risk and treatment. Human genetics. 2010. Rodriguez-Antona Cristina, et al. PubMed
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CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 polymorphisms and blood pressure response to amlodipine among African-American men and women with early hypertensive renal disease. American journal of nephrology. 2010. Bhatnagar Vibha, et al. PubMed
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Identification of the major human hepatic and placental enzymes responsible for the biotransformation of glyburide. Biochemical pharmacology. 2009. Zharikova Olga L, et al. PubMed
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Cyclophosphamide-metabolizing enzyme polymorphisms and survival outcomes after adjuvant chemotherapy for node-positive breast cancer: a retrospective cohort study. Breast cancer research : BCR. 2010. Gor Priya P, et al. PubMed
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Population pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics of tacrolimus in de novo pediatric kidney transplant recipients. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Zhao W, et al. PubMed
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Risk to the breast-fed neonate from codeine treatment to the mother: a quantitative mechanistic modeling study. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Willmann S, et al. PubMed
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Effect of hormone metabolism genotypes on steroid hormone levels and menopausal symptoms in a prospective population-based cohort of women experiencing the menopausal transition. Menopause (New York, N.Y.). 2010. Rebbeck Timothy R, et al. PubMed
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Taxane Pathway. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2009. Oshiro Connie, et al. PubMed
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Population analyses of atorvastatin clearance in patients living in the community and in nursing homes. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Schwartz J B, et al. PubMed
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In vivo evaluation of drug-drug interaction via mechanism-based inhibition by macrolide antibiotics in cynomolgus monkeys. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2009. Ogasawara Akihito, et al. PubMed
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Donor age and renal P-glycoprotein expression associate with chronic histological damage in renal allografts. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN. 2009. Naesens Maarten, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P(450)-dependent toxic effects of primaquine on human erythrocytes. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 2009. Ganesan Shobana, et al. PubMed
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Deactivation of anti-cancer drug letrozole to a carbinol metabolite by polymorphic cytochrome P450 2A6 in human liver microsomes. Xenobiotica; the fate of foreign compounds in biological systems. 2009. Murai K, et al. PubMed
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Increased mycophenolic acid exposure in stable kidney transplant recipients on tacrolimus as compared with those on sirolimus: implications for pharmacokinetics. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Braun F, et al. PubMed
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Macrolide-induced digoxin toxicity: a population-based study. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Gomes T, et al. PubMed
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Single nucleotide polymorphism in ABCG2 is associated with irinotecan-induced severe myelosuppression. Journal of human genetics. 2009. Cha Pei-Chieng, et al. PubMed
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The pharmacogenetics of statin therapy: when the body aches, the mind will follow. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2009. Rossi Joseph S, et al. PubMed
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Association of genotypes of the CYP3A cluster with midazolam disposition in vivo. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2009. Miao J, et al. PubMed
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Is there a place for drug combination strategies using clinical pharmacology attributes?--review of current trends in research. Current clinical pharmacology. 2009. Srinivas Nuggehally R. PubMed
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Methadone induces the expression of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes through the activation of pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2009. Tolson Antonia H, et al. PubMed
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The increasing role of pharmacogenetics in the treatment of gastrointestinal cancers. Gastrointestinal cancer research : GCR. 2009. Yalçin Suayib. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics in cardiovascular antithrombotic therapy. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2009. Marín Francisco, et al. PubMed
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Patterns of pharmacogenetic diversity in African populations: role of ancient and recent history. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Oliveira Elisabete, et al. PubMed
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Valproic acid at therapeutic plasma levels may increase 5-azacytidine efficacy in higher risk myelodysplastic syndromes. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2009. Voso Maria Teresa, et al. PubMed
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Metabolism of loratadine and further characterization of its in vitro metabolites. Drug metabolism letters. 2009. Ghosal Anima, et al. PubMed
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O-demethylation of codeine to morphine inhibited by low-dose levomepromazine. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2009. Vevelstad M, et al. PubMed
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Influence of pharmacogenetics on indinavir disposition and short-term response in HIV patients initiating HAART. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2009. Bertrand Julie, et al. PubMed
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Epigenetic and microRNA-dependent control of cytochrome P450 expression: a gap between DNA and protein. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Gomez Alvin, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of anxiolytic drugs. Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996). 2009. Tiwari Arun K, et al. PubMed
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Statin regulation of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 expression. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Willrich Maria Alice Vieira, et al. PubMed
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The genetics of antiplatelet drug resistance. Clinical genetics. 2009. Feher G, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics-based population pharmacokinetic analysis of efavirenz in HIV-1-infected individuals. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Arab-Alameddine M, et al. PubMed
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Genetic variation of CYP2C19 affects both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic responses to clopidogrel but not prasugrel in aspirin-treated patients with coronary artery disease. European heart journal. 2009. Varenhorst Christoph, et al. PubMed
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P2Y(12) inhibitors: differences in properties and mechanisms of action and potential consequences for clinical use. European heart journal. 2009. Wallentin Lars. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 2B6 516G-->T is associated with plasma concentrations of nevirapine at both 200 mg twice daily and 400 mg once daily in an ethnically diverse population. HIV medicine. 2009. Mahungu Tw, et al. PubMed
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Frequency of CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 variant alleles in patients receiving clopidogrel that experience repeat acute coronary syndrome. Heart and vessels. 2009. Brackbill Marcia L, et al. PubMed
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Relation of genetic polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 gene with clopidogrel resistance after drug-eluting stent implantation in Koreans. The American journal of cardiology. 2009. Lee Jung Myung, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacoepigenetics: its role in interindividual differences in drug response. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Gomez A, et al. PubMed
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Explaining variability in tacrolimus pharmacokinetics to optimize early exposure in adult kidney transplant recipients. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2009. Press Rogier R, et al. PubMed
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Assessment of the impact of renal impairment on systemic exposure of new molecular entities: evaluation of recent new drug applications. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Zhang Y, et al. PubMed
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The CYP3A4*18 genotype in the cytochrome P450 3A4 gene, a rapid metabolizer of sex steroids, is associated with low bone mineral density. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Kang Y S, et al. PubMed
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Polymorphic drug metabolism in anaesthesia. Current drug metabolism. 2009. Restrepo Juan G, et al. PubMed
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Ethnic differences in drug metabolism and toxicity from chemotherapy. Expert opinion on drug metabolism & toxicology. 2009. Phan Viet Hong, et al. PubMed
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Application of pharmacogenomics to malaria: a holistic approach for successful chemotherapy. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Mehlotra Rajeev K, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic pathway analysis of docetaxel elimination. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Baker S D, et al. PubMed
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Functional characterization of CYP3A4.16: catalytic activities toward midazolam and carbamazepine. Xenobiotica; the fate of foreign compounds in biological systems. 2009. Maekawa K, et al. PubMed
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Polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing enzymes (GST, CYP2B6 and CYP3A) affect the pharmacokinetics of thiotepa and tepa. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2009. Ekhart Corine, et al. PubMed
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Sorafenib: a review of its use in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Drugs. 2009. Keating Gillian M, et al. PubMed
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Drospirenone/ethinyl estradiol 3 mg/20 mug (24/4 day regimen): hormonal contraceptive choices - use of a fourth-generation progestin. Patient preference and adherence. 2009. Bachmann Gloria, et al. PubMed
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Functional pharmacogenetics/genomics of human cytochromes P450 involved in drug biotransformation. Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry. 2008. Zanger Ulrich M, et al. PubMed
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Nilotinib: a second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Clinical therapeutics. 2008. Deremer David L, et al. PubMed
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Identification of Ginkgo biloba as a novel activator of pregnane X receptor. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2008. Yeung Eugene Y H, et al. PubMed
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Metabolic profiling and cytochrome P450 reaction phenotyping of medroxyprogesterone acetate. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2008. Zhang Jiang-Wei, et al. PubMed
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Benzodiazepine metabolism: an analytical perspective. Current drug metabolism. 2008. Mandrioli Roberto, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacokinetics/genotype associations for major cytochrome P450 enzymes in native and first- and third-generation Japanese populations: comparison with Korean, Chinese, and Caucasian populations. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Myrand S P, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 and gene activation--from pharmacology to cholesterol elimination and regression of atherosclerosis. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2008. Luoma Pauli V. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic insights into codeine analgesia: implications to pediatric codeine use. Pharmacogenomics. 2008. Madadi Parvaz, et al. PubMed
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Association of four DNA polymorphisms with acute rejection after kidney transplantation. Transplant international : official journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation. 2008. Grinyó Josep, et al. PubMed
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The relative contribution of human cytochrome P450 isoforms to the four caffeine oxidation pathways: an in vitro comparative study with cDNA-expressed P450s including CYP2C isoforms. Biochemical pharmacology. 2008. Kot Marta, et al. PubMed
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A comprehensive in vitro and in silico analysis of antibiotics that activate pregnane X receptor and induce CYP3A4 in liver and intestine. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2008. Yasuda Kazuto, et al. PubMed
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Pathways of carbamazepine bioactivation in vitro. III. The role of human cytochrome P450 enzymes in the formation of 2,3-dihydroxycarbamazepine. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2008. Pearce Robin E, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and ABCB1 genotype and expression on budesonide pharmacokinetics: a possible role of intestinal CYP3A4 expression. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Ufer M, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacodynamics of carbamazepine-mediated induction of CYP3A4, CYP1A2, and Pgp as assessed by probe substrates midazolam, caffeine, and digoxin. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Magnusson M O, et al. PubMed
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Naturalistic pharmacogenetic study of treatment resistance to typical neuroleptics in European-Brazilian schizophrenics. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2008. Kohlrausch Fabiana B, et al. PubMed
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Mice as clinically relevant models for the study of cytochrome P450-dependent metabolism. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Muruganandan S, et al. PubMed
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Genetic predictors of glucocorticoid-induced hypertension in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2008. Kamdem Landry K, et al. PubMed
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Influence of polymorphisms of drug metabolizing enzymes (CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, GSTA1, GSTP1, ALDH1A1 and ALDH3A1) on the pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide and 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2008. Ekhart Corine, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 induction by rifampicin in healthy subjects: determination using the Karolinska cocktail and the endogenous CYP3A4 marker 4beta-hydroxycholesterol. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Kanebratt K P, et al. PubMed
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Effect of terbinafine and voriconazole on the pharmacokinetics of the antidepressant venlafaxine. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Hynninen V-V, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of antiretroviral agents. Current opinion in HIV and AIDS. 2008. Owen Andrew, et al. PubMed
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Prediction of pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions using human hepatocyte suspension in plasma and cytochrome P450 phenotypic data. II. In vitro-in vivo correlation with ketoconazole. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2008. Lu Chuang, et al. PubMed
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Role of human pregnane X receptor in tamoxifen- and 4-hydroxytamoxifen-mediated CYP3A4 induction in primary human hepatocytes and LS174T cells. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2008. Sane Rucha S, et al. PubMed
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CYP3A4*1G polymorphism is associated with lipid-lowering efficacy of atorvastatin but not of simvastatin. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2008. Gao Yuan, et al. PubMed
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Clinical use and pharmacological properties of selective COX-2 inhibitors. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2008. Shi Shaojun, et al. PubMed
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Kinetics of omeprazole and escitalopram in relation to the CYP2C19*17 allele in healthy subjects. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2008. Ohlsson Rosenborg Staffan, et al. PubMed
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Quantitative determination of clopidogrel active metabolite in human plasma by LC-MS/MS. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis. 2008. Takahashi Makoto, et al. PubMed
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Calcium-channel blockers reduce the antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2008. Siller-Matula Jolanta M, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 and nongenetic factors predict poor responsiveness to clopidogrel loading dose after coronary stent implantation. Pharmacogenomics. 2008. Geisler Tobias, et al. PubMed
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The ontogeny of drug metabolism enzymes and implications for adverse drug events. Pharmacology & therapeutics. 2008. Hines Ronald N. PubMed
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Effect of cytochrome p450 polymorphisms on platelet reactivity after treatment with clopidogrel in acute coronary syndrome. The American journal of cardiology. 2008. Frere Corinne, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomic and pharmacokinetic determinants of erlotinib toxicity. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2008. Rudin Charles M, et al. PubMed
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Azole antimycotics differentially affect rifampicin-induced pregnane X receptor-mediated CYP3A4 gene expression. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2008. Svecova Lucie, et al. PubMed
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Effects of the CYP2D6 gene duplication on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of tramadol. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. 2008. Kirchheiner Julia, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of cyclosporine in children suggests an age-dependent influence of ABCB1 polymorphisms. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2008. Fanta Samuel, et al. PubMed
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Polymorphism of antimalaria drug metabolizing, nuclear receptor, and drug transport genes among malaria patients in Zanzibar, East Africa. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2008. Ferreira Pedro Eduardo, et al. PubMed
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Contribution of itraconazole metabolites to inhibition of CYP3A4 in vivo. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Templeton I E, et al. PubMed
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Ritonavir 100 mg does not cause QTc prolongation in healthy subjects: a possible role as CYP3A inhibitor in thorough QTc studies. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Sarapa N, et al. PubMed
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Novel single nucleotide polymorphisms in the promoter and intron 1 of human pregnane X receptor/NR1I2 and their association with CYP3A4 expression. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2008. Lamba Jatinder, et al. PubMed
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Genetic risk for metabolic syndrome: examination of candidate gene polymorphisms related to lipid metabolism in Japanese people. Journal of medical genetics. 2008. Yamada Y, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacokinetic genes do not influence response or tolerance to citalopram in the STAR*D sample. PloS one. 2008. Peters Eric J, et al. PubMed
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Clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of etoricoxib. Clinical pharmacokinetics. 2008. Takemoto Jody K, et al. PubMed
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Clinical pharmacology of artemisinin-based combination therapies. Clinical pharmacokinetics. 2008. German Polina I, et al. PubMed
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The enzymatic basis of drug-drug interactions with systemic triazole antifungals. Clinical pharmacokinetics. 2008. Nivoix Yasmine, et al. PubMed
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CYP3A5 and CYP3A4 but not MDR1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms determine long-term tacrolimus disposition and drug-related nephrotoxicity in renal recipients. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Kuypers D R J, et al. PubMed
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Pyrethroids: cytotoxicity and induction of CYP isoforms in human hepatocytes. Drug metabolism and drug interactions. 2008. Das Parikshit C, et al. PubMed
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The environmental genome project: reference polymorphisms for drug metabolism genes and genome-wide association studies. Drug metabolism reviews. 2008. Rieder Mark J, et al. PubMed
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Complicated pain management in a CYP450 2D6 poor metabolizer. Pain practice : the official journal of World Institute of Pain. 2007. Foster Adriana, et al. PubMed
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Caffeine as a marker substrate for testing cytochrome P450 activity in human and rat. Pharmacological reports : PR. 2008. Kot Marta, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of aliskiren, an oral direct renin inhibitor. Pharmacological reports : PR. 2008. Buczko W¿odzimierz, et al. PubMed
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Influence of cytochrome P450 polymorphisms on drug therapies: pharmacogenetic, pharmacoepigenetic and clinical aspects. Pharmacology & therapeutics. 2007. Ingelman-Sundberg Magnus, et al. PubMed
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Paclitaxel, carboplatin, 5-fluorouracil, and radiation for locally advanced esophageal cancer: phase II results of preliminary pharmacologic and molecular efforts to mitigate toxicity and predict outcomes: North Central Cancer Treatment Group (N0044). American journal of clinical oncology. 2007. Jatoi Aminah, et al. PubMed
Association between CYP3A4 genotype and risk of endometrial cancer following tamoxifen use. Carcinogenesis. 2007. Chu William, et al. PubMed
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Characterization of human cytochrome p450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of cilostazol. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2007. Hiratsuka Masahiro, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic assessment of toxicity and outcome after platinum plus taxane chemotherapy in ovarian cancer: the Scottish Randomised Trial in Ovarian Cancer. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2007. Marsh Sharon, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic analysis of paclitaxel transport and metabolism genes in breast cancer. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2007. Marsh S, et al. PubMed
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Selective induction of human hepatic cytochromes P450 2B6 and 3A4 by metamizole. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Saussele T, et al. PubMed
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Effects of genetic polymorphism of cytochrome P450 enzymes on the pharmacokinetics of benzodiazepines. Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. 2007. Fukasawa T, et al. PubMed
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Valproic acid induces CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene expression by activation of constitutive androstane receptor and pregnane X receptor pathways. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2007. Cerveny Lukas, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 3A polymorphisms and immunosuppressive drugs: an update. Pharmacogenomics. 2007. Anglicheau Dany, et al. PubMed
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A comparison of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of docetaxel between African-American and Caucasian cancer patients: CALGB 9871. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2007. Lewis Lionel D, et al. PubMed
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Effects of daily ingestion of cranberry juice on the pharmacokinetics of warfarin, tizanidine, and midazolam--probes of CYP2C9, CYP1A2, and CYP3A4. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Lilja J J, et al. PubMed
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Effects of uptake and efflux transporter inhibition on erythromycin breath test results. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Frassetto L A, et al. PubMed
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Ancestry and pharmacogenetics of antileukemic drug toxicity. Blood. 2007. Kishi Shinji, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 gene polymorphisms on clopidogrel responsiveness in healthy subjects. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2007. Fontana P, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 2C19 loss-of-function polymorphism, but not CYP3A4 IVS10 + 12G/A and P2Y12 T744C polymorphisms, is associated with response variability to dual antiplatelet treatment in high-risk vascular patients. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2007. Giusti Betti, et al. PubMed
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Sex-dependent genetic markers of CYP3A4 expression and activity in human liver microsomes. Pharmacogenomics. 2007. Schirmer Markus, et al. PubMed
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Naringin is a major and selective clinical inhibitor of organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1A2 (OATP1A2) in grapefruit juice. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Bailey D G, et al. PubMed
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Ontogeny of dextromethorphan O- and N-demethylation in the first year of life. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Blake M J, et al. PubMed
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Expression levels and activation of a PXR variant are directly related to drug resistance in osteosarcoma cell lines. Cancer. 2007. Mensah-Osman Edith J, et al. PubMed
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Intestinal drug transporter expression and the impact of grapefruit juice in humans. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Glaeser H, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of paclitaxel metabolism. Critical reviews in oncology/hematology. 2007. Spratlin Jennifer, et al. PubMed
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Profile of polymorphisms of drug-metabolising enzymes and the risk of therapy-related leukaemia. British journal of haematology. 2007. Bolufer Pascual, et al. PubMed
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Appropriate phenotyping procedures for drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters in humans and their simultaneous use in the "cocktail" approach. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Fuhr U, et al. PubMed
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Effects of green tea compounds on irinotecan metabolism. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2007. Mirkov Snezana, et al. PubMed
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CYP2A6 polymorphisms: is there a role for pharmacogenomics in preventing coumarin-induced hepatotoxicity in lymphedema patients?. Pharmacogenomics. 2007. Farinola Nicholas, et al. PubMed
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ABCB1 and cytochrome P450 genotypes and phenotypes: influence on methadone plasma levels and response to treatment. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Crettol Séverine, et al. PubMed
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Imatinib: a review of its use in the management of gastrointestinal stromal tumours. Drugs. 2007. Siddiqui M Asif A, et al. PubMed
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Stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase is essential for the induction of drug metabolizing enzymes by phenobarbital in human and mouse liver. Molecular pharmacology. 2006. Rencurel Franck, et al. PubMed
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A phase II study of irinotecan and carboplatin in advanced non-small cell lung cancer with pharmacogenomic analysis: final report. Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. 2006. Pillot Giancarlo A, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP2D6 polymorphism on 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ('Ecstasy') cytotoxicity. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2006. Carmo Helena, et al. PubMed
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Ritonavir-fluticasone interaction causing Cushing syndrome in HIV-infected children and adolescents. The Pediatric infectious disease journal. 2006. Arrington-Sanders Renata, et al. PubMed
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Interactions between natural health products and antiretroviral drugs: pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 2006. Lee Lawrence S, et al. PubMed
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Population pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenomic analysis of tacrolimus in pediatric living-donor liver transplant recipients. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Fukudo Masahide, et al. PubMed
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Estrogen sulfation genes, hormone replacement therapy, and endometrial cancer risk. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2006. Rebbeck Timothy R, et al. PubMed
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Systematic screening for polymorphisms in the CYP3A4 gene in the Chinese population. Pharmacogenomics. 2006. Du Jing, et al. PubMed
Impact of the haplotype CYP3A4*16B harboring the Thr185Ser substitution on paclitaxel metabolism in Japanese patients with cancer. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Nakajima Yukiko, et al. PubMed
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Factors influencing midazolam hydroxylation activity in human liver microsomes. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2006. He Ping, et al. PubMed
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Ketoconazole and miconazole are antagonists of the human glucocorticoid receptor: consequences on the expression and function of the constitutive androstane receptor and the pregnane X receptor. Molecular pharmacology. 2006. Duret Cedric, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacokinetics and toxicity of docetaxel: role of CYP3A, MDR1, and GST polymorphisms. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Tran A, et al. PubMed
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Biotransformation of fluticasone: in vitro characterization. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2006. Pearce Robin E, et al. PubMed
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Acquired resistance to the anticancer drug paclitaxel is associated with induction of cytochrome P450 2C8. Pharmacogenomics. 2006. García-Martín Elena, et al. PubMed
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Expression of drug pathway proteins is independent of tumour type. The Journal of pathology. 2006. Zhang W, et al. PubMed
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Clopidogrel pharmacogenetics: promising steps towards patient care?. Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology. 2006. Beitelshees Amber L, et al. PubMed
Contribution of gene sequence variations of the hepatic cytochrome P450 3A4 enzyme to variability in individual responsiveness to clopidogrel. Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology. 2006. Angiolillo Dominick J, et al. PubMed
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Pioglitazone is metabolised by CYP2C8 and CYP3A4 in vitro: potential for interactions with CYP2C8 inhibitors. Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology. 2006. Jaakkola Tiina, et al. PubMed
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Role of CYP3A4 in the regulation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor by omeprazole sulphide. Cellular signalling. 2006. Gerbal-Chaloin Sabine, et al. PubMed
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Drug interactions with lipid-lowering drugs: mechanisms and clinical relevance. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Neuvonen Pertti J, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral oxycodone in healthy human subjects: role of circulating active metabolites. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Lalovic Bojan, et al. PubMed
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Telithromycin, but not montelukast, increases the plasma concentrations and effects of the cytochrome P450 3A4 and 2C8 substrate repaglinide. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Kajosaari Lauri I, et al. PubMed
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Interactions of two major metabolites of prasugrel, a thienopyridine antiplatelet agent, with the cytochromes P450. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2006. Rehmel Jessica L Fayer, et al. PubMed
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Clinical impact of CYP2C19 polymorphism on the action of proton pump inhibitors: a review of a special problem. International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Klotz U. PubMed
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CYP2D6 polymorphism and clinical effect of the antidepressant venlafaxine. Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. 2006. Shams M E E, et al. PubMed
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Antiplatelet drug resistance and drug-drug interactions: Role of cytochrome P450 3A4. Pharmaceutical research. 2006. Lau Wei C, et al. PubMed
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Dominant contribution of P450 3A4 to the hepatic carcinogenic activation of aflatoxin B1. Chemical research in toxicology. 2006. Kamdem Landry K, et al. PubMed
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Identification and characterization of CYP3A4*20, a novel rare CYP3A4 allele without functional activity. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Westlind-Johnsson Anna, et al. PubMed
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From bedside to bench to bedside to clinical practice: an odyssey with irinotecan. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2006. Ratain Mark J. PubMed
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Metabolism and excretion of erlotinib, a small molecule inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, in healthy male volunteers. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2006. Ling Jie, et al. PubMed
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Quantitative prediction of macrolide drug-drug interaction potential from in vitro studies using testosterone as the human cytochrome P4503A substrate. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2006. Polasek Thomas M, et al. PubMed
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Polymorphism discovery in 51 chemotherapy pathway genes. Human molecular genetics. 2005. Freimuth Robert R, et al. PubMed
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Prednisolone pharmacokinetics in the presence and absence of ritonavir after oral prednisone administration to healthy volunteers. Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999). 2005. Penzak Scott R, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450s and other enzymes in drug metabolism and toxicity. The AAPS journal. 2006. Guengerich F Peter. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of long-term responses to antiretroviral regimens containing Efavirenz and/or Nelfinavir: an Adult Aids Clinical Trials Group Study. The Journal of infectious diseases. 2005. Haas David W, et al. PubMed
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Overview of the pharmacogenetics of HIV therapy. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2006. Rodríguez-Nóvoa S, et al. PubMed
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Association of CYP2C8, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and ABCB1 polymorphisms with the pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2005. Henningsson Anja, et al. PubMed
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Kinetic study of cytochrome P450 3A4 activity on warfarin by capillary electrophoresis with fluorescence detection. Journal of chromatography. A. 2005. Zhang Jie, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of outcome in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood. 2005. Rocha Jose Claudio C, et al. PubMed
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Antimalarial artemisinin drugs induce cytochrome P450 and MDR1 expression by activation of xenosensors pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor. Molecular pharmacology. 2005. Burk Oliver, et al. PubMed
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Functionally defective or altered CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 single nucleotide polymorphisms and their detection with genotyping tests. Pharmacogenomics. 2005. Lee Su-Jun, et al. PubMed
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Genotype-phenotype associations of cytochrome P450 3A4 and 3A5 polymorphism with midazolam clearance in vivo. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2005. He Ping, et al. PubMed
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The role of common variants of ABCB1, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5 genes in lipid-lowering efficacy and safety of simvastatin treatment. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2005. Fiegenbaum Marilu, et al. PubMed
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Ile118Val genetic polymorphism of CYP3A4 and its effects on lipid-lowering efficacy of simvastatin in Chinese hyperlipidemic patients. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2005. Wang An, et al. PubMed
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Recombinant CYP3A4*17 is defective in metabolizing the hypertensive drug nifedipine, and the CYP3A4*17 allele may occur on the same chromosome as CYP3A5*3, representing a new putative defective CYP3A haplotype. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 2005. Lee Su-Jun, et al. PubMed
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Consequences of genetic polymorphisms for sirolimus requirements after renal transplant in patients on primary sirolimus therapy. American journal of transplantation : official journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons. 2005. Anglicheau Dany, et al. PubMed
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Metabolism of alfentanil by cytochrome p4503a (cyp3a) enzymes. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2005. Klees Theresa Mariero, et al. PubMed
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Sertraline is metabolized by multiple cytochrome P450 enzymes, monoamine oxidases, and glucuronyl transferases in human: an in vitro study. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2005. Obach R Scott, et al. PubMed
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Ezetimibe: a review of its metabolism, pharmacokinetics and drug interactions. Clinical pharmacokinetics. 2005. Kosoglou Teddy, et al. PubMed
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An association study of 43 SNPs in 16 candidate genes with atorvastatin response. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2005. Thompson J F, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of efavirenz and central nervous system side effects: an Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group study. AIDS (London, England). 2004. Haas David W, et al. PubMed
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[Effect of tofisopam on CYP3A4 enzyme activity on human recombinant 3A4 supersome]. Acta pharmaceutica Hungarica. 2005. Tóth Mária, et al. PubMed
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Clinical pharmacokinetics of imatinib. Clinical pharmacokinetics. 2005. Peng Bin, et al. PubMed
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Clinical pharmacokinetics of losartan. Clinical pharmacokinetics. 2005. Sica Domenic A, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacokinetic drug interactions of gefitinib with rifampicin, itraconazole and metoprolol. Clinical pharmacokinetics. 2005. Swaisland Helen C, et al. PubMed
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Role of cytochrome P450 activity in the fate of anticancer agents and in drug resistance: focus on tamoxifen, paclitaxel and imatinib metabolism. Clinical pharmacokinetics. 2005. Rochat Bertrand. PubMed
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Codeine intoxication associated with ultrarapid CYP2D6 metabolism. The New England journal of medicine. 2004. Gasche Yvan, et al. PubMed
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Estrogen-metabolizing gene polymorphisms and lipid levels in women with different hormonal status. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2005. Almeida S, et al. PubMed
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CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP3A43 genotypes and haplotypes in the etiology and severity of prostate cancer. Cancer research. 2004. Zeigler-Johnson Charnita, et al. PubMed
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Induction of CYP3A4 by efavirenz in primary human hepatocytes: comparison with rifampin and phenobarbital. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2004. Hariparsad Niresh, et al. PubMed
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Estrogen regulation of the cytochrome P450 3A subfamily in humans. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 2004. Williams Eric T, et al. PubMed
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Characterization of human cytochrome P450 enzymes catalyzing domperidone N-dealkylation and hydroxylation in vitro. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2004. Ward Bryan A, et al. PubMed
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The induction of cytochrome P450 3A5 (CYP3A5) in the human liver and intestine is mediated by the xenobiotic sensors pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutively activated receptor (CAR). The Journal of biological chemistry. 2004. Burk Oliver, et al. PubMed
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Levothyroxine up-regulates P-glycoprotein independent of the pregnane X receptor. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2004. Mitin Tim, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of tipifarnib (R115777) transport and metabolism in cancer patients. Investigational new drugs. 2004. Sparreboom Alex, et al. PubMed
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Contribution of hepatic cytochrome P450 3A4 metabolic activity to the phenomenon of clopidogrel resistance. Circulation. 2004. Lau Wei C, et al. PubMed
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Effect of cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibition on the pharmacokinetics of docetaxel. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2004. Engels Frederike K, et al. PubMed
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Comparative pharmacokinetic interaction profiles of pravastatin, simvastatin, and atorvastatin when coadministered with cytochrome P450 inhibitors. The American journal of cardiology. 2004. Jacobson Terry A. PubMed
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Identification and relative contributions of human cytochrome P450 isoforms involved in the metabolism of glibenclamide and lansoprazole: evaluation of an approach based on the in vitro substrate disappearance rate. Xenobiotica; the fate of foreign compounds in biological systems. 2004. Naritomi Y, et al. PubMed
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CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 involvement in the primary oxidative metabolism of hydrocodone by human liver microsomes. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2004. Hutchinson Mark R, et al. PubMed
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United States Food and Drug Administration Drug Approval summary: Gefitinib (ZD1839; Iressa) tablets. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2004. Cohen Martin H, et al. PubMed
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Haplotypes of CYP3A4 and their close linkage with CYP3A5 haplotypes in a Japanese population. Human mutation. 2004. Fukushima-Uesaka Hiromi, et al. PubMed
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Some aspects of genetic polymorphism in the biotransformation of antidepressants. Thérapie. 2004. Brøsen Kim. PubMed
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Tiotropium bromide. A review of its use as maintenance therapy in patients with COPD. Treatments in respiratory medicine. 2004. Keam Susan J, et al. PubMed
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A rapid and simple CYP2D6 genotyping assay--case study with the analgetic tramadol. Metabolism: clinical and experimental. 2003. Borlak Jürgen, et al. PubMed
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Tolerability and safety of eletriptan in the treatment of migraine: a comprehensive review. Headache. 2003. Mathew Ninan T, et al. PubMed
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Genotype-phenotype associations for common CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 variants in the basal and induced metabolism of midazolam in European- and African-American men and women. Pharmacogenetics. 2003. Floyd Michael D, et al. PubMed
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Alpha-hydroxylation of tamoxifen and toremifene by human and rat cytochrome P450 3A subfamily enzymes. Chemical research in toxicology. 2003. Kim Sung Yeon, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphisms of the CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and MDR-1 genes and pharmacokinetics of the calcineurin inhibitors cyclosporine and tacrolimus. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2003. Hesselink Dennis A, et al. PubMed
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In vitro metabolism of midazolam, triazolam, nifedipine, and testosterone by human liver microsomes and recombinant cytochromes p450: role of cyp3a4 and cyp3a5. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2003. Patki Kiran C, et al. PubMed
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Comparative analysis of CYP3A expression in human liver suggests only a minor role for CYP3A5 in drug metabolism. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2003. Westlind-Johnsson Anna, et al. PubMed
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Influence of a 3-day regimen of azithromycin on the disposition kinetics of cyclosporine A in stable renal transplant patients. Pharmacological research : the official journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society. 2003. Bachmann Kenneth, et al. PubMed
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The human hepatic metabolism of simvastatin hydroxy acid is mediated primarily by CYP3A, and not CYP2D6. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2003. Prueksaritanont Thomayant, et al. PubMed
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The metabolism of clopidogrel is catalyzed by human cytochrome P450 3A and is inhibited by atorvastatin. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2003. Clarke Thomas A, et al. PubMed
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Differential drug-induced mRNA expression of human CYP3A4 compared to CYP3A5, CYP3A7 and CYP3A43. European journal of pharmacology. 2003. Krusekopf Solveigh, et al. PubMed
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Grapefruit juice and potential drug interactions. The Consultant pharmacist : the journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists. 2003. Hare Justin T, et al. PubMed
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Kinetics of metabolism and degradation of mometasone furoate in rat biological fluids and tissues. The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology. 2003. Teng X W, et al. PubMed
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Effects of prototypical microsomal enzyme inducers on cytochrome P450 expression in cultured human hepatocytes. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2003. Madan Ajay, et al. PubMed
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Human extrahepatic cytochromes P450: function in xenobiotic metabolism and tissue-selective chemical toxicity in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology. 2003. Ding Xinxin, et al. PubMed
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Clinical pharmacokinetics of galantamine. Clinical pharmacokinetics. 2003. Farlow Martin R. PubMed
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Increased transcriptional activity of the CYP3A4*1B promoter variant. Environmental and molecular mutagenesis. 2003. Amirimani B, et al. PubMed
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Genetic contribution to variable human CYP3A-mediated metabolism. Advanced drug delivery reviews. 2002. Lamba Jatinder K, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphisms in CYP3A5, CYP3A4 and NQO1 in children who developed therapy-related myeloid malignancies. Pharmacogenetics. 2002. Blanco Javier G, et al. PubMed
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Interindividual variability and tissue-specificity in the expression of cytochrome P450 3A mRNA. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2002. Koch Ina, et al. PubMed
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Development of a real-time in vivo transcription assay: application reveals pregnane X receptor-mediated induction of CYP3A4 by cancer chemotherapeutic agents. Molecular pharmacology. 2002. Schuetz Erin, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Nuclear pregnane x receptor and constitutive androstane receptor regulate overlapping but distinct sets of genes involved in xenobiotic detoxification. Molecular pharmacology. 2002. Maglich Jodi M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Putative role of the orphan nuclear receptor SXR (steroid and xenobiotic receptor) in the mechanism of CYP3A4 inhibition by xenobiotics. The Journal of biological chemistry. 2002. Takeshita Akira, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Effects of St. John's wort on irinotecan metabolism. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2002. Mathijssen Ron H J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP3A4 induction by drugs: correlation between a pregnane X receptor reporter gene assay and CYP3A4 expression in human hepatocytes. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2002. Luo Gang, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The N-demethylation of the doxepin isomers is mainly catalyzed by the polymorphic CYP2C19. Pharmaceutical research. 2002. Härtter Sebastian, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Expression of CYP3A4, CYP2B6, and CYP2C9 is regulated by the vitamin D receptor pathway in primary human hepatocytes. The Journal of biological chemistry. 2002. Drocourt Lionel, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Effect of interferon alpha-ribavirin bitherapy on cytochrome P450 1A2 and 2D6 and N-acetyltransferase-2 activities in patients with chronic active hepatitis C. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2002. Becquemont Laurent, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Drug-drug interaction in pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics. Rinsho byori. The Japanese journal of clinical pathology. 2002. Ozawa Shogo. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
A cell-based reporter gene assay for determining induction of CYP3A4 in a high-volume system. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 2002. Raucy Judy, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP3A4 variant alleles in white individuals with low CYP3A4 enzyme activity. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2002. García-Martín Elena, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Common allelic variants of cytochrome P4503A4 and their prevalence in different populations. Pharmacogenetics. 2002. Lamba Jatinder K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Effect of modafinil on the pharmacokinetics of ethinyl estradiol and triazolam in healthy volunteers. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2002. Robertson Philmore, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Regulation of multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (ABCC2) by the nuclear receptors pregnane X receptor, farnesoid X-activated receptor, and constitutive androstane receptor. The Journal of biological chemistry. 2002. Kast Heidi R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Galantamine--a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease. CNS drug reviews. 2002. Lilienfeld Sean. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Cytochrome P450 Involvement in the biotransformation of cisapride and racemic norcisapride in vitro: differential activity of individual human CYP3A isoforms. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2001. Pearce R E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Transcriptional control of intestinal cytochrome P-4503A by 1alpha,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3. Molecular pharmacology. 2001. Thummel K E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Med-psych drug-drug interactions update. Psychosomatics. 2002. Armstrong Scott C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Differential metabolism of alprazolam by liver and brain cytochrome (P4503A) to pharmacologically active metabolite. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2002. Pai H V, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Identification of human drug-metabolizing enzymes involved in the metabolism of SNI-2011. Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin. 2001. Washio T, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
In vitro evaluation of valproic acid as an inhibitor of human cytochrome P450 isoforms: preferential inhibition of cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9). British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2001. Wen X, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
A new metabolite of irinotecan in which formation is mediated by human hepatic cytochrome P-450 3A4. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2001. Sai K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Evidence of impaired cisapride metabolism in neonates. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2001. Tréluyer J M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Calcium channel modulators of the dihydropyridine family are human pregnane X receptor activators and inducers of CYP3A, CYP2B, and CYP2C in human hepatocytes. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2001. Drocourt L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The human pregnane X receptor: genomic structure and identification and functional characterization of natural allelic variants. Pharmacogenetics. 2001. Zhang J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Peptide mimetic HIV protease inhibitors are ligands for the orphan receptor SXR. The Journal of biological chemistry. 2001. Dussault I, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Effect of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics of losartan and its active metabolite E3174 in healthy volunteers. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2001. Zaidenstein R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Identification and functional characterization of eight CYP3A4 protein variants. Pharmacogenetics. 2001. Eiselt R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
In vitro stimulation of warfarin metabolism by quinidine: increases in the formation of 4'- and 10-hydroxywarfarin. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2001. Ngui J S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genomic organization of the human CYP3A locus: identification of a new, inducible CYP3A gene. Pharmacogenetics. 2001. Gellner K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Clinical pharmacokinetics of fluvastatin. Clinical pharmacokinetics. 2001. Scripture C D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Formation of a dihydroxy metabolite of phenytoin in human liver microsomes/cytosol: roles of cytochromes P450 2C9, 2C19, and 3A4. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2000. Komatsu T, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
In vivo and in vitro induction of human cytochrome P4503A4 by dexamethasone. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2000. McCune J S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Role of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) in the stereospecific metabolism of E- and Z-doxepin. Pharmacogenetics. 2000. Haritos V S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Phenytoin metabolism by human cytochrome P450: involvement of P450 3A and 2C forms in secondary metabolism and drug-protein adduct formation. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2000. Cuttle L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
St. John's wort induces hepatic drug metabolism through activation of the pregnane X receptor. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2000. Moore L B, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Expression and induction of CYP1A1/1A2, CYP2A6 and CYP3A4 in primary cultures of human hepatocytes: a 10-year follow-up. Xenobiotica; the fate of foreign compounds in biological systems. 2000. Meunier V, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Equally potent inhibitors of cholesterol synthesis in human hepatocytes have distinguishable effects on different cytochrome P450 enzymes. Biopharmaceutics & drug disposition. 2000. Cohen L H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Orphan nuclear receptors constitutive androstane receptor and pregnane X receptor share xenobiotic and steroid ligands. The Journal of biological chemistry. 2000. Moore L B, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Major role of human liver microsomal cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) in the oxidative metabolism of celecoxib, a novel cyclooxygenase-II inhibitor. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 2000. Tang C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Steady state plasma levels of the enantiomers of trimipramine and of its metabolites in CYP2D6-, CYP2C19- and CYP3A4/5-phenotyped patients. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2000. Eap C B, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
CYP3A4 allelic variants with amino acid substitutions in exons 7 and 12: evidence for an allelic variant with altered catalytic activity. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2000. Sata F, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Identification of the human cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the in vitro metabolism of artemisinin. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 1999. Svensson U S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Nortriptyline E-10-hydroxylation in vitro is mediated by human CYP2D6 (high affinity) and CYP3A4 (low affinity): implications for interactions with enzyme-inducing drugs. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 1999. Venkatakrishnan K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Roles of CYP2A6 and CYP2B6 in nicotine C-oxidation by human liver microsomes. Archives of toxicology. 1999. Yamazaki H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Clinical pharmacokinetics of docetaxel. Clinical pharmacokinetics. 1999. Clarke S J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Cytochrome P-450 3A4: regulation and role in drug metabolism. Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology. 1999. Guengerich F P. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Efavirenz. Drugs. 1998. Adkins J C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Role of human cytochrome P450 3A4 and 3A5 in the metabolism of taxotere and its derivatives: enzyme specificity, interindividual distribution and metabolic contribution in human liver. Pharmacogenetics. 1998. Shou M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Association of CYP3A4 genotype with treatment-related leukemia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1998. Felix C A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Identification of a human nuclear receptor defines a new signaling pathway for CYP3A induction. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1998. Bertilsson G, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Modification of clinical presentation of prostate tumors by a novel genetic variant in CYP3A4. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 1998. Rebbeck T R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Trazodone is metabolized to m-chlorophenylpiperazine by CYP3A4 from human sources. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 1998. Rotzinger S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Non-monooxygenase cytochromes P450 as potential human autoantigens in anticonvulsant hypersensitivity reactions. Pharmacogenetics. 1998. Leeder J S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Contribution of human hepatic cytochrome P450 isoforms to regioselective hydroxylation of steroid hormones. Xenobiotica; the fate of foreign compounds in biological systems. 1998. Niwa T, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Metabolism of beta-arteether to dihydroqinghaosu by human liver microsomes and recombinant cytochrome P450. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 1998. Grace J M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Modification of paclitaxel metabolism in a cancer patient by induction of cytochrome P450 3A4. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 1998. Monsarrat B, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Induction of CYP2D6 in pregnancy. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 1997. Wadelius M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Expression of enzymatically active CYP3A4 by Caco-2 cells grown on extracellular matrix-coated permeable supports in the presence of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Molecular pharmacology. 1997. Schmiedlin-Ren P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Identification of three cytochrome P450 isozymes involved in N-demethylation of citalopram enantiomers in human liver microsomes. Pharmacogenetics. 1997. Rochat B, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Imipramine demethylation in vivo: impact of CYP1A2, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 1997. Madsen H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Role of human hepatic cytochrome P450 1A2 and 3A4 in the metabolic activation of estrone. Carcinogenesis. 1997. Shou M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Human cytochrome P450 enzymes: a status report summarizing their reactions, substrates, inducers, and inhibitors. Drug metabolism reviews. 1997. Rendic S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The aliphatic oxidation of salmeterol to alpha-hydroxysalmeterol in human liver microsomes is catalyzed by CYP3A. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 1996. Manchee G R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Human cytochromes P4501A1 and P4501A2: R-warfarin metabolism as a probe. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 1995. Zhang Z, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The emerging role of cytochrome P450 3A in psychopharmacology. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. 1995. Ketter T A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Variability in human cytochrome P450 paclitaxel metabolism. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 1995. Sonnichsen D S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and interactions of psychotropic drugs: a five-year update. International journal of psychiatry in medicine. 1995. Shen W W. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
O-demethylation of epipodophyllotoxins is catalyzed by human cytochrome P450 3A4. Molecular pharmacology. 1994. Relling M V, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Gene structure of CYP3A4, an adult-specific form of cytochrome P450 in human livers, and its transcriptional control. European journal of biochemistry / FEBS. 1993. Hashimoto H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The use of caffeine for enzyme assays: a critical appraisal. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 1993. Kalow W, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Role of cytochrome P-450 from the human CYP3A gene family in the potentiation of morpholino doxorubicin by human liver microsomes. Cancer research. 1992. Lewis A D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Assignment of the human cytochrome P-450 nifedipine oxidase gene (CYP3A4) to chromosome 7 at band q22.1 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The Japanese journal of human genetics. 1992. Inoue K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Effects of imidazole derivatives on cytochromes P450 from human hepatocytes in primary culture. The FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. 1992. Maurice M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Cytochrome P-450 3A enzymes are responsible for biotransformation of FK506 and rapamycin in man and rat. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 1992. Sattler M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Clinical pharmacokinetics of prednisone and prednisolone. Clinical pharmacokinetics. 1990. Frey B M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Human liver microsomal steroid metabolism: identification of the major microsomal steroid hormone 6 beta-hydroxylase cytochrome P-450 enzyme. Archives of biochemistry and biophysics. 1988. Waxman D J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Complete cDNA sequence of a cytochrome P-450 inducible by glucocorticoids in human liver. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1986. Molowa D T, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ftp://ftpguest:4guest@ftp.pharmgkb.org/download/PKB_N00000014.pdf. [URL:ftp://ftpguest:4guest@ftp.pharmgkb.org/download/PKB_N00000014.pdf]
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ftp://ftpguest:4guest@ftp.pharmgkb.org/download/PKB_N00000017.html. [URL:ftp://ftpguest:4guest@ftp.pharmgkb.org/download/PKB_N00000017.html]
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
http://www.medscape.com/druginfo/monoinfobyid?cid=med&monotype=druginter&monoid=1697&mononame=CLARITHROMYCIN;+TELITHROMYCIN/IXABEPILONE&drugid=5030&drugname=Clarithromycin+Oral&intertype=server. [URL:http://www.medscape.com/druginfo/monoinfobyid?cid=med&monotype=druginter&monoid=1697&mononame=CLARITHROMYCIN;+TELITHROMYCIN/IXABEPILONE&drugid=5030&drugname=Clarithromycin+Oral&intertype=server]

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ALFRED:
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