Gene:
CYP2D6
cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily D, polypeptide 6

Available Guidelines

  1. CPIC Dosing Guideline for amitriptyline and CYP2C19, CYP2D6
  2. CPIC Dosing Guideline for clomipramine and CYP2C19, CYP2D6
  3. CPIC Dosing Guideline for codeine and CYP2D6
  4. CPIC Dosing Guideline for desipramine and CYP2D6
  5. CPIC Dosing Guideline for doxepin and CYP2C19, CYP2D6
  6. CPIC Dosing Guideline for imipramine and CYP2C19, CYP2D6
  7. CPIC Dosing Guideline for nortriptyline and CYP2D6
  8. CPIC Dosing Guideline for trimipramine and CYP2C19, CYP2D6
  9. Professional Society Guideline for codeine and CYP2D6
  10. Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for amitriptyline and CYP2D6
  11. Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for aripiprazole and CYP2D6
  12. Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for atomoxetine and CYP2D6
  13. Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for carvedilol and CYP2D6
  14. Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for clomipramine and CYP2D6
  15. Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for clozapine and CYP2D6
  16. Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for codeine and CYP2D6
  17. Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for doxepin and CYP2D6
  18. Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for duloxetine and CYP2D6
  19. Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for flecainide and CYP2D6
  20. Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for flupenthixol and CYP2D6
  21. Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for haloperidol and CYP2D6
  22. Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for imipramine and CYP2D6
  23. Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for metoprolol and CYP2D6
  24. Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for mirtazapine and CYP2D6
  25. Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for nortriptyline and CYP2D6
  26. Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for olanzapine and CYP2D6
  27. Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for oxycodone and CYP2D6
  28. Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for paroxetine and CYP2D6
  29. Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for propafenone and CYP2D6
  30. Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for risperidone and CYP2D6
  31. Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for tamoxifen and CYP2D6
  32. Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for tramadol and CYP2D6
  33. Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for venlafaxine and CYP2D6
  34. Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for zuclopenthixol and CYP2D6

last updated 01/16/2013

CPIC Dosing Guideline for amitriptyline and CYP2C19, CYP2D6

Summary

The CPIC Dosing Guideline for amitriptyline recommends an alternative drug for CYP2D6 or CYP2C19 ultrarapid metabolizers and for CYP2D6 poor metabolizers. Consider a 50% dose reduction for CYP2C19 poor metabolizers and a 25% dose reduction for CYP2D6 intermediate metabolizers.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.


last updated 01/16/2013

CPIC Dosing Guideline for clomipramine and CYP2C19, CYP2D6

Summary

Tricyclic antidepressants have comparable pharmacokinetic properties, it may be reasonable to apply the CPIC Dosing Guideline for amitriptyline and CYP2C19, CYP2D6 to other tricyclics including clomipramine. In the guideline for amitriptyline, an alternative drug is recommended for CYP2D6 or CYP2C19 ultrarapid metabolizers and for CYP2D6 poor metabolizers. Consider a 50% dose reduction for CYP2C19 poor metabolizers and a 25% dose reduction for CYP2D6 intermediate metabolizers.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.


last updated 01/24/2014

CPIC Dosing Guideline for codeine and CYP2D6

Summary

Alternate analgesics are recommended for CYP2D6 ultrarapid and poor metabolizers. A label recommended age- or weight-specific codeine dose is warranted for CYP2D6 extensive and intermediate metabolizers.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.


last updated 01/16/2013

CPIC Dosing Guideline for desipramine and CYP2D6

Summary

Tricyclic antidepressants have comparable pharmacokinetic properties, it may be reasonable to apply the CPIC Dosing Guideline for amitriptyline/nortriptyline and CYP2C19, CYP2D6 to other tricyclics including desipramine. In the guideline for nortriptyline, an alternative drug is recommended for CYP2D6 ultrarapid metabolizers or poor metabolizers. For intermediate metabolizers, a 25% dose reduction may be considered.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.


last updated 01/16/2013

CPIC Dosing Guideline for doxepin and CYP2C19, CYP2D6

Summary

Tricyclic antidepressants have comparable pharmacokinetic properties, it may be reasonable to apply the CPIC Dosing Guideline for amitriptyline and CYP2C19, CYP2D6 to other tricyclics including doxepin. In the guideline for amitriptyline, an alternative drug is recommended for CYP2D6 or CYP2C19 ultrarapid metabolizers and for CYP2D6 poor metabolizers. Consider a 50% dose reduction for CYP2C19 poor metabolizers and a 25% dose reduction for CYP2D6 intermediate metabolizers.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.


last updated 01/16/2013

CPIC Dosing Guideline for imipramine and CYP2C19, CYP2D6

Summary

Tricyclic antidepressants have comparable pharmacokinetic properties, it may be reasonable to apply the CPIC Dosing Guideline for amitriptyline and CYP2C19, CYP2D6 to other tricyclics including imipramine. In the guideline for amitriptyline, an alternative drug is recommended for CYP2D6 or CYP2C19 ultrarapid metabolizers and for CYP2D6 poor metabolizers. Consider a 50% dose reduction for CYP2C19 poor metabolizers and a 25% dose reduction for CYP2D6 intermediate metabolizers.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.


last updated 01/16/2013

CPIC Dosing Guideline for nortriptyline and CYP2D6

Summary

The CPIC Dosing Guideline for nortriptyline recommends a 25% dose reduction for CYP2D6 intermediate metabolizers. For CYP2D6 ultrarapid or poor metabolizers, an alternative drug may be considered.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.


last updated 01/16/2013

CPIC Dosing Guideline for trimipramine and CYP2C19, CYP2D6

Summary

Tricyclic antidepressants have comparable pharmacokinetic properties, it may be reasonable to apply the CPIC Dosing Guideline for amitriptyline and CYP2C19, CYP2D6 to other tricyclics including trimipramine. In the guideline for amitriptyline, an alternative drug is recommended for CYP2D6 or CYP2C19 ultrarapid metabolizers and for CYP2D6 poor metabolizers. Consider a 50% dose reduction for CYP2C19 poor metabolizers and a 25% dose reduction for CYP2D6 intermediate metabolizers.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.


last updated 07/28/2014

Professional Society Guideline for codeine and CYP2D6

Summary

The Canadian Pharmacogenomics Network for Drug Safety (CPNDS) clinical recommendation group has published guidelines for the use of CYP2D6 genotype when prescribing codeine. They recommend that poor metabolizers of CYP2D6 should not receive codeine for pain relief, and ultrametabolizers of CYP2D6 should avoid codeine for pain relief.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.


last updated 08/10/2011

Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for amitriptyline and CYP2D6

Summary

The Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for amitriptyline recommends to select an alternative drug or monitor amitriptyline and nortriptyline plasma concentration for patients who are CYP2D6 poor or ultrarapid metabolizers. Reduce the initial dose for patients who are intermediate metabolizers or select an alternative drug.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.













last updated 08/10/2011

Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for imipramine and CYP2D6

Summary

The Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for imipramine recommends to reduce the dose for CYP2D6 poor and intermediate metabolizer patients, and monitor imipramine and desipramine plasma concentrations. Select an alternative drug for CYP2D6 ultrarapid metabolizers.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.




last updated 08/10/2011

Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for nortriptyline and CYP2D6

Summary

The Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for nortriptyline recommends to reduce the dose for CYP2D6 poor or intermediate metabolizer patients. For CYP2D6 ultrarapid metabolizers, select an alternative drug or increase the dose by 60%. Monitoring of nortriptyline and 10-hydroxynortriptyline plasma concentrations is recommended.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.



last updated 08/10/2011

Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for oxycodone and CYP2D6

Summary

Use an alternate drug rather than oxycodone (not codeine or tramadol) for CYP2D6 poor and intermediate metabolizer patients, or be alert to insufficient pain relief. For CYP2D6 ultra metabolizer patients, use an alternate drug rather than oxycodone (not codeine or tramadol), or be alert to adverse drug events.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.






last updated 08/10/2011

Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for tramadol and CYP2D6

Summary

For CYP2D6 poor metabolizers (PM), select an alternative to tramadol (not oxycodone or codeine) and be alert for symptoms of insufficient pain relief. For CYP2D6 intermediate metabolizers (IM), be alert for symptoms of insufficient pain relief, and consider dose increase or select an alternative to tramadol (not oxycodone or codeine). For CYP2D6 ultrarapid metabolizers, use a 30% decreased dose and be alert for ADEs, or use an alternative to tramadol (not oxycodone or codeine).

There's more of this guideline. Read more.


last updated 08/10/2011

Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for venlafaxine and CYP2D6

Summary

For CYP2D6 poor (PM) and intermediate metabolizers (IM), select an alternative to venlafaxine or adjust dose to clinical response and monitor patient's plasma metabolite level. For CYP2D6 ultrarapid metabolizers(UM), titrate dose to a maximum of 150% of the normal dose or select an alternative to venlafaxine.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.



PharmGKB gathers information regarding PGx on FDA drug labels from the FDA's "Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labels", and from FDA-approved FDA and EMA-approved (European Medicines Agency) EMA labels brought to our attention. Excerpts from the label and downloadable highlighted label PDFs are manually curated by PharmGKB.

Please note that some drugs may have been removed from or added to the FDA's "Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labels" without our knowledge. We periodically check the table for additions to this table and update PharmGKB accordingly.

There is currently no such list for European drug labels - we are working with the EMA to establish a list of European Public Assessment Reports (EPAR)s that contain PGx information. We are constructing this list by initially searching for drugs for which we have PGx-containing FDA drug labels - of these 44 EMA EPARs were identified and are being curated for pgx information.

We welcome any information regarding drug labels containing PGx information approved by the FDA, EMA or other Medicine Agencies around the world - please contact feedback.


Available Labels

  1. FDA Label for amitriptyline and CYP2D6
  2. FDA Label for aripiprazole and CYP2D6
  3. FDA Label for atomoxetine and CYP2D6
  4. FDA Label for carvedilol and CYP2D6
  5. FDA Label for cevimeline and CYP2D6
  6. FDA Label for citalopram and CYP2C19, CYP2D6
  7. FDA Label for clomipramine and CYP2D6
  8. FDA Label for clozapine and CYP2D6
  9. FDA Label for codeine and CYP2D6
  10. FDA Label for desipramine and CYP2D6
  11. FDA Label for doxepin and CYP2D6
  12. FDA Label for fluoxetine and CYP2D6
  13. FDA Label for fluvoxamine and CYP2D6
  14. FDA Label for galantamine and CYP2D6
  15. FDA Label for iloperidone and CYP2D6
  16. FDA Label for imipramine and CYP2D6
  17. FDA Label for metoprolol and CYP2D6
  18. FDA Label for modafinil and CYP2D6
  19. FDA Label for nefazodone and CYP2D6
  20. FDA Label for nortriptyline and CYP2D6
  21. FDA Label for paroxetine and CYP2D6
  22. FDA Label for perphenazine and CYP2D6
  23. FDA Label for pimozide and CYP2D6
  24. FDA Label for propafenone and CYP2D6
  25. FDA Label for propranolol and CYP2D6
  26. FDA Label for protriptyline and CYP2D6
  27. FDA Label for quinidine and CYP2D6
  28. FDA Label for risperidone and CYP2D6
  29. FDA Label for terbinafine and CYP2D6
  30. FDA Label for tetrabenazine and CYP2D6
  31. FDA Label for thioridazine and CYP2D6
  32. FDA Label for timolol and CYP2D6
  33. FDA Label for tiotropium and CYP2D6
  34. FDA Label for tolterodine and CYP2D6
  35. FDA Label for trimipramine and CYP2D6
  36. FDA Label for venlafaxine and CYP2D6
  37. FDA Label for vortioxetine and CYP2D6
  38. FDA Label for acetaminophen, tramadol and CYP2D6
  39. FDA Label for dextromethorphan, quinidine and CYP2D6
  40. FDA Label for fluoxetine, olanzapine and CYP2D6
  41. European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for aripiprazole and CYP2D6, CYP3A4
  42. European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for gefitinib and CYP2D6, CYP3A4, EGFR
  43. European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for olanzapine and CYP1A2, CYP2D6
  44. European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for propranolol and CYP2D6
  45. European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for timolol and CYP2D6
  46. European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for dextromethorphan, quinidine and CYP2D6

last updated 12/16/2013

FDA Label for amitriptyline and CYP2D6

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Actionable PGx

Summary

The FDA-approved drug label for amitriptyline contains information regarding the metabolism of tricyclic antidepressants by CYP2D6: CYP2D6 poor metabolizers may have higher plasma concentrations of tricyclic antidepressants, and the label suggests monitoring of plasma levels if this drug is co-administrered with a CYP2D6 inhibitor.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for aripiprazole and CYP2D6

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Actionable PGx

Summary

Elimination of aripiprazole is mainly via metabolism by CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 - the FDA-approved drug label contains information regarding dose adjustment in patients who are CYP2D6 poor metabolizers, or in patients taking concomittant drugs that may inhibit or induce CYP2D6 or CYP3A4.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for atomoxetine and CYP2D6

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Actionable PGx

Summary

Dose adjustments of atomoxetine (Strattera) may be necessary in CYP2D6 poor metabolizers (PMs) or if CYP2D6 inhibitors are used concomitantly. Laboratory tests are available to identify CYP2D6 poor metabolizers.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for carvedilol and CYP2D6

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Actionable PGx

Summary

Carvedilol is metabolized by CYP2D6 and CYP2C9. The drug label states that carvedilol is affected by the poor metabolizers of debrisoquin (a marker for cytochrome P450 2D6) resulting in higher plasma concentrations of R( + )-carvedilol. Additionally, retrospective analysis of side effects in clinical trials showed that poor CYP2D6 metabolizers had a higher rate of dizziness during up-titration, presumably resulting from vasodilating effects of the higher concentrations of the a-blocking R(+) enantiomer.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for cevimeline and CYP2D6

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Actionable PGx

Summary

CYP2D6 and CYP3A3/4 are responsible for the metabolism of cevimeline, therefore the drug label states that drugs which inhibit CYP2D6 and CYP3A3/4 also inhibit the metabolism of cevimeline. Additionally, cevimeline should be used with caution in individuals known or suspected to be CYP2D6 poor metabolizers, based on previous experience, as they may be at a higher risk of adverse events.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for citalopram and CYP2C19, CYP2D6

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Actionable PGx

Summary

The FDA-approved drug label recommends a maximum dose of 20 mg/day of citalopram (Celexa) in patients who are CYP2C19 poor metabolizers, due to an increase in citalopram exposure. This increased exposure leads to a greater risk for QT prolongation, a potentially fatal abnormality in the heart's electrical activity.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for clomipramine and CYP2D6

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Actionable PGx

Summary

The drug label for clomipramine (Anafranil) notes that CYP2D6 poor metabolizers have higher than expected plasma concentrations of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), such as clomipramine, when given typical doses. Additionally, certain drugs inhibit the activity of this isozyme and make normal metabolizers resemble poor metabolizers. It is therefore desirable to monitor TCA plasma levels whenever a TCA is going to be co-administered with another drug known to be a CYP2D6 inhibitor.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for clozapine and CYP2D6

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Actionable PGx

Summary

Clozapine is a substrate of CYP1A2, CYP3A4, and CYP2D6. The drug label notes to use caution when administering it concomitantly with drugs that are inducers or inhibitors of these enzymes. Additionally, it may be necessary to reduce the clozapine dose in patients with significant renal or hepatic impairment, or in CYP2D6 poor metabolizers.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for codeine and CYP2D6

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Actionable PGx

Summary

CYP2D6 ultra-rapid metabolizers may experience overdose symptoms such as extreme sleepiness, confusion, or shallow breathing at normal dosing regimens. Mothers who are ultra-rapid metabolizers and breast-feeding have higher-than-expected levels of morphine in breast milk and potentially dangerously high serum morphine levels in their breastfed infants, potentially leading to serious adverse reactions, including death, in nursing infants. However, no recommendations for testing for CYP2D6 metabolizer status are provided on the label.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for desipramine and CYP2D6

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Actionable PGx

Summary

The FDA-approved drug label for desipramine (NORPRAMIN) notes that CYP2D6 poor metabolizers have higher than expected plasma concentrations of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), such as desipramine, when given typical doses. Additionally, certain drugs inhibit the activity of this isozyme and make normal metabolizers resemble poor metabolizers. It is therefore desirable to monitor TCA plasma levels whenever a TCA is going to be co-administered with another drug known to be a CYP2D6 inhibitor.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for doxepin and CYP2D6

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Actionable PGx

Summary

Doxepin is primarily metabolized by hepatic cytochrome P450 isozymes CYP2C19 and CYP2D6. The drug label notes that CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 poor metabolizers have higher than expected plasma concentrations of doxepin when given typical doses. Additionally, inhibitors of these CYP isozymes may increase the exposure of doxepin.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for fluoxetine and CYP2D6

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Informative PGx

Summary

Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Fluoxetine is indicated for the treatment of major depressive disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, bulimia nervosa, and panic disorder. Fluoxetine is metabolized by several cytochrome P450 enzymes with CYP2D6 being a major contributor. At the same time, fluoxetine is an inhibitor of CYP2D6 mediated reactions.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for fluvoxamine and CYP2D6

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Informative PGx

Summary

Fluvoxamine appears to inhibit several cytochrome P450 isoenzymes as it exhibits substantial interactions with drugs metabolized by the same isoenzymes. Caution should be used in treating patients with low CYP2D6 activity and those receiving other medication known to inhibit CYP2D6.

There's more of this label. Read more.



last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for iloperidone and CYP2D6

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Actionable PGx

Summary

Co-administration of FANAPT with known strong inhibitors of CYP2D6 like fluoxetine results in a 2.3 fold increase in iloperidone plasma exposure, and therefore one-half of the FANAPT dose should be administered. Similarly, PMs of CYP2D6 have higher exposure to iloperidone compared with EMs and PMs should have their dose reduced by one half.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for imipramine and CYP2D6

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Actionable PGx

Summary

Poor metabolizers have higher than expected plasma concentrations of TCAs when given usual doses. Concomitant use of TCAs with drugs that can inhibit cytochrome P450 2D6 may require lower doses than usually prescribed for either the tricyclic antidepressant or the other drug; monitor TCA plasma levels.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for metoprolol and CYP2D6

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Informative PGx

Summary

Metoprolol is metabolized by the cytochrome P450 enzymes in the liver with a major contribution of CYP2D6. Poor metabolizers and extensive metabolizers who concomitantly use CYP2D6 inhibiting drugs will have increased (several-fold) metoprolol blood levels, decreasing metoprolol's cardioselectivity.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for modafinil and CYP2D6

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Actionable PGx

Summary

Modafinil, used to improve wakefulness, is metabolized by many cytochrome P450s. Patients that are poor metabolizers for CYP2D6 may need dose modifications for medications that have ancillary metabolism via CYP2C19, such as tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs).

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for nefazodone and CYP2D6

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Informative PGx

Summary

Nefazodone treatment adjustment is not required based on CYP2D6 metabolizer status. Caution should be used when co-prescribing nefazodone with other drugs metabolized by CYP3A4.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for nortriptyline and CYP2D6

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Actionable PGx

Summary

Poor metabolizers have higher than expected plasma concentrations of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) when given usual doses. In addition, certain drugs inhibit the activity of this isozyme and make normal metabolizers resemble poor metabolizers; co-administration with these inhibitors' can make the patient abruptly toxic.

It is desirable to monitor TCA plasma levels whenever a TCA is going to be co-administered with another drug known to be an inhibitor.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for paroxetine and CYP2D6

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Informative PGx

Summary

The metabolism of paroxetine is accomplished in part by cytochrome CYP2D6. Coadministration of paroxetine with other drugs that are metabolized by this isozyme should be approached with caution. Due to the risk of serious ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death potentially associated with elevated plasma levels of thioridazine, paroxetine, and thioridazine should not be coadministered.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for perphenazine and CYP2D6

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Actionable PGx

Summary

CYP2D6 is involved in the pharmacokinetics of perphenazine. Poor metabolizers demonstrate higher plasma concentrations of antipsychotic drugs at usual doses, which may correlate with emergence of side effects. Prospective phenotyping of elderly patients prior to antipsychotic treatment may identify those at risk for adverse events.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for pimozide and CYP2D6

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Genetic testing required

Summary

CYP2D6 genotyping should be performed at doses above 0.05mg/kg/day in children or above 4 mg/day in adults. In poor CYP2D6 metabolizers, pimozide doses should not exceed 0.05mg/kg/day in children or 4 mg/day in adults and doses should not be increased earlier than 14 days.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for propafenone and CYP2D6

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Actionable PGx

Summary

Propafenone is metabolized by CYP2D6,CYP3A4,and CYP1A2 isoenzymes. Inhibitors of CYP2D6, 1A2, and 3A4 may increase propafenone levels which may lead to cardiac arrhythmias. Simultaneous use with both a CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 inhibitor (or in a patient with CYP2D6 deficiency) should be avoided.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for propranolol and CYP2D6

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Informative PGx

Summary

Propranolol is metabolized primarily by CYP2D6. CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 may also play a role in propranolol metabolism. The drug label states that proranolol should be used with caution when co-administered with drugs that have an affect on CYP2D6, 1A2, or 2C19 metabolic pathways. Co-administration of such drugs with propranolol may lead to clinically relevant drug interactions and changes on its efficacy and/or toxicity.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for protriptyline and CYP2D6

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Actionable PGx

Summary

Protriptyline hydrochloride is an antidepressant agent and belongs to the class of tricyclic antidepressants. CYP2D6 poor metabolizers have higher than expected plasma concentrations of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) when given usual doses.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for quinidine and CYP2D6

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Informative PGx

Summary

Quinidine inhibits the action of cytochrome P450IID6, effectively converting CYP2D extensive metabolizers into poor metabolizers. The drug label advises caution whenever quinidine is prescribed together with drugs metabolized by CYP2D6.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for risperidone and CYP2D6

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Informative PGx

Summary

Risperidone is metabolized to 9-hydroxyrisperidone by CYP2D6. Co-administration of drugs that are inhibitors or inducers of CYP2D6 along with risperidone may alter the plasma concentration of risperidone.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for terbinafine and CYP2D6

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Informative PGx

Summary

Terbinafine is an antifungal drug. It is an inhibitor of CYP450 2D6 and has an effect on metabolism of desipramine, cimetidine, fluconazole, cyclosporine, rifampin, and caffeine. Coadministration of terbinafine with drugs dependent on CYP2D6 for metabolism should be done with careful monitoring and may require a reduction in dose of the 2D6-metabolized drug.

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last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for tetrabenazine and CYP2D6

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Genetic testing required

Summary

Tetrabenazine is used to treat Huntington's Disease chorea. Its primary metabolites are metabolized mainly by CYP2D6. Patients requiring doses above 50 mg per day should be genotyped for the drug metabolizing enzyme CYP2D6 to determine if the patient is a poor metabolizer (PM) or an extensive metabolizer (EM). People with CYP2D6 poor metabolizer genotypes should be treated with lower doses.

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last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for thioridazine and CYP2D6

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Actionable PGx

Summary

Thioridazine is used to treat schizophrenia, but has been associated with Torsades de pointes and sudden death. Due to the potentially fatal side effects, it is typically reserved for patients who do not respond well to other anti-psychotics. This drug is contraindicated in patients with reduced CYP2D6 activity.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for timolol and CYP2D6

Summary

Timolol is a non-selective beta adrenergic agonist applied to the eye to reduce intraocular pressure. This drug-biomarker pair was previously in the FDA's "Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labels" but has subsequently been removed.

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last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for tiotropium and CYP2D6

Informative PGx

Summary

Tiotropium is an inhalation powder used daily for the treatment of bronchospasms associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and believed to be in small part metabolized by CYP2D6 and CYP3A4. This drug-biomarker pair was previously in the FDA's "Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labels" but has subsequently been removed.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for tolterodine and CYP2D6

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Actionable PGx

Summary

Tolterodine is used for the treatment of overactive bladder and is primarily metabolized by CYP2D6. Poor metabolizers may have greater plasma concentrations of the drug which could possibly have an effect QT interval. However, no recommendations for testing for CYP2D6 metabolizer status are provided on the label.

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last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for trimipramine and CYP2D6

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Actionable PGx

Summary

Trimipramine (Surmontil) is a tricyclic antidepressant used to treat depression. Like many antidepressants, it has a black box warning for increased risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior. Trimipramine is metabolized by CYP2D6 and poor metabolizers my experience higher plasma concentrations of the drug at typical doses.

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last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for venlafaxine and CYP2D6

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Informative PGx

Summary

Venlafaxine (Effexor) is an inhibitor of neuronal serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake and weak inhibitor of dopamine reuptake used in the treatment of depression. It is metabolized by CYP2D6, and to a lesser extent, CYP3A4 (shown in vitro).

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last updated 07/16/2014

FDA Label for vortioxetine and CYP2D6

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Actionable PGx

Summary

Vortioxetine (BRINTELLIX) is indicated as a treatment for major depressive disorder. The FDA-approved drug label for vortioxetine notes that the maximum recommended dose in patients who are known CYP2D6 poor metabolizers is 10 mg/day.

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last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for acetaminophen, tramadol and CYP2D6

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Actionable PGx

Summary

The FDA-approved label contains information regarding metabolism of Tramadol by CYP2D6: CYP2D6 poor metabolizers may have higher tramadol concentrations, and concomitant use of CYP2D6 or CYP3A4 inhibitors may reduce clearance of tramadol and increase a patient's risk for adverse events.

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last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for dextromethorphan, quinidine and CYP2D6

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Genetic testing recommended

Summary

The quinidine component of NUEDEXTA is a CYP2D6 inhibitor used to increase the plasma availability of dextromethorphan, which is metabolized by CYP2D6. Therefore, CYP2D6 poor metabolizers may be at risk of experiencing toxicity.

The label states, "The quinidine component of NUEDEXTRA is not expected to contribute to the effectiveness of NUEDEXTA in PMs [CYP2D6 poor metabolizers], but adverse events of the quinidine are still possible. In those patients who may be at risk of significant toxicity due to quinidine, genotyping to determine if they are PMs should be considered prior to making the decision to treat with NUEDEXTA."

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last updated 12/17/2013

FDA Label for fluoxetine, olanzapine and CYP2D6

Informative PGx

Summary

Symbyax, a drug mixture of fluoxetine and olanzapine, is used for the treatment of bipolar disorder and treatment resistant depression and, due to its potent CYP2D6 inhibition as a result of fluoxetine, exhibits drug interactions with other medications also metabolized by CYP2D6. Coadministration with other drugs that are metabolized by CYP2D6 should be approached with caution.

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European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for olanzapine and CYP1A2, CYP2D6

Informative PGx

Summary

The EMA European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) for olanzapine (Zalasta) contains information regarding the metabolism of the drug by the enzymes CYP1A2 and CYP2D6: factors that induce or inhibit CYP1A2 may alter the concentration of olanzapine and thus may require dosage monitoring. The EPAR does not mention pharmacogenetics or testing of genetic variants in these genes.

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last updated 06/26/2014

European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for propranolol and CYP2D6

Informative PGx

Summary

The EMA European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) for propranolol hydrochloride (Hemangiol) gives information regarding the metabolism of the drug by three different routes which varies between individuals, but that no difference in oral clearance or elimination is observed between CYP2D6 extensive and poor metabolizers.

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last updated 05/02/2014

European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for dextromethorphan, quinidine and CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

The EMA European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) for dextromethorphan and quinidine (Nuedexta) does not require dose adjustment based on CYP2D6 genotype. Efficacy is not expected to be affected in CYP2D6 poor metabolizers, however adverse reactions to quinidine are possible. Dextromethorphan is rapidly metabolized in CYP2D6 ultrametabolizers, and may result in subtherapeutic concentrations.

There's more of this label. Read more.


Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria, manually curated by PharmGKB, are shown below. Please follow the link in the "Position" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Position" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the table.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

? = Mouse-over for quick help

This is a non-comprehensive list of genetic tests with pharmacogenetics relevance, typically submitted by the manufacturer and manually curated by PharmGKB. The information listed is provided for educational purposes only and does not constitute an endorsement of any listed test or manufacturer.

A more complete listing of genetic tests is found at the Genetic Testing Registry (GTR).

PGx Test Variants Assayed Related Drugs?
Roche AmpliChip CYP450 Test CYP2D6*1, CYP2D6*10A, CYP2D6*10B, CYP2D6*11, CYP2D6*15, CYP2D6*17, CYP2D6*19, CYP2D6*20, CYP2D6*29, CYP2D6*2A, CYP2D6*2B, CYP2D6*2D, CYP2D6*3, CYP2D6*40, CYP2D6*41, CYP2D6*4A, CYP2D6*4B, CYP2D6*4D, CYP2D6*4J, CYP2D6*4K, CYP2D6*5, CYP2D6*6A, CYP2D6*6B, CYP2D6*6C, CYP2D6*7, CYP2D6*8, CYP2D6*9 , CYP2D6*1XN , CYP2D6*2XN , CYP2D6*4XN , CYP2D6*10XN , CYP2D6*17XN , CYP2D6*35XN , CYP2D6*41XN , *35 , *36
DMET Plus (Affymetrix, Inc) Variant in CYP2D6
VeraCode ADME Core Panel (Illumina, Inc) Variant in CYP2D6
TaqMan Drug Metabolism Genotyping Assay Sets (Applied Biosystems, Inc) Variant in CYP2D6
Laboratory Corporation of America Variant in CYP2D6
Quest Diagnostics, Inc Variant in CYP2D6
iPLEX ADME PGx (Sequenom, Inc) CYP2D6*11, CYP2D6*12, CYP2D6*14A, CYP2D6*14B, CYP2D6*15, CYP2D6*17, CYP2D6*18, CYP2D6*19, CYP2D6*1A, CYP2D6*20, CYP2D6*21A, CYP2D6*21B, CYP2D6*3, CYP2D6*30, CYP2D6*38, CYP2D6*4, CYP2D6*40, CYP2D6*41, CYP2D6*42, CYP2D6*44, CYP2D6*4M, CYP2D6*56A, CYP2D6*56B, CYP2D6*58, CYP2D6*6, CYP2D6*64, CYP2D6*69, CYP2D6*7, CYP2D6*8, CYP2D6*9 , Indistinguishable haplotypes with the current ADME core SNP: (CYP2D6*2A,CYP2D6*31,CYP2D6*51), (CYP2D6*2L,CYP2D6*35,CYP2D6*71), (CYP2D6*10,CYP2D6*36,CYP2D6*37,CYP2D6*47,CYP2D6*49,CYP2D6*52,CYP2D6*54,CYP2D6*57,CYP2D6*65,CYP2D6*72), CNV Assay: CYP2D6*5, CYP2D6*NxN (Haplotypes are identified manually)
Luminex xTAG CYP2D6 Assay CYP2D6*1, CYP2D6*10, CYP2D6*11, CYP2D6*15, CYP2D6*17, CYP2D6*2, CYP2D6*29, CYP2D6*3, CYP2D6*4, CYP2D6*41, CYP2D6*5, CYP2D6*6, CYP2D6*7, CYP2D6*8, CYP2D6*9 , CYP2D6*XN , *35
Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) CYP2D6*2, CYP2D6*5, CYP2D6*8 , rs28371725 , rs5030867 , rs5030656 , rs35742686 , rs3892097 , rs5030865 , rs5030655 , rs61736512 , rs28371706 , rs5030862 , rs1065852
GenoChip CYP2D6 (PharmGenomics, GmbH) CYP2D6*5 , rs59421388 , rs28371725 , rs5030867 , rs5030656 , rs35742686 , rs3892097 , rs5030865 , rs5030655 , rs28371706 , rs5030863 , rs1065852 , *xN (gene duplication)
INFINITI CYP450 2D6I (AutoGenomics, Inc) CYP2D6*10, CYP2D6*12, CYP2D6*17, CYP2D6*2, CYP2D6*29, CYP2D6*3, CYP2D6*4, CYP2D6*41, CYP2D6*5, CYP2D6*6, CYP2D6*7, CYP2D6*8, CYP2D6*9 , rs28371725 , rs5030867 , rs5030656 , rs35742686 , rs3892097 , rs5030865 , rs5030655 , rs61736512 , rs28371706 , rs5030862 , rs1065852 , CYP2D6*XN , *14

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page on the appropriate tab.

Links in the "Drugs" column lead to PharmGKB Drug Pages.

Variant?
(138)
Alternate Names / Tag SNPs ? Drugs ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available CA VA *1 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *1A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *1XN N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *2 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *2A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *2XN N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *3 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *4 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *4A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *4D N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *5 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *6 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *6B N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *7 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *9 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *10 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *10A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *10B N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *11 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *14 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *15 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *17 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *21 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *24 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *26 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *27 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *29 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *35 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *36 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *40 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *41 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *45 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *46 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *56 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
CYP2D6 poor metabolizer genotype N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
CYP2D6 ultra-metabolizer phenotype N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
CYP2D6 extensive metabolizer genotype N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
CYP2D6 extensive metabolizer phenotype N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
CYP2D6 poor metabolizers N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
CYP2D6 poor metabolizer phenotype N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
CYP2D6 ultra-metabolizer genotype N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
CYP2D6 poor metabolizer N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
CYP2D6 extensive metabolizer N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
CYP2D6 intermediate metabolizer N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available Variant in CYP2D6
Variant in CYP2D6 N/A N/A N/A
rs1065852 100C>T, 21917263G>A, 42526694G>A, 5190C>T, CYP2D6:100C>T, Pro34Ser, part of CYP2D6*4 and CYP2D6*10
G > A
Missense
Pro34Ser
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1080983 -1775A>G, 21919137T>C, 3316A>G, 42528568T>C, CYP2D6(-1775)A>G
T > C
5' Flanking
No VIP available CA VA
rs1080985 -1589G>C, 21918951C>G, 3502G>C, 42528382C>G
C > G
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1080989 -1000G>A, 21918362C>T, 4091G>A, 42527793C>T, CYP2D6(-1000)A>G
C > T
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1135840 1304G>G, 1457G>G, 21913182G>C, 42522613G>C, 9271G>G, CYP2D6: S486T, CYP2D6:4180G>C, Ser435=, Ser486=, part of CYP2D6*2A an extensive metabolizer haplotype.
G > C
Missense
Ser435Thr
rs16947 21914512A>G, 42523943A>G, 733C>C, 7941C>C, 886C>C, Arg245=, Arg296=, CYP2D6:2850C>T
A > G
Not Available
rs28371706 21916341G>A, 320C>T, 42525772G>A, 6112C>T, CYP2D6:1023 C>T, Thr107Ile
G > A
Missense
Thr107Ile
rs28371725 21914374C>T, 42523805C>T, 8079G>A, 832+39G>A, 985+39G>A, CYP2D6*41, CYP2D6:2988G>A, part of CYP2D6*41
C > T
Intronic
rs35742686 -1793delT, -1830delT, -1940delT, 23418678delT, 40+2664delT, 42128242delT, 50569delT, 50583delT, 598delA, 622delA, 6750delA, 775delA, Arg200Glyfs, Arg208Glyfs, Arg259Glyfs
T > -
Not Available
Arg208Gly
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs367543000
G > A
Stop Codon
Arg218null
rs3892097 21915516C>T, 353-1G>A, 42524947C>T, 506-1G>A, 6937G>A, CYP2D6*4, CYP2D6:1846G>A, part of CYP2D6*4
C > T
Acceptor
rs5030655 -1098delA, -1563delA, -951delA, -988delA, 23419520delA, 277delT, 353-140delT, 40+3506delA, 42129084delA, 454delT, 51411delA, 51425delA, 5908delT, CYP2D6*6, CYP2D6:1707 del T, Trp152Glyfs, Trp93Glyfs, part of CYP2D6*6
A > -
Not Available
Trp152Gly
rs5030656 21914745_21914747delCTT, 42524176_42524178delCTT, 688_690delAAG, 7706_7708delAAG, 841_843delAAG, Lys230del, Lys281del
CTT > -
CTT > TTC
Non-synonymous
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs5030865 21915604C>A, 21915604C>G, 21915604C>T, 353-89G>A, 353-89G>C, 353-89G>T, 42525035C>A, 42525035C>G, 42525035C>T, 505G>A, 505G>C, 505G>T, 6849G>A, 6849G>C, 6849G>T, Gly169Arg, Gly169Ter
C > T
C > A
Intronic
Gly169null
rs59421388 1012G>A, 21914179C>T, 3271G>A, 42523610C>T, 8274G>A, 859G>A, CYP2D6: 3183G>A, Val287Met, Val338Met
G > T
G > C
Missense
Val287Met
rs61736512 1747G>A, 21915703C>T, 353-188G>A, 406G>A, 42525134C>T, 6750G>A, CYP2D6: 1659G>A, Val136Met
G > T
G > C
Intronic
Val136Met
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 138

Overview

Alternate Names:  None
Alternate Symbols:  CPD6; CYP2D; P450-DB1; P450C2D
PharmGKB Accession Id: PA128

Details

Cytogenetic Location: chr22 : q13.1 - q13.2
GP mRNA Boundary: chr22 : 42522501 - 42526883
GP Gene Boundary: chr22 : 42519501 - 42536883
Strand: minus
The mRNA boundaries are calculated using the gene's default feature set from NCBI, mapped onto the UCSC Golden Path. PharmGKB sets gene boundaries by expanding the mRNA boundaries by no less than 10,000 bases upstream (5') and 3,000 bases downstream (3') to allow for potential regulatory regions.

Introduction
The cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is an enzyme of great historical importance for pharmacogenetics and is now thought to be involved in the metabolism of up to 25% of the drugs that are in common use in the clinic [Article:18001838]. Several years before the gene was cloned, researchers observed that Caucasian subjects responded in a bimodal pattern to certain drugs such as debrisoquine and sparteine [Articles:71400, 499318], with most patients exhibiting "normal" pharmacokinetics, whereas others seemed to have great difficulty in metabolizing debrisoquine or sparteine. Debrisoquine and sparteine became examples of so-called probe drugs, and were used to phenotype patients [Article:6644761]. This finding led researchers to conclude that there were common polymorphisms in an as yet unidentified metabolic gene that contributed to the variable pharmacokinetics of these drugs. The protein responsible for the altered metabolism was later purified from human liver microsomes by Distlerath et al. [Article:4019462]. The gene encoding this protein was initially localized to chromosome 22 by Eichelbaum et al. [Article:3472585]. The cDNA was cloned by Gonzalez et al. [Articles:3123997, 3410476] from human liver cDNA libraries using an antibody against the rat ortholog. The deduced human protein revealed 73% sequence similarity with the rat protein and by use of human-rodent somatic cell hybrids the gene was localized to human chromosome 22 [Article:3410476], confirming the earlier study [Article:3472585]. This gene came to be called CYP2D6, and is part of the cytochrome P450 gene family - a group of enzymes that is responsible for Phase I metabolism and elimination of numerous endogenous substrates and a diverse array of drugs. Among the drug-metabolizing CYPs, CYP2D6 is the only non-inducible enzyme, which results in a large contribution of genetic variation to the interindividual variation in enzyme activity [Article:18001838]. CYP2D6 is highly polymorphic, with over 90 known allelic variants [Article:8807658]. A selection of these variants and haplotypes is described in this summary, and the full list of all named alleles can be found at: http://www.cypalleles.ki.se/cyp2d6.htm.

CYP2D6 metabolizer classes
CYP2D6 became an object of intense research following its identification as the gene responsible for the altered activity observed with debrisoquine and other drugs. It soon became apparent that there were many different polymorphisms in all parts of the world that impacted CYP2D6 activity [Article:17301689]. There were alleles that led to a complete loss of CYP2D6 activity, which were common in the initially studied Caucasian populations [Article:12959412]; however, studies in populations of other ethnic origins revealed reduced function and even hyperfunctional CYP2D6 alleles [Articles:7903454, 3410476]. A system of assigned patients into four categories based on their ability to metabolize CYP2D6 substrates began to emerge. They are, listed in order of highest functioning to lowest: ultrarapid metabolizers (UM), extensive metabolizers (EM), intermediate metabolizers (IM), and poor metabolizers (PM) [Articles:16968950, 14618296]. An individual's highest functioning CYP2D6 allele predicts his/her phenotypic activity [Articles:16968950, 14618296] (e.g. EM allele and PM allele results in an EM phenotype, UM allele and EM allele results in UM phenotype, IM allele and PM allele results in IM phenotype, etc.). EMs possess at least one fully functional CYP2D6 allele, and are thought of as phenotypically normal. IMs (two reduced function or one reduced and one non-functional allele) and PMs (two non-functional alleles) are not able to metabolize CYP2D6 substrates as well as their EM counterparts, and may be at increased risk for adverse effects resulting from higher plasma levels of the parent drug, or lack of efficacy resulting from an inability to form an active metabolite [Article:16968950]. UMs, or ultrarapid metabolizers, possess multiple functional copies of a single CYP2D6 gene [Article:12571261]. The CYP2D6 copy number has been found to be from 2-13 [Article:12571261]. Each functional copy of CYP2D6 that is present increases the rate of metabolism of CYP2D6 substrates significantly [Article:12571261]. CYP2D6 allele distributions exhibit significant interethnic differences. According to a review by Ingelman-Sundberg et al. [Article:18001838], PMs are mainly found in Europe, and UMs are mainly found in North Africa and Oceania. Due to the high Asian prevalence of the CYP2D6*10 allele, IMs are located to a great extent in Asia [Articles:18001838, 15492763].

CYP2D6 substrates and therapeutic implications
CYP2D6 polymorphisms have implications across many different therapeutic areas, as a diverse array of clinically used drugs are metabolized by CYP2D6 [Article:16968950] (see Drugs/Substrates section for references). Examples of CYP2D6 substrates can be found in antidepressants (amitriptyline, citalopram, clomipramine, desipramine, doxepin, fluvoxamine, imipramine, maprotiline, mianserin, nortriptyline, fluoxetine, paroxetine), antipsychotics (chlorpromazine, clozapine, haloperidol, perphenazine, risperidone, thioridazine, zuclopenthixol), antiarrhythmics (flecainide, mexiletine, propafenone), beta-blockers (carvedilol, metoprolol, yohimbine, timolol), opioid analgesics (codeine, dihydrocodeine, morphine, tramadol), anticancer agents (debrisoquine, gefitinib, sparteine, tamoxifen), and assorted other drugs (atomoxetine, dextromethorphan, perhexilline, tolterodine). The impact that a CYP2D6 polymorphism has on therapy with any of the aforementioned drugs is related to the resulting metabolizer status that the polymorphism(s) cause in the individual receiving therapy, as well as whether the parent drug is active or if it requires CYP2D6 to metabolize it into an active metabolite. If the parent drug is active, then UMs may suffer from a lack of efficacy whereas IMs and PMs may suffer from complications resulting from higher than desired plasma concentrations of the drug [Article:12571261]. If the parent drug must be converted to an active metabolite in order to relieve symptoms, then IMs and PMs may be deficient in the formation of the metabolite, and therefore not receive symptomatic relief [Article:12571261].

Phenocopying and Autophenocopying
Therapy with CYP2D6 substrates can be complex, not only due to genetic variation, but also due to drug-drug interactions. Many drugs are CYP2D6 inhibitors (such as the statins [Article:8737761]), and taking an inhibitory drug along with a CYP2D6 substrate can alter the apparent phenotype of the patient. This phenomenon is known as phenocopying [Articles:16968950, 12870705]. When this situation occurs, an EM can appear to be a IM or a PM because most of the available enzyme is being inhibited by a confounding drug. A related phenotype that can occur with chronic dosing of a CYP2D6 drug is called autophenocopying, in which a CYP2D6 substrate can inhibit its own metabolism over time as the concentration of the drug approaches steady state [Article:16968950]. The pharmacokinetic profile of a single dose and of repeated dosing for drugs that exhibit phenocopying can therefore differ markedly [Article:16968950].

CYP2D6 SNPs and Haplotypes
Traditionally, allele frequency is reported with respect to an individual SNP, and haplotypes are constructed from a collection of those polymorphic sites. However, in the CYP2D6 literature, allele frequencies are usually reported in terms of haplotypes. We have therefore included the CYP2D6 allele frequency table in the haplotype section of this summary. CYP2D6 genotyping has traditionally been done according to an algorithm that appears in Gaedigk et al. [Article:10634130] in which several SNPs are tested for, and if none are found, then the algorithm defaults to either CYP2D6*1 or CYP2D6*2. We have classified the SNPs that are used to differentiate the haplotypes that we have summarized, and indicated whether that SNP has any role in the altered function when possible. Since most of the CYP2D6 literature is focused on determining an individual's metabolic status, we have chosen the haplotypes that most commonly result in altered CYP2D6 function, although many more exist. The CYP2D6 variant page should therefore serve mainly as a guide to determining the CYP2D6 haplotype, which should in turn serve as a guide to determining the metabolizer status and allele frequency.

CYP2D6 Ultrarapid Metabolizer (UM) phenotype
For the purposes of this summary, we are using CYP2D6UM as a generic term to indicate multiple CYP2D6 copies (which can range from 2-13) [Article:12571261] that cause the ultrarapid metabolizer phenotype. Gene duplications have been seen to occur with many different CYP2D6 haplotypes, including CYP2D6*1, CYP2D6*2, CYP2D6*4, CYP2D6*10, and CYP2D6*41 [Article:17301689]. For the purposes of this summary, we are only referring to CYP2D6*1xN and CYP2D6*2xN. These gene copies can cause a lack of efficacy by quickly metabolizing a parent drug [Article:15492763]. The speed of metabolism is well correlated with number of functional CYP2D6 copies that the patient possesses [Article:12571261]. Even though it is somewhat counterintuitive, UMs can suffer from similar problems as PMs, despite having opposite phenotypes. For instance, both can experience a lack of efficacy, but in the case of UMs it would be from quickly metabolizing a parent drug, whereas in the case of PMs it would be the inability to form an active metabolite PMID; 15492763. Similarly, both can experience toxicities, but the UMs would experience toxicities resulting from a high level of metabolite, whereas the PMs would experience toxicities resulting from a high level of parent drug [Article:16968950]. In the allele frequency table at the CYP2D6*1, CYP2D6*2 haplotype page descriptions, we have listed the combined allele frequency of multiple copies of CYP2D6*1 and CYP2D6*2 under the generic heading of CYP2D6UM.

Note: The CYP2D6 gene is found on the minus chromosomal strand. Please note that for standardization, the PharmGKB presents all allele base pairs on the positive chromosomal strand, therefore the alleles within our variant annotations will differ (in a complementary manner) from those in this VIP summary that are given on the minus strand as reported in the literature.

Citation Cytochrome P450 2D6. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2009. Owen Ryan P, Sangkuhl Katrin, Klein Teri E, Altman Russ B. PubMed
History

Submitted by Ryan Owen, Katrin Sangkuhl

Variant Summaries rs1065852, rs16947, rs28371706, rs28371725, rs35742686, rs3892097, rs5030655, rs5030656, rs59421388, rs61736512
Haplotype Summaries CYP2D6*1, CYP2D6*2, CYP2D6*3, CYP2D6*4, CYP2D6*5 CYP2D6*6, CYP2D6*10, CYP2D6*17, CYP2D6*41, CYP2D6 *9, CYP2D6 *29
Drugs

Haplotype Overview

PG4KDS_CYP2D6_lookup_table_working_template_.xlsx

Source: PharmGKB

The Translational Pharmacogenetics Project (TPP) is a PGRN-led initiative with the goal to operationalize the work of CPIC by translating widely accepted actionable pharmacogenetics discoveries into real-world clinical practice. The group has published on integrating pharmacogenomics into the electronic medical record: A Clinician-Driven Automated System for Integration of Pharmacogenetic Interpretations Into an Electronic Medical Record. Download the TPP file for CYP2D6 here: CYP2D6 lookup table

Haplotypes are derived from the Human Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Allele Nomenclature Database. The Human Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Allele Nomenclature Database states that nucleotide changes listed below are based on NCBI Reference Sequence M33388.1. Note that the nucleotide positions from the Human Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Allele Nomenclature Database do not directly match the given NCBI reference sequence. For questions about nucleotide positions, please contact the Human Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Allele Nomenclature Database directly, as they are the authoritative source on cytochrome P450 nomenclature.

PharmGKB has added some alleles below (e.g. the rows for *1 and *2), inserted for star alleles with subgroups (e.g. A, B etc). These rows reflect only the defining SNP for the star allele to accommodate how the star allele is referred to in the literature.

Source: PharmGKB

All alleles in the download file are on the positive chromosomal strand. PharmGKB considers the first haplotype listed in each table as the reference haplotype for that set.

PharmGKB Curated Pathways

Pathways created internally by PharmGKB based primarily on literature evidence.

  1. Acetaminophen Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Stylized diagram showing acetaminophen metabolism and transport in the liver and kidney.
  1. Atorvastatin/Lovastatin/Simvastatin Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Drug-specific representation of the candidate genes involved in transport, metabolism and clearance.
  1. Citalopram Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Pharmacokinetics of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram.
  1. Clomipramine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Schematic representation of clomipramine metabolism in human liver.
  1. Codeine and Morphine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of the candidate genes involved in metabolism of codeine and morphine.
  1. Doxepin Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Stylized liver cell showing candidate genes involved in the metabolism of the tricyclic doxepin.
  1. Fluoxetine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of the candidate genes involved in the metabolism of fluoxetine.
  1. Fluvastatin Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Drug-specific representation of the candidate genes involved in transport, metabolism and clearance.
  1. Gefitinib Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of the candidate genes involved in the transportation and metabolism of gefitinib.
  1. Imipramine/Desipramine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of the candidate genes involved in the metabolism of the tricyclic antidepressants imipramine and desipramine.
  1. Nevirapine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of candidate genes involved in biotransformation of nevirapine and its mechanism of action in an infected liver cell.
  1. Phenytoin Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Genes involved in the metabolism of phenytoin in the human liver cell.
  1. Statin Pathway - Generalized, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of the superset of all genes involved in the transport, metabolism and clearance of statin class drugs.
  1. Tamoxifen Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Tamoxifen metabolism in the liver.
  1. Venlafaxine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Stylized cells depicting the metabolism and mechanism of action of venlafaxine.

External Pathways

Links to non-PharmGKB pathways.

  1. P450 Dehydrogenation of alkanes to form alkenes - (Reactome via Pathway Interaction Database)
  2. Xenobiotics - (Reactome via Pathway Interaction Database)
No related genes are available

Curated Information ?

Evidence Drug
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
acebutolol
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
acetaminophen
amitriptyline
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
anastrozole
aripiprazole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
atenolol
atomoxetine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available PW
atorvastatin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
bepridil
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
bevantolol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
bisoprolol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
bufuralol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
buspirone
carvedilol
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
celecoxib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Celiprolol
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
cevimeline
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
chlorpheniramine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
chlorpromazine
citalopram
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
clobazam
clomipramine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
clopidogrel
clozapine
codeine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
crizotinib
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
dasatinib
debrisoquine
desipramine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
dexlansoprazole
dextromethorphan
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
diazepam
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
donepezil
doxepin
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
drospirenone
DG No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
duloxetine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
escitalopram
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
esomeprazole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
ethambutol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ethanol
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ethinyl estradiol
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
everolimus
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
fesoterodine
flecainide
fluoxetine
DG No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
flupenthixol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available PW
fluvastatin
fluvoxamine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
galantamine
gefitinib
haloperidol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
hydrocodone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
hydromorphone
No Dosing Guideline available DL CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
iloperidone
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
imatinib
imipramine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
isoniazid
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
ketorolac
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
labetalol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
levomepromazine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available PW
lovastatin
maprotiline
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
methylphenidate
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
metoclopramide
metoprolol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
mexiletine
mianserin
DG No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
mirtazapine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
modafinil
morphine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
nefazodone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available PW
nevirapine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
nicotine
nortriptyline
olanzapine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
ondansetron
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
opipramol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
oxprenolol
DG No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
oxycodone
paroxetine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
pazopanib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
penbutolol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
perhexiline
perphenazine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
phenytoin
No Dosing Guideline available DL CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
pimozide
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
pindolol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
pioglitazone
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ponatinib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
pridopidine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
promethazine
propafenone
No Dosing Guideline available DL CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
propranolol
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
protriptyline
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
pyrazinamide
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
quinidine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
quinine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
raloxifene
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
rifampin
risperidone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
sertraline
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available PW
simvastatin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
sotalol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
sparteine
tamoxifen
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
terbinafine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
tetrabenazine
thioridazine
timolol
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
tiotropium
tolterodine
tramadol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
trimethoprim
trimipramine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
tropisetron
venlafaxine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
vortioxetine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
yohimbine
zuclopenthixol

Curated Information ?

Publications related to CYP2D6: 686

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Population pharmacokinetic approach to evaluate the effect of CYP2D6, CYP3A, ABCB1, POR and NR1I2 genotypes on donepezil clearance. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Noetzli Muriel, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Profound reduction in the tamoxifen active metabolite endoxifen in a patient on phenytoin for epilepsy compared with a CYP2D6 genotype matched cohort. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2014. Gryn Steven E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Establishment of CYP2D6 reference samples by multiple validated genotyping platforms. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2014. Fang H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic factors affecting statin concentrations and subsequent myopathy: a HuGENet systematic review. Genetics in medicine : official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics. 2014. Canestaro William J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PG4KDS: A model for the clinical implementation of pre-emptive pharmacogenetics. American journal of medical genetics. Part C, Seminars in medical genetics. 2014. Hoffman James M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
An Investigation of CYP2D6 Genotype and Response to Metoprolol CR/XL During Dose Titration in Patients With Heart Failure: A MERIT-HF Substudy. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2014. Batty J A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Impact of CYP2D6 polymorphisms on clinical efficacy & tolerability of metoprolol tartrate. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2014. Hamadeh Issam S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
A logistic equation to determine the validity of tramadol from related gene polymorphisms and psychological factors. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Zhao Qin, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Effect of CYP2D6, CYP2C9 and ABCB1 genotypes on fluoxetine plasma concentrations and clinical improvement in children and adolescent patients. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2014. Gassó P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Citalopram and Escitalopram Plasma Drug and Metabolite Concentrations: Genome-Wide Associations. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Ji Yuan, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Serum concentrations of risperidone and aripiprazole in subgroups encoding CYP2D6 intermediate metabolizer phenotype. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2014. Hendset Magnhild, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) guidelines for cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) genotype and codeine therapy: 2014 Update. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2014. Crews Kristine R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Preemptive genotyping for personalized medicine: design of the right drug, right dose, right time-using genomic data to individualize treatment protocol. Mayo Clinic proceedings. 2014. Bielinski Suzette J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association between CYP2D6 genotypes and the clinical outcomes of adjuvant tamoxifen for breast cancer: a meta-analysis. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Jung Jin-A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Effect of CYP2D6 on risperidone pharmacokinetics and extrapyramidal symptoms in healthy volunteers: results from a pharmacogenetic clinical trial. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Gassó Patricia, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Patients' Understanding of How Genotype Variation Affects Benefits of Tamoxifen Therapy for Breast Cancer. Public health genomics. 2014. Brewer N T, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2D6 -1584C>G promoter polymorphism and debrisoquine ultrarapid hydroxylation in healthy volunteers. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Llerena Adrian, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacology and pharmacogenetics of pediatric ADHD with associated aggression: a review. The Psychiatric quarterly. 2013. Patel Bianca D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic differences in cytochrome P450 enzymes and antidepressant treatment response. Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England). 2013. Hodgson Karen, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic variations of human CYP2D6 in the Chinese Han population. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Qian Jian-Chang, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pregnancy and pharmacogenomics in the context of drug metabolism and response. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Helldén Anders, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetic workup of perioperative serotonin syndrome. Journal of clinical anesthesia. 2013. Beatty Nicole C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PharmGKB summary: venlafaxine pathway. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. Sangkuhl Katrin, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Utility of integrated pharmacogenomic testing to support the treatment of major depressive disorder in a psychiatric outpatient setting. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. Hall-Flavin Daniel K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2D6 Genotype and Adjuvant Tamoxifen: Meta-analysis of Heterogeneous Study Populations. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2013. Province Michael A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
The impact of CYP2D6 polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of codeine and its metabolites in Mongolian Chinese subjects. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Wu Xiujun, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetic polymorphisms and response to escitalopram and venlafaxine over 8 weeks in major depression. Human psychopharmacology. 2013. Ng Chee, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Cytochrome P450 2D6 Poor Metabolism, Curvilinearity, and Response: An Intriguing Observation Requiring Integration of Psychopharmacology Into Pharmacogenetics. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. 2013. Al Hadithy Asmar F, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2D6 poor metabolizer status might be associated with better response to risperidone treatment. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. Almoguera Berta, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Novel CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 variants identified in a patient with adverse reactions towards venlafaxine monotherapy and dual therapy with nortriptyline and fluoxetine. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. Chua Eng Wee, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Influence of CYP2C8*2 on the Pharmacokinetics of Pioglitazone in Healthy African-American Volunteers. Pharmacotherapy. 2013. Aquilante Christina L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2D6 P34S Polymorphism and Outcomes of Escitalopram Treatment in Koreans with Major Depression. Psychiatry investigation. 2013. Han Kyu-Man, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2D6 genotype and tamoxifen activity: understanding interstudy variability in methodological quality. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2013. Ratain M J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Common CYP2D6 Polymorphisms Affecting Alternative Splicing and Transcription: Long-range Haplotypes with Two Regulatory Variants Modulate CYP2D6 Activity. Human molecular genetics. 2013. Wang Danxin, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Dynamics and persistence of CYP2D6 inhibition by paroxetine. Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. 2013. Juřica J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Estimation of CYP2D6*10 genotypes on citalopram disposition in Chinese subjects by population pharmacokinetic assay. Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. 2013. Chen B, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PharmGKB summary: tamoxifen pathway, pharmacokinetics. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. Klein Daniel J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetic study on risperidone long-acting injection: influence of cytochrome P450 2D6 and pregnane X receptor on risperidone exposure and drug-induced side-effects. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. 2013. Choong Eva, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The metabolism of primaquine to its active metabolite is dependent on CYP 2D6. Malaria journal. 2013. Pybus Brandon S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics in American Indian populations: analysis of CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP2C9 in the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. Fohner Alison, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
New evidence about an old drug--risk with codeine after adenotonsillectomy. The New England journal of medicine. 2013. Racoosin Judith A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Clinical Implementation of Pharmacogenetics: More than One Gene at a Time. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2013. Johnson J A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Meta-analysis of CYP2D6 Metabolizer Phenotype and Metoprolol Pharmacokinetics. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2013. Blake C M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Challenges in pharmacogenetics. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Cascorbi Ingolf, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacokinetic model incorporating mechanism-based inactivation of CYP2D6 can explain both non-linear kinetics and drug interactions of paroxetine. International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2013. Mikami Akiko, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
First demonstration that brain CYP2D-mediated opiate metabolic activation alters analgesia in vivo. Biochemical pharmacology. 2013. Zhou Kaidi, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Anti-Parkinson's disease drugs and pharmacogenetic considerations. Expert opinion on drug metabolism & toxicology. 2013. Agúndez José A G, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Fatal doxepin intoxication--suicide or slow gradual intoxication?. Forensic science international. 2013. Neukamm M A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2D6 and adjuvant tamoxifen: possible differences of outcome in pre- and post-menopausal patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Margolin Sara, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Influence of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 gene variants on antidepressant response in obsessive-compulsive disorder. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2013. Brandl E J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Relationship of CYP2D6, CYP3A, POR, and ABCB1 genotypes with galantamine plasma concentrations. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2013. Noetzli Muriel, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Potential role of CYP2D6 in the central nervous system. Xenobiotica; the fate of foreign compounds in biological systems. 2013. Cheng Jie, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacokinetic and tolerability profile of pridopidine in healthy-volunteer poor and extensive CYP2D6 metabolizers, following single and multiple dosing. European journal of drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics. 2013. Lindskov Krog P, et al. PubMed
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Effects of atomoxetine on the QT interval in healthy CYP2D6 poor metabolizers. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Loghin Corina, et al. PubMed
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A Thorough QTc study of 3 doses of iloperidone including metabolic inhibition via CYP2D6 and/or CYP3A4 and a comparison to quetiapine and ziprasidone. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. 2013. Potkin Steven G, et al. PubMed
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Analysis of CYP2D6 genotype and response to tetrabenazine. Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society. 2013. Mehanna Raja, et al. PubMed
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Characterization of the CYP2D6 gene locus and metabolic activity in Indo- and Afro-Trinidadians: discovery of novel allelic variants. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Montané Jaime Lazara Karelia, et al. PubMed
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Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium Guideline for CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 Genotypes and Dosing of Tricyclic Antidepressants. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2013. Hicks J K, et al. PubMed
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CYP2D6 ultrarapid metabolism and early dropout from fluoxetine or amitriptyline monotherapy treatment in major depressive patients. Molecular psychiatry. 2013. Peñas-Lledó E M, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of clinical response to risperidone. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Llerena Adrián, et al. PubMed
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CYP2D6 Metabolism and Patient Outcome in the Austrian Breast and Colorectal Cancer Study Group Trial (ABCSG) 8. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2012. Goetz Matthew P, et al. PubMed
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Laboratory testing of CYP2D6 alleles in relation to tamoxifen therapy. Genetics in medicine : official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics. 2012. Lyon Elaine, et al. PubMed
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Codeine-associated pediatric deaths despite using recommended dosing guidelines: three case reports. Journal of opioid management. 2013. Friedrichsdorf Stefan J, et al. PubMed
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Clinical practice guideline: CYP2D6 genotyping for safe and efficacious codeine therapy. Journal of population therapeutics and clinical pharmacology = Journal de la thérapeutique des populations et de la pharamcologie clinique. 2013. Madadi Parvaz, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism in the brain. Journal of psychiatry & neuroscience : JPN. 2012. Miksys Sharon, et al. PubMed
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Apnea and oxygen desaturations in children treated with opioids after adenotonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a prospective pilot study. Paediatric drugs. 2012. Khetani Justin D, et al. PubMed
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Life-threatening adverse events following therapeutic opioid administration in adults: is pharmacogenetic analysis useful?. Pain research & management : the journal of the Canadian Pain Society = journal de la société canadienne pour le traitement de la douleur. 2013. Madadi Parvaz, et al. PubMed
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Importance of pharmacogenetics in the treatment of children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder: a case report. Pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine. 2013. Tan-Kam Teerarat, et al. PubMed
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CYP2D6 genotype dependent oxycodone metabolism in postoperative patients. PloS one. 2013. Stamer Ulrike M, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics and other reasons why drugs can fail in pregnancy: higher dose or different drug?. Obstetrics and gynecology. 2012. Haas David M, et al. PubMed
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Multicenter Study on the Clinical Effectiveness, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacogenetics of Mirtazapine in Depression. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. 2012. Sirot Eveline Jaquenoud, et al. PubMed
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A Clinician-Driven Automated System for Integration of Pharmacogenetic Interpretations Into an Electronic Medical Record. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2012. Hicks J K, et al. PubMed
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Interpreting Pharmacogenetic Data in the Developing Neonate: The Challenge of Hitting a Moving Target. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2012. Leeder J S, et al. PubMed
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CYP2D6 update: revised nomenclature for CYP2D7/2D6 hybrid genes. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. Sim Sarah C, et al. PubMed
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Effects of CYP2C19 variant alleles on postclopidogrel platelet reactivity and clinical outcomes in an actual clinical setting in China. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. Wu Hongyi, et al. PubMed
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The AmpliChip® CYP450 test and response to treatment in schizophrenia and obsessive compulsive disorder: a pilot study and focus on cases with abnormal CYP2D6 drug metabolism. Genetic testing and molecular biomarkers. 2012. Müller Daniel J, et al. PubMed
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Association study of 27 annotated genes for clozapine pharmacogenetics: validation of preexisting studies and identification of a new candidate gene, ABCB1, for treatment response. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. 2012. Lee Seung-Tae, et al. PubMed
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Literature based drug interaction prediction with clinical assessment using electronic medical records: novel myopathy associated drug interactions. PLoS computational biology. 2012. Duke Jon D, et al. PubMed
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CYP2D6 genotype affects age-related decline in flecainide clearance: a population pharmacokinetic analysis. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. Doki Kosuke, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6 increase the risk for recurrence of breast cancer in patients receiving tamoxifen as an adjuvant therapy. Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology. 2012. Damodaran Solai Elango, et al. PubMed
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Re: CYP2D6 Genotype and Tamoxifen Response in Postmenopausal Women With Endocrine-Responsive Breast Cancer: The Breast International Group 1-98 Trial. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2012. Nakamura Yusuke, et al. PubMed
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Impact of CYP2D6 polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of lovastatin in Chinese subjects. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2012. Yin Ophelia Qi Ping, et al. PubMed
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PharmGKB summary: phenytoin pathway. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. Thorn Caroline F, et al. PubMed
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More codeine fatalities after tonsillectomy in North American children. Pediatrics. 2012. Kelly Lauren E, et al. PubMed
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Prediction of codeine toxicity in infants and their mothers using a novel combination of maternal genetic markers. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2012. Sistonen J, et al. PubMed
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Use of CYP2D6 genotyping in practice: tamoxifen dose adjustment. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Walko Christine M, et al. PubMed
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Tamoxifen and CYP2D6: A Contradiction of Data. The oncologist. 2012. Hertz Daniel L, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of atomoxetine and effect of CYP2D6*10/*10 genotype in healthy Japanese men. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2012. Matsui A, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 genotype predicts steady state escitalopram concentration in GENDEP. Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England). 2012. Huezo-Diaz Patricia, et al. PubMed
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Associations Between ABCB1, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2D6, and CYP3A5 Alleles in Relation to Efavirenz and Nevirapine Pharmacokinetics in HIV-Infected Individuals. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2012. Heil Sandra G, et al. PubMed
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Do CYP2D6 genotypes reflect oxycodone requirements for cancer patients treated for cancer pain? A cross-sectional multicentre study. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2012. Andreassen Trine Naalsund, et al. PubMed
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The relationship between clinical pharmacokinetics of aripiprazole and CYP2D6 genetic polymorphism: effects of CYP enzyme inhibition by coadministration of paroxetine or fluvoxamine. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2012. Azuma Junichi, et al. PubMed
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CYP2D6 and the severity of suicide attempts. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Peñas-Lledó Eva M, et al. PubMed
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Exploration of CYP450 and drug transporter genotypes and correlations with nevirapine exposure in Malawians. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Brown Kevin C, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of drugs withdrawn from the market. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Zhang Wei, et al. PubMed
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Genetic variants of CYP2D6 gene and cancer risk: a HuGE systematic review and meta-analysis. Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP. 2012. Zhou Li-Ping, et al. PubMed
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Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) Guidelines for Codeine Therapy in the Context of Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) Genotype. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Crews K R, et al. PubMed
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Effects of CYP2D6*10, CYP3A5*3, CYP1A2*1F, and ABCB1 C3435T polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of flecainide in healthy Chinese subjects. Drug metabolism and drug interactions. 2012. Hu Miao, et al. PubMed
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Inter-individual variability of in vivo CYP2D6 activity in different genotypes. Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics. 2012. Chiba Koji, et al. PubMed
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Whole genome amplification of DNA for genotyping pharmacogenetics candidate genes. Frontiers in pharmacology. 2012. Philips Santosh, et al. PubMed
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Relevance of CYP2D6 variability in first-episode schizophrenia patients treated with risperidone. Neuro endocrinology letters. 2012. Barteček Richard, et al. PubMed
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Tamoxifen Downregulates Ets Oncogene Family Members ETV4 and ETV5 in Benign Breast Tissue: Implications for Durable Risk Reduction. Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.). 2011. Euhus David, et al. PubMed
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Augmentative effects of fluvoxamine on duloxetine plasma levels in depressed patients. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2011. Paulzen M, et al. PubMed
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Increasing tamoxifen dose in breast cancer patients based on CYP2D6 genotypes and endoxifen levels: effect on active metabolite isomers and the antiestrogenic activity score. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Barginear M F, et al. PubMed
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Risk assessment of accidental nortriptyline poisoning: The importance of cytochrome P450 for nortriptyline elimination investigated using a population-based pharmacokinetic simulator. European journal of pharmaceutical sciences : official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2011. Jornil Jakob, et al. PubMed
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Association of ABCB1, 5-HT3B receptor and CYP2D6 genetic polymorphisms with ondansetron and metoclopramide antiemetic response in Indonesian cancer patients treated with highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Japanese journal of clinical oncology. 2011. Perwitasari Dyah A, et al. PubMed
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SULT1A1, CYP2C19 and disease-free survival in early breast cancer patients receiving tamoxifen. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Moyer Ann M, et al. PubMed
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Dose-adjustment study of tamoxifen based on CYP2D6 genotypes in Japanese breast cancer patients. Breast cancer research and treatment. 2011. Kiyotani Kazuma, et al. PubMed
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Complex Drug Interactions of HIV Protease Inhibitors 2: In Vivo Induction and In Vitro to In Vivo Correlation of Induction of Cytochrome P450 1A2, 2B6 and 2C9 by Ritonavir or Nelfinavir. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2011. Kirby Brian J, et al. PubMed
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Prolonged toxicity after amitriptyline overdose in a patient deficient in CYP2D6 activity. Journal of medical toxicology : official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology. 2011. Smith Jennifer Cohen, et al. PubMed
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The neuroprotective enzyme CYP2D6 increases in the brain with age and is lower in Parkinson's disease patients. Neurobiology of aging. 2011. Mann Amandeep, et al. PubMed
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The tamoxifen metabolite norendoxifen is a potent and selective inhibitor of aromatase (CYP19) and a potential lead compound for novel therapeutic agents. Breast cancer research and treatment. 2011. Lu Wenjie Jessie, et al. PubMed
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Comparison of pharmacokinetic variability of fesoterodine vs. tolterodine extended release in cytochrome P450 2D6 extensive and poor metabolizers. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2011. Malhotra Bimal, et al. PubMed
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Evaluation of CYP2D6 and Efficacy of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene in Women Treated for Breast Cancer Chemoprevention: Results from the NSABP P-1 and P-2 Clinical Trials. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2011. Goetz Matthew P, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphisms and the impact of a higher clopidogrel dose regimen on active metabolite exposure and antiplatelet response in healthy subjects. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Simon T, et al. PubMed
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Near-fatal tramadol cardiotoxicity in a CYP2D6 ultrarapid metabolizer. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2011. Elkalioubie Ahmed, et al. PubMed
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Genotype-guided tamoxifen dosing increases active metabolite exposure in women with reduced CYP2D6 metabolism: a multicenter study. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2011. Irvin William J, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic testing to predict antipsychotic-induced weight gain: a systematic review. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Risselada Arne J, et al. PubMed
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The CYP2C19*2 genotype predicts tamoxifen treatment outcome in advanced breast cancer patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. van Schaik Ron H N, et al. PubMed
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CYP2D6 polymorphisms and codeine analgesia in postpartum pain management: a pilot study. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2011. VanderVaart Sondra, et al. PubMed
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CYP2D6- and CYP3A-dependent enantioselective plasma concentrations of ondansetron in postanesthesia care. Anesthesia and analgesia. 2011. Stamer Ulrike M, et al. PubMed
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Cancer Pharmacogenomics. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Paugh S W, et al. PubMed
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CYP2D6 genotype and smoking influence fluvoxamine steady-state concentration in Japanese psychiatric patients: lessons for genotype-phenotype association study design in translational pharmacogenetics. Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England). 2011. Suzuki Yutaro, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic testing: time for clinical practice guidelines. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Amstutz U, et al. PubMed
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Carvedilol pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in relation to CYP2D6 and ADRB pharmacogenetics. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Sehrt Daniel, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics and individualized therapy in children: immunosuppressants, antidepressants, anticancer and anti-inflammatory drugs. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Elie Valery, et al. PubMed
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Activity Levels of Tamoxifen Metabolites at the Estrogen Receptor and the Impact of Genetic Polymorphisms of Phase I and II Enzymes on Their Concentration Levels in Plasma. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Mürdter T E, et al. PubMed
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Tamoxifen Metabolite Concentrations, CYP2D6 Genotype, and Breast Cancer Outcomes. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Madlensky L, et al. PubMed
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Pediatric pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic studies: the current state and future perspectives. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2011. Russo Roberta, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics: the genetics of variable drug responses. Circulation. 2011. Roden Dan M, et al. PubMed
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Role of cytochrome P4502D6 functional polymorphisms in the efficacy of donepezil in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Seripa Davide, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics: From Bench to Byte- An Update of Guidelines. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Swen J J, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics of the RNA world: structural RNA polymorphisms in drug therapy. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Sadee W, et al. PubMed
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Developmental pharmacology of tramadol during infancy: ontogeny, pharmacogenetics and elimination clearance. Paediatric anaesthesia. 2011. Allegaert Karel, et al. PubMed
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Gene copy number variations: it is important to determine which allele is affected. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Ramamoorthy Anuradha, et al. PubMed
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Copy number variants in pharmacogenetic genes. Trends in molecular medicine. 2011. He Yijing, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 variation and citalopram response. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Mrazek David A, et al. PubMed
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Practical recommendations for pharmacogenomics-based prescription: 2010 ESF-UB Conference on Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Becquemont Laurent, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic tests in cancer chemotherapy: what physicians should know for clinical application. The Journal of pathology. 2011. Lee Soo-Youn, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomic contribution to drug response. Cancer journal (Sudbury, Mass.). 2011. Watson Roshawn G, et al. PubMed
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Robust CYP2D6 genotype assay including copy number variation using multiplex single-base extension for Asian populations. Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry. 2010. Kim Eun-Young, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics and gender association with psychotic episodes on nortriptyline lower doses: patient cases. ISRN pharmaceutics. 2011. Piatkov Irina, et al. PubMed
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The communication of pharmacogenetic research results: participants weigh in on their informational needs in a pilot study. Journal of population therapeutics and clinical pharmacology = Journal de la thérapeutique des populations et de la pharamcologie clinique. 2011. Madadi Parvaz, et al. PubMed
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Xenobiotic metabolizing and transporter genes: gene-gene interactions in schizophrenia and related disorders. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Gassó Patricia, et al. PubMed
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Novel variant of CYP2D6*6 is undetected by a commonly used genotyping procedure. Pharmacological reports : PR. 2011. Rasmussen Henrik Berg, et al. PubMed
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CYP2D6 genotype and debrisoquine hydroxylation phenotype in Cubans and Nicaraguans. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Llerena A, et al. PubMed
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Intuitive pharmacogenetics: spontaneous risperidone dosage is related to CYP2D6, CYP3A5 and ABCB1 genotypes. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Mas S, et al. PubMed
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Assessment of Activity Levels for CYP2D6*1, CYP2D6*2, and CYP2D6*41 Genes by Population Pharmacokinetics of Dextromethorphan. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Abduljalil K, et al. PubMed
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Estrogen receptor genotypes, menopausal status, and the effects of tamoxifen on lipid levels: revised and updated results. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Hayes D F, et al. PubMed
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Impact of CYP2D6*4 genotype on progression free survival in tamoxifen breast cancer treatment. Current medical research and opinion. 2010. Stingl Julia Carolin, et al. PubMed
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Effects of genetic variants of human P450 oxidoreductase on catalysis by CYP2D6 in vitro. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Sandee Duanpen, et al. PubMed
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Identifying genomic and developmental causes of adverse drug reactions in children. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Becker Mara L, et al. PubMed
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Systematic review of pharmacoeconomic studies of pharmacogenomic tests. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Beaulieu Mathieu, et al. PubMed
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Characterization of 107 genomic DNA reference materials for CYP2D6, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, VKORC1, and UGT1A1: a GeT-RM and Association for Molecular Pathology collaborative project. The Journal of molecular diagnostics : JMD. 2010. Pratt Victoria M, et al. PubMed
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Association of CYP2D6 single-nucleotide polymorphism with response to ophthalmic timolol in primary open-angle Glaucoma--a pilot study. Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics : the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2010. Yuan Hongzhi, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of risperidone therapy in autism: association analysis of eight candidate genes with drug efficacy and adverse drug reactions. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Correia C T, et al. PubMed
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High frequency of occurrence of CYP2D6 gene duplication/multiduplication indicating ultrarapid metabolism among suicide cases. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Zackrisson A L, et al. PubMed
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Effect of the CYP2D6*10 genotype on tolterodine pharmacokinetics. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2010. Oishi Masayo, et al. PubMed
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Expectations, validity, and reality in pharmacogenetics. Journal of clinical epidemiology. 2010. Limdi Nita A, et al. PubMed
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Maternal-fetal and neonatal pharmacogenomics: a review of current literature. Journal of perinatology : official journal of the California Perinatal Association. 2010. Blumenfeld Y J, et al. PubMed
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Recognition of impaired atomoxetine metabolism because of low CYP2D6 activity. Pediatric neurology. 2010. ter Laak Maureen A, et al. PubMed
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CYP2D6 polymorphism in patients with eating disorders. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Peñas-Lledó E M, et al. PubMed
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Disinhibition as a side effect of treatment with fluvoxamine in pediatric patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology. 2010. Harris Elana, et al. PubMed
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Relation of ADRB1, CYP2D6, and UGT1A1 polymorphisms with dose of, and response to, carvedilol or metoprolol therapy in patients with chronic heart failure. The American journal of cardiology. 2010. Baudhuin Linnea M, et al. PubMed
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Differential quantification of CYP2D6 gene copy number by four different quantitative real-time PCR assays. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Ramamoorthy Anuradha, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphisms and drug interactions modulating CYP2D6 and CYP3A activities have a major effect on oxycodone analgesic efficacy and safety. British journal of pharmacology. 2010. Samer C F, et al. PubMed
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Coprescription of tamoxifen and medications that inhibit CYP2D6. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2010. Sideras Kostandinos, et al. PubMed
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Lessons for pharmacogenomics studies: association study between CYP2D6 genotype and tamoxifen response. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Kiyotani Kazuma, et al. PubMed
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Personalized therapy in pain management: where do we stand?. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Stamer Ulrike M, et al. PubMed
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Clinical implementation of pharmacogenomics: overcoming genetic exceptionalism. The lancet oncology. 2010. Relling Mary V, et al. PubMed
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A pharmacogenetic study of docetaxel and thalidomide in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer using the DMET genotyping platform. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Deeken J F, et al. PubMed
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Association between CYP2C19*17 and metabolism of amitriptyline, citalopram and clomipramine in Dutch hospitalized patients. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. de Vos A, et al. PubMed
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A Phenotype-Genotype Approach to Predicting CYP450 and P-Glycoprotein Drug Interactions With the Mixed Inhibitor/Inducer Tipranavir/Ritonavir. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Dumond J B, et al. PubMed
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Evaluation of the influence of sex and CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 polymorphisms in the disposition of citalopram. European journal of pharmacology. 2010. Fudio Salvador, et al. PubMed
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Polymorphisms in xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and diet influence colorectal adenoma risk. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Northwood Emma L, et al. PubMed
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Nationwide drug-dispensing data reveal important differences in adherence to drug label recommendations on CYP2D6-dependent drug interactions. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2010. Mannheimer Buster, et al. PubMed
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Composite functional genetic and comedication CYP2D6 activity score in predicting tamoxifen drug exposure among breast cancer patients. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2010. Borges Silvana, et al. PubMed
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Relationship of CYP2D6 genetic polymorphisms and the pharmacokinetics of tramadol in Chinese volunteers. Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. 2010. Li Q, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 enzymes influence metabolism of the antidepressant escitalopram and treatment response. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Tsai Ming-Hsien, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics of antihypertensive drugs: past, present and future. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Johnson Julie A. PubMed
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Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of GS-9350: a novel pharmacokinetic enhancer without anti-HIV activity. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Mathias A A, et al. PubMed
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Influence of the CYP2D6 polymorphism and hemodialysis on codeine disposition in patients with end-stage renal disease. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2010. Molanaei Hadi, et al. PubMed
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Significant effect of polymorphisms in CYP2D6 and ABCC2 on clinical outcomes of adjuvant tamoxifen therapy for breast cancer patients. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2010. Kiyotani Kazuma, et al. PubMed
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Efficacy of tamoxifen based on cytochrome P450 2D6, CYP2C19 and SULT1A1 genotype in the Italian Tamoxifen Prevention Trial. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Serrano D, et al. PubMed
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Impact of the CYP2D6 genotype on post-operative intravenous oxycodone analgesia. Acta anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. 2010. Zwisler S T, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic considerations in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy. 2010. Lohoff Falk W, et al. PubMed
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Effects of the serotonin 1A, 2A, 2C, 3A, and 3B and serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms on the occurrence of paroxetine discontinuation syndrome. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. 2010. Murata Yusuke, et al. PubMed
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Lack of association between oestrogen receptor polymorphisms and change in bone mineral density with tamoxifen therapy. British journal of cancer. 2010. Henry N L, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomic adaptation of antiretroviral therapy: overcoming the failure of lopinavir in an African infant with CYP2D6 ultrarapid metabolism. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2010. Gorny Matthias, et al. PubMed
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Molecular genetics and epigenetics of the cytochrome P450 gene family and its relevance for cancer risk and treatment. Human genetics. 2010. Rodriguez-Antona Cristina, et al. PubMed
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CYP2D7-2D6 hybrid tandems: identification of novel CYP2D6 duplication arrangements and implications for phenotype prediction. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Gaedigk Andrea, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics in reproductive and perinatal medicine. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Alfirevic Ana, et al. PubMed
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Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and breast cancer mortality in women receiving tamoxifen: a population based cohort study. BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 2010. Kelly Catherine M, et al. PubMed
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The role of human CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 variants in pioglitazone metabolism in vitro. Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology. 2009. Muschler Eugen, et al. PubMed
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Effects of cigarette smoking and cytochrome P450 2D6 genotype on fluvoxamine concentration in plasma of Japanese patients. Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin. 2010. Katoh Yasuhiro, et al. PubMed
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Cyclophosphamide-metabolizing enzyme polymorphisms and survival outcomes after adjuvant chemotherapy for node-positive breast cancer: a retrospective cohort study. Breast cancer research : BCR. 2010. Gor Priya P, et al. PubMed
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Risk to the breast-fed neonate from codeine treatment to the mother: a quantitative mechanistic modeling study. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Willmann S, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphism, linkage disequilibrium, haplotype structure and novel allele analysis of CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 in Han Chinese. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2009. Zhou Q, et al. PubMed
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Guidelines for maternal codeine use during breastfeeding. Canadian family physician Médecin de famille canadien. 2009. Madadi Parvaz, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing enzymes and anti-TB drug-induced hepatitis. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Kim Sang-Heon, et al. PubMed
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Genetic modulation of the pharmacological treatment of pain. Pharmacology & therapeutics. 2009. Lötsch Jörn, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P(450)-dependent toxic effects of primaquine on human erythrocytes. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 2009. Ganesan Shobana, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of breast cancer therapies. Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland). 2009. Hertz Daniel L, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6 oxidation in patients with systemic sclerosis. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2009. Skretkowicz Jadwiga, et al. PubMed
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Association between CYP2D6 polymorphisms and outcomes among women with early stage breast cancer treated with tamoxifen. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. 2009. Schroth Werner, et al. PubMed
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CYP2D6: novel genomic structures and alleles. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2009. Kramer Whitney E, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 genes are not associated with response and remission in a sample of depressive patients. International clinical psychopharmacology. 2009. Serretti Alessandro, et al. PubMed
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Effect of a CYP2D6 polymorphism on the efficacy of donepezil in patients with Alzheimer disease. Neurology. 2009. Pilotto Alberto, et al. PubMed
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Molecular diversity at the CYP2D6 locus in healthy and schizophrenic southern Brazilians. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Kohlrausch Fabiana B, et al. PubMed
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Metabolism of loratadine and further characterization of its in vitro metabolites. Drug metabolism letters. 2009. Ghosal Anima, et al. PubMed
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O-demethylation of codeine to morphine inhibited by low-dose levomepromazine. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2009. Vevelstad M, et al. PubMed
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A haplotype of the norepinephrine transporter (Net) gene Slc6a2 is associated with clinical response to atomoxetine in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 2009. Ramoz Nicolas, et al. PubMed
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Codeine, ultrarapid-metabolism genotype, and postoperative death. The New England journal of medicine. 2009. Ciszkowski Catherine, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 2D6 activity predicts discontinuation of tamoxifen therapy in breast cancer patients. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2009. Rae J M, et al. PubMed
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Clinically available pharmacogenomics tests. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Flockhart D A, et al. PubMed
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Effect of smoking and CYP2D6 polymorphisms on the extent of fluvoxamine-alprazolam interaction in patients with psychosomatic disease. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2009. Sugahara Hideyo, et al. PubMed
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The pharmacokinetics of codeine and its metabolites in Blacks with sickle cell disease. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2009. Shord Stacy S, et al. PubMed
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Can extremely low or high morphine formation from codeine be predicted prior to therapy initiation?. Pain. 2009. Lötsch Jörn, et al. PubMed
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Codeine and morphine pathway. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2009. Thorn Caroline F, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 2D6. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2009. Owen Ryan P, et al. PubMed
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Relevance of CYP2D6 -1584C>G polymorphism for thioridazine:mesoridazine plasma concentration ratio in psychiatric patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Dorado Pedro, et al. PubMed
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Utilization of pharmacogenomics and therapeutic drug monitoring for opioid pain management. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Jannetto Paul J, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and associated adverse drug reactions. Pharmacotherapy. 2009. Thomas Kelan L H, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of anxiolytic drugs. Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996). 2009. Tiwari Arun K, et al. PubMed
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Cross-sectional analysis of the influence of currently known pharmacogenetic modulators on opioid therapy in outpatient pain centers. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2009. Lötsch Jörn, et al. PubMed
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Influence of sex and CYP2D6 genotype on mirtazapine disposition, evaluated in Spanish healthy volunteers. Pharmacological research : the official journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society. 2009. Borobia Alberto M, et al. PubMed
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CYP2D6 genotype and its relationship with metoprolol dose, concentrations and effect in patients with systolic heart failure. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2009. Sharp C F, et al. PubMed
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Depressive effect of an antidepressant: therapeutic failure of venlafaxine in a case lacking CYP2D6 activity. Annals of clinical biochemistry. 2009. Wijnen P A H M, et al. PubMed
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Escitalopram is a weak inhibitor of the CYP2D6-catalyzed O-demethylation of (+)-tramadol but does not reduce the hypoalgesic effect in experimental pain. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Noehr-Jensen L, et al. PubMed
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ADME pharmacogenetics: current practices and future outlook. Expert opinion on drug metabolism & toxicology. 2009. Grossman Iris. PubMed
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Response to serotonin reuptake inhibitors in OCD is not influenced by common CYP2D6 polymorphisms. International journal of psychiatry in clinical practice. 2009. Van Nieuwerburgh Filip C W, et al. PubMed
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The hypoalgesic effect of oxycodone in human experimental pain models in relation to the CYP2D6 oxidation polymorphism. Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology. 2009. Zwisler Stine T, et al. PubMed
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Association between the CYP2D6*4 polymorphism and depression or anxiety in the elderly. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Bijl Monique J, et al. PubMed
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CYP2D6 genotyping for psychiatric patients treated with risperidone: considerations for cost-effectiveness studies. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Rodríguez-Antona Cristina, et al. PubMed
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Tamoxifen metabolism and its effect on endocrine treatment of breast cancer. Clinical advances in hematology & oncology : H&O. 2009. Briest Susanne, et al. PubMed
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Assessment of the impact of renal impairment on systemic exposure of new molecular entities: evaluation of recent new drug applications. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Zhang Y, et al. PubMed
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Impact of the CYP2D6 genotype on the clinical effects of metoprolol: a prospective longitudinal study. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Rau T, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic variation at CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6 at global and microgeographic scales. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2009. Sistonen Johanna, et al. PubMed
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Duloxetine: a review of its use in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. CNS drugs. 2009. Carter Natalie J, et al. PubMed
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DNA microarray technology in the clinical environment: the AmpliChip CYP450 test for CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genotyping. CNS spectrums. 2009. de Leon Jose, et al. PubMed
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Genetic variation in the CYP2D6 gene is associated with a lower heart rate and blood pressure in beta-blocker users. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Bijl M J, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of neonatal opioid toxicity following maternal use of codeine during breastfeeding: a case-control study. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Madadi P, et al. PubMed
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Expression and functional analysis of CYP2D6.24, CYP2D6.26, CYP2D6.27, and CYP2D7 isozymes. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2009. Zhang Wei-Yan, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics: the promise of personalized medicine for CNS disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 2009. de Leon Jose. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics of anticancer agents. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians. 2009. Huang R Stephanie, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 2D6 genotyping: potential role in improving treatment outcomes in psychiatric disorders. CNS drugs. 2009. Kirchheiner Julia, et al. PubMed
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A polymorphism in the TC21 promoter associates with an unfavorable tamoxifen treatment outcome in breast cancer. Cancer research. 2008. Rokavec Matjaz, et al. PubMed
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Effect of cytochrome P450 2D6 genotype on maternal paroxetine plasma concentrations during pregnancy. Clinical pharmacokinetics. 2009. Ververs F F Tessa, et al. PubMed
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Steady-state concentrations of mirtazapine, N-desmethylmirtazapine, 8-hydroxymirtazapine and their enantiomers in relation to cytochrome P450 2D6 genotype, age and smoking behaviour. Clinical pharmacokinetics. 2009. Lind Anna-Britta, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics-guided dose modifications of antidepressants. Clinics in laboratory medicine. 2008. Seeringer Angela, et al. PubMed
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Functional characterization of 17 CYP2D6 allelic variants (CYP2D6.2, 10, 14A-B, 18, 27, 36, 39, 47-51, 53-55, and 57). Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2008. Sakuyama Kanako, et al. PubMed
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Polymorphism of human cytochrome P450 enzymes and its clinical impact. Drug metabolism reviews. 2009. Zhou Shu-Feng, et al. PubMed
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Serum concentrations of sertraline and N-desmethyl sertraline in relation to CYP2C19 genotype in psychiatric patients. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2008. Rudberg I, et al. PubMed
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Correlates of response to Olanzapine in a North Indian Schizophrenia sample. Psychiatry research. 2008. Thomas Pramod, et al. PubMed
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A case with occurring adverse effects when cross-over titration from fluvoxamine to paroxetine associated with increasing the plasma fluvoxamine level in major depressive disorder. The world journal of biological psychiatry : the official journal of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry. 2009. Hori Hikaru, et al. PubMed
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Dose-dependent effect of the CYP2D6 genotype on the steady-state fluvoxamine concentration. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2008. Watanabe Junzo, et al. PubMed
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Functional pharmacogenetics/genomics of human cytochromes P450 involved in drug biotransformation. Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry. 2008. Zanger Ulrich M, et al. PubMed
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Nilotinib: a second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Clinical therapeutics. 2008. Deremer David L, et al. PubMed
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Effect of CYP2D6 polymorphism on pharmacokinetics of a novel ACAT inhibitor, pactimibe and its unique metabolite, R-125528. International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Kotsuma M, et al. PubMed
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Do single nucleotide polymorphisms in xenobiotic metabolizing genes determine breast cancer susceptibility and treatment outcomes?. Cancer investigation. 2008. Singh Virendra, et al. PubMed
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Clinical pharmacogenetics and potential application in personalized medicine. Current drug metabolism. 2008. Zhou Shu-Feng, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP2D6*10 on the pharmacokinetics of metoprolol in healthy Korean volunteers. Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. 2008. Jin S K, et al. PubMed
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Respiratory depression with tramadol in a patient with renal impairment and CYP2D6 gene duplication. Anesthesia and analgesia. 2008. Stamer Ulrike M, et al. PubMed
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Impaired tamoxifen metabolism reduces survival in familial breast cancer patients. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2008. Newman William G, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacokinetics/genotype associations for major cytochrome P450 enzymes in native and first- and third-generation Japanese populations: comparison with Korean, Chinese, and Caucasian populations. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Myrand S P, et al. PubMed
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Gene polymorphism influencing treatment response in psychotic patients in a naturalistic setting. Journal of psychiatric research. 2008. Alenius Malin, et al. PubMed
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Genetic underpinnings of tardive dyskinesia: passing the baton to pharmacogenetics. Pharmacogenomics. 2008. Thelma Bk, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic insights into codeine analgesia: implications to pediatric codeine use. Pharmacogenomics. 2008. Madadi Parvaz, et al. PubMed
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Developmental changes in human liver CYP2D6 expression. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2008. Stevens Jeffrey C, et al. PubMed
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CYP2D6 and ABCB1 genetic variability: influence on paroxetine plasma level and therapeutic response. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2008. Gex-Fabry Marianne, et al. PubMed
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Cyp2d6*3, *4, *5 and *6 polymorphisms and antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal side-effects in patients receiving antipsychotic therapy. Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology. 2008. Crescenti Anna, et al. PubMed
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PhRMA white paper on ADME pharmacogenomics. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2008. Williams J Andrew, et al. PubMed
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Life-threatening dextromethorphan intoxication associated with interaction with amitriptyline in a poor CYP2D6 metabolizer: a single case re-exposure study. Journal of pain and symptom management. 2008. Forget Patrice, et al. PubMed
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Naturalistic pharmacogenetic study of treatment resistance to typical neuroleptics in European-Brazilian schizophrenics. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2008. Kohlrausch Fabiana B, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of analgesics: toward the individualization of prescription. Pharmacogenomics. 2008. Rollason Victoria, et al. PubMed
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Mice as clinically relevant models for the study of cytochrome P450-dependent metabolism. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Muruganandan S, et al. PubMed
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Association of graded allele-specific changes in CYP2D6 function with imipramine dose requirement in a large group of depressed patients. Molecular psychiatry. 2008. Schenk P W, et al. PubMed
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Effect of terbinafine and voriconazole on the pharmacokinetics of the antidepressant venlafaxine. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Hynninen V-V, et al. PubMed
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Estrogen receptor genotypes, menopausal status, and the lipid effects of tamoxifen. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Ntukidem N I, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics: from bench to byte. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Swen J J, et al. PubMed
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Clinically relevant pharmacokinetic drug interactions with second-generation antidepressants: an update. Clinical therapeutics. 2008. Spina Edoardo, et al. PubMed
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Prediction of pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions using human hepatocyte suspension in plasma and cytochrome P450 phenotypic data. II. In vitro-in vivo correlation with ketoconazole. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2008. Lu Chuang, et al. PubMed
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Kinetics of omeprazole and escitalopram in relation to the CYP2C19*17 allele in healthy subjects. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2008. Ohlsson Rosenborg Staffan, et al. PubMed
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Semi-quantitative CYP2D6 gene doses in relation to metabolic ratios of psychotropics. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2008. Hinrichs John W J, et al. PubMed
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Serum concentrations of venlafaxine and its metabolites O-desmethylvenlafaxine and N-desmethylvenlafaxine in heterozygous carriers of the CYP2D6*3, *4 or *5 allele. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2008. Hermann M, et al. PubMed
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The ontogeny of drug metabolism enzymes and implications for adverse drug events. Pharmacology & therapeutics. 2008. Hines Ronald N. PubMed
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Influence of the CYP2D6*4 polymorphism on dose, switching and discontinuation of antidepressants. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2008. Bijl Monique J, et al. PubMed
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Genetic predisposition to Parkinson's disease: CYP2D6 and HFE in the Faroe Islands. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2008. Halling Jónrit, et al. PubMed
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CYP2D6 phenotype prediction from genotype: which system is the best?. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Kirchheiner J. PubMed
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The CYP2D6 activity score: translating genotype information into a qualitative measure of phenotype. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Gaedigk A, et al. PubMed
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CYP2D6 metabolizer status and atomoxetine dosing in children and adolescents with ADHD. European neuropsychopharmacology : the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 2008. Trzepacz Paula T, et al. PubMed
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Effects of the CYP2D6 gene duplication on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of tramadol. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. 2008. Kirchheiner Julia, et al. PubMed
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The relationship between the response of clinical symptoms and plasma olanzapine concentration, based on pharmacogenetics: Juntendo University Schizophrenia Projects (JUSP). Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2008. Nozawa Motohiro, et al. PubMed
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The CYP2D6 polymorphism in relation to the metabolism of amitriptyline and nortriptyline in the Faroese population. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2008. Halling Jónrit, et al. PubMed
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Tamoxifen pharmacogenomics: the role of CYP2D6 as a predictor of drug response. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Goetz M P, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacokinetic genes do not influence response or tolerance to citalopram in the STAR*D sample. PloS one. 2008. Peters Eric J, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics of endocrine therapy in breast cancer. Advances in experimental medicine and biology. 2008. Weinshilboum Richard. PubMed
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Genotyping panel for assessing response to cancer chemotherapy. BMC medical genomics. 2008. Dai Zunyan, et al. PubMed
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Enzymes as target antigens of liver-specific autoimmunity: the case of cytochromes P450s. Current medicinal chemistry. 2008. Bogdanos D P, et al. PubMed
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Impact of the CYP2D6 genotype on steady-state serum concentrations of aripiprazole and dehydroaripiprazole. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2007. Hendset Magnhild, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics and breast cancer endocrine therapy: CYP2D6 as a predictive factor for tamoxifen metabolism and drug response?. Expert reviews in molecular medicine. 2008. Stearns Vered, et al. PubMed
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Complicated pain management in a CYP450 2D6 poor metabolizer. Pain practice : the official journal of World Institute of Pain. 2007. Foster Adriana, et al. PubMed
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Influence of cytochrome P450 polymorphisms on drug therapies: pharmacogenetic, pharmacoepigenetic and clinical aspects. Pharmacology & therapeutics. 2007. Ingelman-Sundberg Magnus, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic treatments for drug addiction: alcohol and opiates. The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse. 2008. Haile Colin N, et al. PubMed
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Low frequency of CYP2D6 poor metabolizers among schizophrenia patients. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2007. Llerena A, et al. PubMed
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Factors affecting drug concentrations and QT interval during thioridazine therapy. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Thanacoody R H K, et al. PubMed
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Breast cancer treatment outcome with adjuvant tamoxifen relative to patient CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genotypes. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2007. Schroth Werner, et al. PubMed
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Serum prolactin levels, plasma risperidone levels, polymorphism of cytochrome P450 2D6 and clinical response in patients with schizophrenia. Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England). 2007. Wang Lei, et al. PubMed
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CYP2D6 and DRD2 genes differentially impact pharmacodynamic sensitivity and time course of prolactin response to perphenazine. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2007. Aklillu Eleni, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacokinetics of aripiprazole, a new antipsychotic, following oral dosing in healthy adult Japanese volunteers: influence of CYP2D6 polymorphism. Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics. 2007. Kubo Masanori, et al. PubMed
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A fatal doxepin poisoning associated with a defective CYP2D6 genotype. The American journal of forensic medicine and pathology. 2007. Koski Anna, et al. PubMed
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Comparative metabolic capabilities and inhibitory profiles of CYP2D6.1, CYP2D6.10, and CYP2D6.17. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2007. Shen Hongwu, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacokinetics of codeine and its metabolite morphine in ultra-rapid metabolizers due to CYP2D6 duplication. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2007. Kirchheiner J, et al. PubMed
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Depot haloperidol treatment in outpatients with schizophrenia on monotherapy: impact of CYP2D6 polymorphism on pharmacokinetics and treatment outcome. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2007. Panagiotidis Georgios, et al. PubMed
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Concentrations of tramadol and O-desmethyltramadol enantiomers in different CYP2D6 genotypes. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Stamer U M, et al. PubMed
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Apnea in a child after oral codeine: a genetic variant - an ultra-rapid metabolizer. Paediatric anaesthesia. 2007. Voronov Polina, et al. PubMed
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Identification and characterization of CYP2D6*56B, an allele associated with the poor metabolizer phenotype. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Gaedigk A, et al. PubMed
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The effect of CYP2D6 polymorphisms on the response to pain treatment for pediatric sickle cell pain crisis. The Journal of pediatrics. 2007. Brousseau David C, et al. PubMed
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Duloxetine pharmacokinetics are similar in Japanese and Caucasian subjects. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2007. Chan Clark, et al. PubMed
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The influence of CYP2D6 phenotype on the clinical response of nebivolol in patients with essential hypertension. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2007. Lefebvre Jean, et al. PubMed
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Development of the "Inje cocktail" for high-throughput evaluation of five human cytochrome P450 isoforms in vivo. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Ryu J Y, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacokinetics of mirtazapine: enantioselective effects of the CYP2D6 ultra rapid metabolizer genotype and correlation with adverse effects. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Brockmöller J, et al. PubMed
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Comparison of duloxetine, escitalopram, and sertraline effects on cytochrome P450 2D6 function in healthy volunteers. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. 2007. Preskorn Sheldon H, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 2D6 genotype variation and venlafaxine dosage. Mayo Clinic proceedings. Mayo Clinic. 2007. McAlpine Donald E, et al. PubMed
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CYP2D6*4 polymorphism is associated with statin-induced muscle effects. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2007. Frudakis Tony N, et al. PubMed
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Tolerability of statins is not linked to CYP450 polymorphisms, but reduced CYP2D6 metabolism improves cholesteraemic response to simvastatin and fluvastatin. Pharmacological research : the official journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society. 2007. Zuccaro Piergiorgio, et al. PubMed
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Impact of CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 polymorphisms on drug metabolism and on insulin and lipid elevations and insulin resistance in clozapine-treated patients. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. 2007. Melkersson Kristina I, et al. PubMed
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Ontogeny of dextromethorphan O- and N-demethylation in the first year of life. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Blake M J, et al. PubMed
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Somatic complications of psychotropic medications in a patient with multiple CYP2 drug metabolism deficiencies. Connecticut medicine. 2007. Ruaño Gualberto, et al. PubMed
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Clinical implications of pharmacogenetics of cytochrome P450 drug metabolizing enzymes. Biochimica et biophysica acta. 2007. Kirchheiner Julia, et al. PubMed
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Evaluation of effects of polymorphism for metabolic enzymes on pharmacokinetics of carvedilol by population pharmacokinetic analysis. Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin. 2007. Takekuma Yoh, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of opioids. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Somogyi Andrew A, et al. PubMed
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Appropriate phenotyping procedures for drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters in humans and their simultaneous use in the "cocktail" approach. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Fuhr U, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P4502D6 (CYP2D6) gene locus heterogeneity: characterization of gene duplication events. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Gaedigk A, et al. PubMed
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Combined overdose of atomoxetine and methylphenidate in a cytochrome P450 2D6 poor metabolizer. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. 2007. Reimers Arne, et al. PubMed
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CYP2D6 and clinical response to atomoxetine in children and adolescents with ADHD. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 2007. Michelson David, et al. PubMed
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CYP2D6 worldwide genetic variation shows high frequency of altered activity variants and no continental structure. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2007. Sistonen Johanna, et al. PubMed
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The impact of cytochrome P450 2D6 metabolism in women receiving adjuvant tamoxifen. Breast cancer research and treatment. 2007. Goetz Matthew P, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacokinetics and tolerability of duloxetine following oral administration to healthy Chinese subjects. Clinical pharmacokinetics. 2007. Tianmei Si, et al. PubMed
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Frequency of CYP2D6*10 and *14 alleles and their influence on the metabolic activity of CYP2D6 in a healthy Chinese population. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Cai W M, et al. PubMed
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Terbinafine increases the plasma concentration of paroxetine after a single oral administration of paroxetine in healthy subjects. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2007. Yasui-Furukori Norio, et al. PubMed
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Reboxetine and cytochrome P450--comparison with paroxetine treatment in humans. International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Kuhn U D, et al. PubMed
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CYP2D6 increases toxicity of the designer drug 4-methylthioamphetamine (4-MTA). Toxicology. 2007. Carmo Helena, et al. PubMed
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Genetic variants of CYP3A5, CYP2D6, SULT1A1, UGT2B15 and tamoxifen response in postmenopausal patients with breast cancer. Breast cancer research : BCR. 2007. Wegman Pia, et al. PubMed
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ABCB1 and cytochrome P450 genotypes and phenotypes: influence on methadone plasma levels and response to treatment. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Crettol Séverine, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic screening of the gene deletion and duplications of CYP2D6. Drug metabolism reviews. 2007. Meijerman Irma, et al. PubMed
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Imatinib: a review of its use in the management of gastrointestinal stromal tumours. Drugs. 2007. Siddiqui M Asif A, et al. PubMed
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Links among paroxetine-induced sexual dysfunctions, gender, and CYP2D6 activity. Journal of sex & marital therapy. 2007. Zourková Alexandra, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of glucose-lowering drug treatment: a systematic review. Molecular diagnosis & therapy. 2007. Bozkurt Ozlem, et al. PubMed
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CYP2D6 phenotyping with dextromethorphan. Pharmacological reports : PR. 2007. Wojtczak Anna, et al. PubMed
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Effect of CYP2D6 genotype on flecainide pharmacokinetics in Japanese patients with supraventricular tachyarrhythmia. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2006. Doki Kosuke, et al. PubMed
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Effect of the CYP2D6*10 C188T polymorphism on postoperative tramadol analgesia in a Chinese population. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2006. Wang GuoXiang, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP2D6 polymorphism on 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ('Ecstasy') cytotoxicity. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2006. Carmo Helena, et al. PubMed
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A poor metabolizer for cytochromes P450 2D6 and 2C19: a case report on antidepressant treatment. CNS spectrums. 2006. Johnson Maria, et al. PubMed
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A silent mutation (2939G>A, exon 6; CYP2D6*59) leading to impaired expression and function of CYP2D6. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2006. Toscano Claudia, et al. PubMed
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Bupropion: pharmacology and therapeutic applications. Expert review of neurotherapeutics. 2006. Foley Kevin F, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics, drug-metabolizing enzymes, and clinical practice. Pharmacological reviews. 2006. Gardiner Sharon J, et al. PubMed
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Response to hydrocodone, codeine and oxycodone in a CYP2D6 poor metabolizer. Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry. 2006. Susce Margaret T, et al. PubMed
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Association of CYP2D6 genotypes and personality traits in healthy individuals. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. 2006. Kirchheiner Julia, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of morphine poisoning in a breastfed neonate of a codeine-prescribed mother. Lancet. 2006. Koren Gideon, et al. PubMed
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Quantitative effect of CYP2D6 genotype and inhibitors on tamoxifen metabolism: implication for optimization of breast cancer treatment. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Borges Silvana, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence evaluation of risperidone in healthy male subjects with different CYP2D6 genotypes. Archives of pharmacal research. 2006. Cho Hea-Young, et al. PubMed
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Multiple dose pharmacokinetics of paroxetine in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder or obsessive-compulsive disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006. Findling Robert L, et al. PubMed
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Sequence-based CYP2D6 genotyping in the Korean population. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2006. Lee Soo-Youn, et al. PubMed
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Paroxetine: population pharmacokinetic analysis in late-life depression using sparse concentration sampling. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2006. Feng Yan, et al. PubMed
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ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein/MDR1) gene G2677T/a sequence variation (polymorphism): lack of association with side effects and therapeutic response in depressed inpatients treated with amitriptyline. Clinical chemistry. 2006. Laika Barbara, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral oxycodone in healthy human subjects: role of circulating active metabolites. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Lalovic Bojan, et al. PubMed
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Amodiaquine, its desethylated metabolite, or both, inhibit the metabolism of debrisoquine (CYP2D6) and losartan (CYP2C9) in vivo. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2006. Wennerholm Agneta, et al. PubMed
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