Gene:
CYP2C9
cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily C, polypeptide 9

Available Guidelines

  1. CPIC Dosing Guideline for phenytoin and CYP2C9, HLA-B
  2. CPIC Dosing Guideline for warfarin and CYP2C9, VKORC1
  3. Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for acenocoumarol and CYP2C9
  4. Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for glibenclamide and CYP2C9
  5. Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for gliclazide and CYP2C9
  6. Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for glimepiride and CYP2C9
  7. Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for phenprocoumon and CYP2C9
  8. Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for phenytoin and CYP2C9
  9. Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for tolbutamide and CYP2C9

last updated 08/05/2014

CPIC Dosing Guideline for phenytoin and CYP2C9, HLA-B

Summary

Phenytoin is contraindicated in individuals with the HLA-B*15:02 variant allele ("HLA-B*15:02-positive") due to significantly increased risk of phenytoin-induced cutaneous adverse reactions of Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Additionally, patients with the CYP2C9 poor metabolizer phenotype may require reduced doses of phenytoin.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.










PharmGKB gathers information regarding PGx on FDA drug labels from the FDA's "Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labels", and from FDA-approved FDA and EMA-approved (European Medicines Agency) EMA labels brought to our attention. Excerpts from the label and downloadable highlighted label PDFs are manually curated by PharmGKB.

Please note that some drugs may have been removed from or added to the FDA's "Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labels" without our knowledge. We periodically check the table for additions to this table and update PharmGKB accordingly.

There is currently no such list for European drug labels - we are working with the EMA to establish a list of European Public Assessment Reports (EPAR)s that contain PGx information. We are constructing this list by initially searching for drugs for which we have PGx-containing FDA drug labels - of these 44 EMA EPARs were identified and are being curated for pgx information.

We welcome any information regarding drug labels containing PGx information approved by the FDA, EMA or other Medicine Agencies around the world - please contact feedback.



last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for celecoxib and CYP2C9

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Actionable PGx

Summary

Celecoxib is metabolized primarily by CYP2C9. Patients who are known or suspected to be poor CYP2C9 metabolizers should be administered celecoxib with caution. Consider a dose reduction by 50% (or alternative management for juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA)) in patients who are known or suspected to be CYP2C9 poor metabolizers.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for flurbiprofen and CYP2C9

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Informative PGx

Summary

In vitro studies have demonstrated that cytochrome P450 2C9 plays an important role in the metabolism of flurbiprofen. CYP2C9 poor metabolizers should be administered flurbiprofen with caution due to the possibility of high plasma levels resulting from decreased clearance.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 07/14/2014

FDA Label for warfarin and CYP2C9, PROC, VKORC1

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Actionable PGx

Summary

Warfarin (Coumadin) is an anticoagulant used as a prophylaxis and to treat venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, thromboembolic complications from atrial fibrillationa and cardiac valve replacement, and to reduce the recurrence of myocardial infarction. The FDA recommends genetic testing for CYP2C9 and VKORC1 variants prior to initiating treatment with warfarin. The drug label notes that deficiency in protein C (PROC) has been associated with tissue necrosis following warfarin administration.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 08/06/2014

European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for voriconazole and CYP2C19, CYP2C9, CYP3A4

Informative PGx

Summary

The EMA European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) for voriconazole (VFEND) does not contain pharmacogenetic information. It contains warning information regarding the co-administration of drugs that are substrates, inhibitors or activators of CYP3A4, CYP2C9 or CYP2C19 due to drug-drug interactions.

There's more of this label. Read more.



Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria, manually curated by PharmGKB, are shown below. Please follow the link in the "Position" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Position" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the table.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

? = Mouse-over for quick help

This is a non-comprehensive list of genetic tests with pharmacogenetics relevance, typically submitted by the manufacturer and manually curated by PharmGKB. The information listed is provided for educational purposes only and does not constitute an endorsement of any listed test or manufacturer.

A more complete listing of genetic tests is found at the Genetic Testing Registry (GTR).

PGx Test Variants Assayed Related Drugs?
DMET Plus (Affymetrix, Inc) Variant in CYP2C9
VeraCode ADME Core Panel (Illumina, Inc) Variant in CYP2C9
TaqMan Drug Metabolism Genotyping Assay Sets (Applied Biosystems, Inc) Variant in CYP2C9
TrimGen Corporation eQ-PCR LC Warfarin Genotyping Kit CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3
Warfarin Genotyping Reagents (Idaho Technology Inc) CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3
INFINITI Warfarin Assay (IVD) (AutoGenomics, Inc) CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3
INFINITI CYP450 2C9-VKORC1 (AutoGenomics, Inc) CYP2C9*11, CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3, CYP2C9*4, CYP2C9*5, CYP2C9*6
eSensor Warfarin Sensitivity Test (GenMark Diagnostics, Inc) CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3
Verigene Warfarin Metabolism (Nanosphere, Inc) CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page on the appropriate tab.

Links in the "Drugs" column lead to PharmGKB Drug Pages.

Variant?
(138)
Alternate Names / Tag SNPs ? Drugs ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available CA VA *1 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *2 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *3 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *4 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *5 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *6 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *8 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *9 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *10 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *11 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *12 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *13 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *14 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *25 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *30 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *31 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *32 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *33 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *57 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *58 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
CYP2C9 poor metabolizer N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA
rs10509680 40925G>T, 47538803G>T, 961+2337G>T, 96734339G>T
G > T
Intronic
rs1057910 1075A>C, 47545517A>C, 47639A>C, 96741053A>C, CYP2C9*3, CYP2C9*3:Ile359Leu, CYP2C9: I359L, CYP2C9:359Ile>Leu, CYP2C9:Ile359Leu, Ile359Leu, mRNA 11A>C
A > C
Missense
Ile359Leu
No VIP available CA VA
rs12782374 1937G>A, 47499815G>A, 96695351G>A
G > A
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs141011391
A > G
Missense
Asn474Ser
rs1799853 430C>T, 47506511C>T, 8633C>T, 96702047C>T, Arg144Cys, CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9:144Arg>Cys, CYP2C9:Arg144Cys, mRNA 455C>T
C > T
Missense
Arg144Cys
No VIP available CA VA
rs1934969 1292-109A>T, 47552959A>T, 55081A>T, 96748495A>T
A > T
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs28371685 1003C>T, 47545445C>T, 47567C>T, 96740981C>T, Arg335Trp, CYP2C9*11, CYP2C9:R335W
C > T
Missense
Arg335Trp
No VIP available CA VA
rs28371686 1080C>G, 47545522C>G, 47644C>G, 96741058C>G, Asp360Glu, CYP2C9*5, CYP2C9:D360E
C > G
Missense
Asp360Glu
No VIP available CA VA
rs4086116 13788C>T, 47511666C>T, 482-334C>T, 96707202C>T
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs4917639 *2*3 tag, 32121A>C, 47529999A>C, 820-6326A>C, 96725535A>C, CYP2C9
A > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4918758 -1188T>C, 3838T>C, 47501716T>C, 96697252T>C, CYP2C9(-1158)C>T
T > C
5' Flanking
No VIP available CA VA
rs56165452 1076T>A, 1076T>C, 47545518T>A, 47545518T>C, 47640T>A, 47640T>C, 96741054T>A, 96741054T>C, Ile359Asn, Ile359Thr
T > C
T > A
Missense
Ile359Asn
Ile359Thr
No VIP available CA VA
rs7089580 11809A>T, 47509687A>T, 482-2313A>T, 96705223A>T
A > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs71486745 2362_2363delGT, 47500240_47500241delGT, 96695776_96695777delGT
GT > -
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs72558187 269T>C, 47506179T>C, 8301T>C, 96701715T>C, Leu90Pro
T > C
Missense
Leu90Pro
No VIP available CA VA
rs7900194 449G>A, 449G>T, 47506530G>A, 47506530G>T, 8652G>A, 8652G>T, 96702066G>A, 96702066G>T, Arg150His, Arg150Leu, CYP2C9*8, CYP2C9:R150H
G > A
G > T
Missense
Arg150Leu
Arg150His
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs9332094 -1766T>C, 3260T>C, 47501138T>C, 96696674T>C
T > C
5' Flanking
No VIP available CA VA
rs9332096 -1565C>T, 3461C>T, 47501339C>T, 96696875C>T, CYP2C9(-1565)C>T
C > T
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs9332104 168+83T>C, 47503154T>C, 5276T>C, 96698690T>C
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs9332120 331+73T>C, 47506314T>C, 8436T>C, 96701850T>C
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs9332127 14057G>C, 47511935G>C, 482-65G>C, 96707471G>C
G > C
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs9332131 15625delA, 47513503delA, 817delA, 96709039delA, CYP2C9*6, CYP2C9:null allele, Lys273Argfs
A > -
Frameshift
Lys273Arg
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs9332174 38683A>G, 47536561A>G, 961+95A>G, 96732097A>G
A > G
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs9332239 1465C>T, 47553241C>T, 55363C>T, 96748777C>T, Pro489Ser
C > T
Missense
Pro489Ser
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 138

Overview

Alternate Names:  CYP2C10
Alternate Symbols:  P450IIC9
PharmGKB Accession Id: PA126

Details

Cytogenetic Location: chr10 : q23.33 - q23.33
GP mRNA Boundary: chr10 : 96698415 - 96749148
GP Gene Boundary: chr10 : 96688415 - 96752148
Strand: plus
The mRNA boundaries are calculated using the gene's default feature set from NCBI, mapped onto the UCSC Golden Path. PharmGKB sets gene boundaries by expanding the mRNA boundaries by no less than 10,000 bases upstream (5') and 3,000 bases downstream (3') to allow for potential regulatory regions.

CYP2C9 is a phase I drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzyme isoform that plays a major role in the oxidation of both xenobiotic and endogenous compounds. Gray et al. [Article:8530044] identified CYP2C9 as one of several CYP2C genes clustered in a 500kb region on chromosome 10q24. The cluster comprises four genes arranged in the order CYP2C8-CYP2C9-CYP2C19-CYP2C18 [Article:8530044]. Several studies identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) linkage between the CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 genes [Article:8530044, 12435384, 19381162]. CYP2C9 is primarily expressed in the liver, and the expression level is reported to be the second highest among CYP isoforms [Article:12580989]. Only the CYP enzyme CYP3A4 is quantitatively more highly expressed in human liver [Article:15822186]. It has been estimated that CYP2C9 is responsible for the metabolic clearance of up to 15%-20% of all drugs undergoing Phase I metabolism [Article:19152219, 11927841].

Inducer and Inhibitors: CYP2C9 is induced by rifampicin [Article:19369937]. Treatment with rifampicin has been shown consistently to increase the clearance of drugs eliminated by CYP2C9. The clearance of losartan, phenytoin, tolbutamide and S-warfarin is approximately doubled in healthy volunteers or patients treated with rifampicin [Article:9663807, 18650803]. CYP2C9 is inhibited by amiodarone, fluconazole, and sulphaphenazole among other drugs [Article:9663807]. Dangerous drug-drug interaction can arise when an inhibitor such as one of these is added to a therapeutic regime that include drugs with a low therapeutic index, such as S-warfarin, tolbutamine, and phenytoin [Article:7944078, 8806399, 15963007]. For example, there are numerous studies documenting potentiation of the anticoagulant effect of warfarin in patients coadministered with amiodarone [Article:18463344, 14677664, 1563209].

Structure: CYP2C9 is the enzyme responsible for the metabolism of the S-isomer of warfarin that is principally responsible for the anticoagulant effect of the drug. The crystal structure of human CYP2C9 was described by Williams et al. [Article:12861225], for both CYP2C9 in complex with warfarin and unliganded CYP2C9 (Protein Data Bank ID: 1OG2 and 1OG5, respectively). The structure showed unanticipated interactions between CYP2C9 and warfarin, revealing a new binding pocket, suggesting that CYP2C9 may simultaneously accommodate multiple ligands during its biologic function [Article:12861225]. Structural analysis suggested that CYP2C9 may undergo an allosteric change when binding warfarin [Article:12861225]. An X-ray crystal structure of CYP2C9, in complex with the NSAID flurbiprofen, has also been described (Protein Data Bank ID: 1R9O) [Article:15181000].

Genetic phenotypes and adverse drug reactions (ADR): The gene coding for the CYP2C9 enzyme is highly polymorphic, including functional variants of major pharmacogenetic importance. Changes in metabolic activity caused by genetic variants in CYP2C9 play a major role in pathogenesis due to ADRs. Patients with low enzyme activity are at risk of ADR, especially for CYP2C9 substrates with a narrow therapeutic window, such as S-warfarin, phenytoin, glipizide, and tolbutamide [Article:14511900]. A large body of literature investigates two common non-synonymous variants within CYP2C9 (R144C, [rs1799853] and I359L, [rs1057910]), leading to poor metabolism phenotypes. Both variants have significantly lower frequencies in African and Asian populations compared to Caucasian populations [Article:11927841, 19151603], see frequency tables under Important variants. Individuals with these variants are at risk of prolonged bleeding time and increased incidence of severe bleeding in warfarin therapy [Article:10073515], higher possibility of low blood sugar levels during glipizide and tolbutamide therapy [Article:10208645], and more frequent symptoms of overdose in phenytoin therapy [Article:10774639]. Patients with the poor metabolizer *2 (identified by R144C) and *3 (identified by I359L) haplotypes require lower doses of warfarin to achieve a similar anticoagulant as patients with at least one *1 (wild-type) haplotype [Article:10073515, 19031075]. However, it is now known that CYP2C9 genotype accounts for only part of the variability in warfarin sensitivity [Article:11893129, 12621390] because VKORC1 genotype, age, and weight are also key factors in predicting the therapeutic dose for warfarin [Article:16424822]. CYP2C9 is responsible for about 90% of phenytoin metabolism, and the CYP2C9*2 and *3 haplotypes decrease the metabolism of phenytoin [Article:19258521, 16873909, 11434505].

Besides the two variants mentioned above, a large number of SNPs have been described in the regulatory and coding regions of the CYP2C9 gene (http://www.cypalleles.ki.se/cyp2c9.htm). Some of the polymorphisms are associated with reduced enzyme activity compared to wild-type in in-vitro experiments; only a few enzyme experiments have been done in-vivo. CYP2C9*6 (818delA, rs933213) is a rare (1 allele in 158 African Americans, 0 in Caucasians) null allele with lack of activity due to a splicing mutation that causes a frameshift resulting in a truncated protein [Article:11740344]. The variant I359T (CYP2C*4) is also a rare (0.5% in African Americans, 6% in Caucasians) polymorphism [Article:8873220, 9631918]. Both have been detected in patients who had adverse reactions to phenytoin [Article:11740344, 10739176]. CYP2C9*5 (D360E, rs28371683), *6, *8 (R150H, rs7900194) and *11 (R335W, rs28371685) variants were associated with decreased phenytoin metabolism in a black population [Article:16220110]. The CYP2C9 promoter contains important regulatory elements: two HNF4 sites, a nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor binding site, a constitutive androstane receptor (CAR)/PXR site, and a glucocorticoid responsive element [Article:15919766, 12181452, 11678789]. There have been multiple polymorphisms detected in the 5' untranslated region of CYP2C9 but these have not yet been shown to contribute to response to warfarin [Article:15900281, 16513444] or phenytoin [Article:11434505] in-vivo, beyond those which appear to be in linkage disequilibrium with known exonic variants [Article:15900281, 15070684, 11503012]. A recent paper investigating 22 known and 9 novel promoter SNPs with an in-vitro promoter activity assay suggests that genetic variation within CYP2C9 regulatory sequences is likely to contribute to differences in CYP2C9 phenotype, both within and among different populations, independent from known exonic variants [Article:18310303].

Citation Cytochrome P450 2C9-CYP2C9. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Van Booven Derek, Marsh Sharon, McLeod Howard, Carrillo Michelle Whirl, Sangkuhl Katrin, Klein Teri E, Altman Russ B. PubMed
History

Submitted by Derek Van Booven (CREATE), Sharon Marsh, Howard McLeod (CREATE), Michelle Whirl Carrillo, Katrin Sangkuhl

Variant Summaries rs1057910, rs1799853
Haplotype Summaries CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3
Drugs

Haplotype Overview

Haplotypes are derived from the Human Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Allele Nomenclature Database. The Human Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Allele Nomenclature Database states that nucleotide changes listed below are based on NCBI Reference Sequence M61857.1. Note that the nucleotide positions from the Human Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Allele Nomenclature Database do not directly match the given NCBI reference sequence. For questions about nucleotide positions, please contact the Human Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Allele Nomenclature Database directly, as they are the authoritative source on cytochrome P450 nomenclature.

Source: PharmGKB

All alleles in the download file are on the positive chromosomal strand. PharmGKB considers the first haplotype listed in each table as the reference haplotype for that set.

PharmGKB Curated Pathways

Pathways created internally by PharmGKB based primarily on literature evidence.

  1. Anti-diabetic Drug Nateglinide Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Nateglinide metabolism and transport in liver cell
  1. Atorvastatin/Lovastatin/Simvastatin Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Drug-specific representation of the candidate genes involved in transport, metabolism and clearance.
  1. Caffeine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Stylized liver cell showing candidate genes involved in the metabolism of caffeine.
  1. Clopidogrel Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Clopidogrel metabolism.
  1. Cyclophosphamide Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Model human liver cell showing genes involved in the metabolism of cyclophosphamide.
  1. Doxepin Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Stylized liver cell showing candidate genes involved in the metabolism of the tricyclic doxepin.
  1. Fluoxetine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of the candidate genes involved in the metabolism of fluoxetine.
  1. Fluvastatin Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Drug-specific representation of the candidate genes involved in transport, metabolism and clearance.
  1. Gefitinib Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of the candidate genes involved in the transportation and metabolism of gefitinib.
  1. Ibuprofen Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Stylized diagram of metabolism and transport of ibuprofen in the liver and kidney.
  1. Ifosfamide Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Model human liver cell showing genes involved in the metabolism of ifosfamide.
  1. Losartan Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of the candidate genes involved in the metabolism of losartan.
  1. Nevirapine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of candidate genes involved in biotransformation of nevirapine and its mechanism of action in an infected liver cell.
  1. Phenytoin Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Genes involved in the metabolism of phenytoin in the human liver cell.
  1. Platelet Aggregation Inhibitor Pathway, Pharmacodynamics
    Effects of antiplatelet drugs on platelet aggregation pathway.
  1. Rosiglitazone Pharmacokinetic Pathway
    Rosiglitazone is transported from hepatic sinusoids into hepatocytes -- a process mediated by the organic anion transporting polypeptide, where is is metabolized by cytochrome p450 2C8 and 2C9.
  1. Statin Pathway - Generalized, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of the superset of all genes involved in the transport, metabolism and clearance of statin class drugs.
  1. Tamoxifen Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Tamoxifen metabolism in the liver.
  1. Valproic Acid Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Graphic representation of the candidate genes involved in valproic acid pharmacokinetics.
  1. Warfarin Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of the candidate genes involved in transport, metabolism and clearance of warfarin.
  1. Zidovudine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics
    Representation of candidate genes involved in the metabolism of zidovudine and its mechanism of antiviral action.

External Pathways

Links to non-PharmGKB pathways.

  1. Xenobiotics - (Reactome via Pathway Interaction Database)
No related genes are available

Curated Information ?

Curated Information ?

Publications related to CYP2C9: 563

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Warfarin pharmacogenetics: it matters if you're black or white. Blood. 2014. Wadelius Mia. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Mechanisms and assessment of statin-related muscular adverse effects. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Moßhammer Dirk, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Warfarin pharmacogenetics. Trends in cardiovascular medicine. 2014. Johnson Julie A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) Guidelines for CYP2C9 and HLA-B Genotype and Phenytoin Dosing. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2014. Caudle Kelly E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic variants associated with phenytoin-related severe cutaneous adverse reactions. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. 2014. Chung Wen-Hung, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Prediction of stable acenocoumarol dose by a pharmacogenetic algorithm. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2014. Jiménez-Varo Enrique, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Characterizing variability in warfarin dose requirements in children using modelling and simulation. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Hamberg Anna-Karin, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic epidemiology of pharmacogenetic variations in CYP2C9, CYP4F2 and VKORC1 genes associated with warfarin dosage in the Indian population. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Giri Anil K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Impact of GATA4 variants on stable warfarin doses in patients with prosthetic heart valves. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2014. Jeong E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics of warfarin in a paediatric population: time in therapeutic range, initial and stable dosing and adverse effects. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2014. Hawcutt D B, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic determinants of acenocoumarol and warfarin maintenance dose requirements in Slavic population: A potential role of CYP4F2 and GGCX polymorphisms. Thrombosis research. 2014. Wypasek Ewa, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2C9, SLCO1B1, SLCO1B3, and ABCB11 polymorphisms in patients with bosentan-induced liver toxicity. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2014. Roustit M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
An atlas of genetic influences on human blood metabolites. Nature genetics. 2014. Shin So-Youn, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genotypes are predictors of warfarin-related outcomes in children. Pediatric blood & cancer. 2014. Shaw Kaitlyn, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Development of a broad-based ADME panel for use in pharmacogenomic studies. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Brown Andrew Mk, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Methodological issues in the development of a pharmacogenomic algorithm for warfarin dosing: comparison of two regression approaches. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Pavani Addepalli, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Personalized pharmacogenomics profiling using whole-genome sequencing. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Mizzi Clint, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics, Plasma Concentrations, Clinical Signs and EEG during Propofol Treatment. Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology. 2014. Khan Muhammad Suleman, et al. PubMed
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Warfarin dose requirements in a patient with the CYP2C9*14 allele. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Lee Yee Ming, et al. PubMed
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Genetics of platelet inhibitor treatment. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Trenk Dietmar, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic-guided dosing of coumarin anticoagulants: algorithms for warfarin, acenocoumarol and phenprocoumon. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Verhoef Talitha I, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 Gene Variants, Race, and Mortality Among Clopidogrel Treated Patients Following Acute Myocardial Infarction. Circulation. Cardiovascular genetics. 2014. Cresci Sharon, et al. PubMed
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Prioritizing genomic applications for action by level of evidence: a horizon-scanning method. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2014. Dotson W D, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C9, KCNJ11 and ABCC8 polymorphisms and the response to sulphonylurea treatment in type 2 diabetes patients. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Klen Jasna, et al. PubMed
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Adoption of a clinical pharmacogenomics implementation program during outpatient care-initial results of the University of Chicago "1,200 Patients Project". American journal of medical genetics. Part C, Seminars in medical genetics. 2014. O'Donnell Peter H, et al. PubMed
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Expansion of a PBPK model to predict disposition in pregnant women of drugs cleared via multiple CYP enzymes, including CYP2B6, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Ke Alice Ban, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C9 Polymorphism is not a Major Determinant of Bosentan Exposure in Healthy Volunteers. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2014. Markert C, et al. PubMed
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Warfarin pharmacogenetics: an illustration of the importance of studies in minority populations. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2014. Perera M A, et al. PubMed
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Improved accuracy of anticoagulant dose prediction using a pharmacogenetic and artificial neural network-based method. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Isma'eel Hussain A, et al. PubMed
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Effect of CYP2D6, CYP2C9 and ABCB1 genotypes on fluoxetine plasma concentrations and clinical improvement in children and adolescent patients. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2014. Gassó P, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacoepidemiologic and in Vitro Evaluation of Potential Drug-Drug Interactions of Sulfonylureas with Fibrates and Statins. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Schelleman H, et al. PubMed
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Genetic Risk Factors for Major Bleeding in Warfarin Patients in a Community Setting. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2014. Roth Joshua A, et al. PubMed
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PharmGKB summary: ifosfamide pathways, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2014. Lowenberg Daniella, et al. PubMed
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Strongly increased exposure of meloxicam in CYP2C9*3/*3 individuals. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2014. Lee Hye-In, et al. PubMed
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Human pharmacogenomic variation of antihypertensive drugs: from population genetics to personalized medicine. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Polimanti Renato, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics-based warfarin dosing in children. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Hamberg Anna-Karin, et al. PubMed
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Effect of CYP2C9, VKORC1, CYP4F2 and GGCX genetic variants on warfarin maintenance dose and explicating a new pharmacogenetic algorithm in South Indian population. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Krishna Kumar Dhakchinamoorthi, et al. PubMed
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Prediction of optimal warfarin maintenance dose using advanced artificial neural networks. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Grossi Enzo, et al. PubMed
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Association of CYP2C9*2 With Bosentan-Induced Liver Injury. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2013. Markova S M, et al. PubMed
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Association of genetic polymorphisms with warfarin dose requirements in Chinese patients. Genetic testing and molecular biomarkers. 2013. Liang Yundan, et al. PubMed
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Characterization of a Novel CYP2C9 Mutation (1009C>A) Detected in a Warfarin-Sensitive Patient. Journal of pharmacological sciences. 2014. Luo Shun-Bin, et al. PubMed
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A pharmacogenetics-based warfarin maintenance dosing algorithm from northern chinese patients. PloS one. 2014. Chen Jinxing, et al. PubMed
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Verification of pharmacogenetics-based warfarin dosing algorithms in han-chinese patients undertaking mechanic heart valve replacement. PloS one. 2014. Zhao Li, et al. PubMed
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Clinically actionable genotypes among 10,000 patients with preemptive pharmacogenomic testing. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2013. Van Driest Sara L, et al. PubMed
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An acenocoumarol dose algorithm based on a South-Eastern European population. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Pop Tudor Radu, et al. PubMed
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Routine assessment of on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity and gene polymorphisms in predicting clinical outcome following drug-eluting stent implantation in patients with stable coronary artery disease. JACC. Cardiovascular interventions. 2013. Viviani Anselmi Chiara, et al. PubMed
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Impact of genetic and clinical factors on dose requirements and quality of anticoagulation therapy in Polish patients receiving acenocoumarol: dosing calculation algorithm. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. Wolkanin-Bartnik Jolanta, et al. PubMed
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Pregnancy and pharmacogenomics in the context of drug metabolism and response. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Helldén Anders, et al. PubMed
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A Pharmacogenetic versus a Clinical Algorithm for Warfarin Dosing. The New England journal of medicine. 2013. Kimmel Stephen E, et al. PubMed
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A Randomized Trial of Genotype-Guided Dosing of Acenocoumarol and Phenprocoumon. The New England journal of medicine. 2013. Verhoef Talitha I, et al. PubMed
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A Randomized Trial of Genotype-Guided Dosing of Warfarin. The New England journal of medicine. 2013. Pirmohamed Munir, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase genetic polymorphisms A503V and rs2868177 do not significantly affect warfarin stable dosage in Han-Chinese patients with mechanical heart valve replacement. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Tan Sheng-Lan, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes on the risk of hemorrhagic complications in warfarin-treated patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. International journal of cardiology. 2013. Yang Jie, et al. PubMed
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Impact of genotype-guided dosing on anticoagulation visits for adults starting warfarin: a randomized controlled trial. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Jonas Daniel E, et al. PubMed
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The association of cytochrome P450 genetic polymorphisms with sulfolane formation and the efficacy of a busulfan-based conditioning regimen in pediatric patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2013. Uppugunduri C R S, et al. PubMed
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Warfarin pharmacogenetics: a controlled dose-response study in healthy subjects. Vascular medicine (London, England). 2013. Kadian-Dodov Daniella L, et al. PubMed
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First report of warfarin dose requirements in patients possessing the CYP2C9*12 allele. Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry. 2013. O'Brien Travis J, et al. PubMed
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PS3-4: Genetic Risk Factors for Major Bleeding in Warfarin Patients in a Community Setting. Clinical medicine & research. 2013. Roth Joshua, et al. PubMed
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Ethnicity-specific pharmacogenetics: the case of warfarin in African Americans. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2013. Hernandez W, et al. PubMed
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Evaluation of the relationship between polymorphisms in CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 and the pharmacokinetics of celecoxib. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Prieto-Pérez Rocío, et al. PubMed
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Effects of polymorphisms in ABCG2, SLCO1B1, SLC10A1 and CYP2C9/19 on plasma concentrations of rosuvastatin and lipid response in Chinese patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Lee Hon-Kit, et al. PubMed
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Interethnic differences in the relevance of CYP2C9 genotype and environmental factors for diclofenac metabolism in Hispanics from Cuba and Spain. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2013. Llerena A, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics of acetylsalicylic acid and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents: clinical implications. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Yiannakopoulou Eugenia. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics in American Indian populations: analysis of CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP2C9 in the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. Fohner Alison, et al. PubMed
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Implication of novel CYP2C9*57 (p.Asn204His) variant in coumarin hypersensitivity. Thrombosis research. 2013. Nahar Risha, et al. PubMed
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Challenges in pharmacogenetics. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Cascorbi Ingolf, et al. PubMed
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Influence of ORM1 polymorphisms on the maintenance stable warfarin dosage. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Wang Lian Sheng, et al. PubMed
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Polymorphisms influencing olanzapine metabolism and adverse effects in healthy subjects. Human psychopharmacology. 2013. Cabaleiro Teresa, et al. PubMed
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Impact of CYP2C9 polymorphisms on the vulnerability to pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions during acenocoumarol treatment. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Gschwind Liliane, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C9 and VKORC1 polymorphisms influence warfarin dose variability in patients on long-term anticoagulation. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Santos Paulo Caleb Junior Lima, et al. PubMed
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Genetic and clinical determinants influencing warfarin dosing in children with heart disease. Pediatric cardiology. 2013. Nguyen Nguyenvu, et al. PubMed
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Effect of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genetic polymorphisms on mean daily maintenance dose of acenocoumarol in South Indian patients. Thrombosis research. 2013. Krishna Kumar Dhakchinamoorthi, et al. PubMed
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Impact of Genetic Factors (CYP2C9, VKORC1 and CYP4F2) on Warfarin Dose Requirement in the Turkish Population. Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology. 2013. Ozer Mahmut, et al. PubMed
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The impact of the CYP2C9 and VKORC1 polymorphisms on acenocoumarol dose requirements in a Romanian population. Blood cells, molecules & diseases. 2013. Buzoianu Anca Dana, et al. PubMed
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Clopidogrel and warfarin pharmacogenetic tests: what is the evidence for use in clinical practice?. Current opinion in cardiology. 2013. Shahin Mohamed H A, et al. PubMed
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Effect of CYP2C9 and SLCO1B1 polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of nateglinide in healthy Chinese male volunteers. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Cheng Yu, et al. PubMed
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Responsiveness to low-dose warfarin associated with genetic variants of VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP4F2 in an Indonesian population. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Rusdiana T, et al. PubMed
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Delayed warfarin induced skin necrosis in a patient with poor warfarin metabolizing activity due to interrupted warfarin therapy. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Gaikwad Tejasvita, et al. PubMed
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Gene-gene-environment interactions between drugs, transporters, receptors, and metabolizing enzymes: Statins, SLCO1B1, and CYP3A4 as an example. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences. 2013. Sadee Wolfgang. PubMed
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Valproic acid pathway: pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. Ghodke-Puranik Yogita, et al. PubMed
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The influence of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 gene sequence variants on the stability of maintenance phase warfarin treatment. Thrombosis research. 2013. Skov Jane, et al. PubMed
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Amlodipine - Not a Significant Contributor to Clopidogrel Non-Response?. Heart (British Cardiac Society). 2013. Kreutz Rolf P, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C9 promoter region single-nucleotide polymorphisms linked to the R150H polymorphism are functional suggesting their role in CYP2C9*8-mediated effects. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. Cavallari Larisa H, et al. PubMed
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Role of pharmacogenetics in busulfan/cyclophosphamide conditioning therapy prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Hassan Moustapha, et al. PubMed
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Influence of admixture components on CYP2C9*2 allele frequency in eight indigenous populations from Northwest Mexico. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2013. Sosa-Macías M, et al. PubMed
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Pathway analysis of genome-wide data improves warfarin dose prediction. BMC genomics. 2013. Daneshjou Roxana, et al. PubMed
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The bleeding risk during warfarin therapy is associated with the number of variant alleles of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genes. Cardiology. 2013. Tomek Aleš, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP4F2 polymorphisms and plasma vitamin K levels on warfarin sensitivity in Japanese pediatric patients. Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics. 2013. Hirai Keita, et al. PubMed
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Influence of warfarin dose-associated genotypes on the risk of hemorrhagic complications in Chinese patients on warfarin. International journal of hematology. 2012. Ma Cong, et al. PubMed
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VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genotype is associated with over-anticoagulation during initiation of warfarin therapy in children. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2012. Biss T T, et al. PubMed
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Development of a pharmacogenetic-guided warfarin dosing algorithm for Puerto Rican patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Ramos Alga S, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics and cardiovascular disease--implications for personalized medicine. Pharmacological reviews. 2013. Johnson Julie A, et al. PubMed
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Warfarin anticoagulant therapy: a southern Italy pharmacogenetics-based dosing model. PloS one. 2013. Mazzaccara Cristina, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics in clinical practice and drug development. Nature biotechnology. 2012. Harper Andrew R, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of P450 oxidoreductase: implications in drug metabolism and therapy. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. Hu Lei, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C9 and VKORC1 gene polymorphism is inessential for bleeding development under conditions of oral application of anticoagulant acenocoumarol in Russian patients at high risk of thromboembolic complications. Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine. 2012. Sychev D V, et al. PubMed
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Linkage disequilibrium between the CYP2C19*17 allele and other clinically important CYP2C allelic variants in a healthy Scandinavian population. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2012. Pedersen Rasmus Steen, et al. PubMed
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Influence of genetics and non-genetic factors on acenocoumarol maintenance dose requirement in Moroccan patients. Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. 2012. Smires F Z, et al. PubMed
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Warfarin pharmacogenetics: development of a dosing algorithm for Omani patients. Journal of human genetics. 2012. Pathare Anil, et al. PubMed
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Similarity in recombination rate and linkage disequilibrium at CYP2C and CYP2D cytochrome P450 gene regions among Europeans indicates signs of selection and no advantage of using tagSNPs in population isolates. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. Pimenoff Ville N, et al. PubMed
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Effects of CYP2C9*1/*3 and *1/*13 on the pharmacokinetics of losartan and its active metabolite E-3174. International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2012. Bae Jung-Woo, et al. PubMed
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Effects of CYP2C19 variant alleles on postclopidogrel platelet reactivity and clinical outcomes in an actual clinical setting in China. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. Wu Hongyi, et al. PubMed
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A new warfarin dosing algorithm including VKORC1 3730 G > A polymorphism: comparison with results obtained by other published algorithms. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2012. Cini Michela, et al. PubMed
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The population attributable fraction as a measure of the impact of warfarin pharmacogenetic testing. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Chan Sze Ling, et al. PubMed
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Validation of the acenocoumarol EU-PACT algorithms: similar performance in the Rotterdam Study cohort as in the original study. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. van Schie Rianne Mf, et al. PubMed
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Search for the molecular basis of ultra-rapid CYP2C9-catalysed metabolism: relationship between SNP IVS8-109A>T and the losartan metabolism phenotype in Swedes. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2012. Hatta Fazleen H M, et al. PubMed
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Impact of CYP2C9*3, VKORC1-1639, CYP4F2rs2108622 genetic polymorphism and clinical factors on warfarin maintenance dose in Han-Chinese patients. Journal of thrombosis and thrombolysis. 2012. Liang Ruijuan, et al. PubMed
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Acenocoumarol sensitivity and pharmacokinetic characterization of CYP2C9 *5/*8,*8/*11,*9/*11 and VKORC1*2 in black African healthy Beninese subjects. European journal of drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics. 2012. Allabi Aurel Constant, et al. PubMed
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PharmGKB summary: phenytoin pathway. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. Thorn Caroline F, et al. PubMed
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Retrospective evidence for clinical validity of expanded genetic model in warfarin dose optimization in a South Indian population. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Pavani Addepalli, et al. PubMed
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Effects of CYP4F2 gene polymorphisms on warfarin clearance and sensitivity in Korean patients with mechanical cardiac valves. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2012. Lee Kyung-Eun, et al. PubMed
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A clinically significant interaction between warfarin and simvastatin is unique to carriers of the CYP2C9*3 allele. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Andersson Marine L, et al. PubMed
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Neurological toxicity after phenytoin infusion in a pediatric patient with epilepsy: influence of CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and ABCB1 genetic polymorphisms. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2012. Dorado P, et al. PubMed
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Decreased warfarin clearance associated with the CYP2C9 R150H (*8) polymorphism. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2012. Liu Y, et al. PubMed
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Cardiovascular pharmacogenomics: current status and future directions-report of a national heart, lung, and blood institute working group. Journal of the American Heart Association. 2012. Musunuru Kiran, et al. PubMed
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Long-term anticoagulant effects of the CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes in acenocoumarol users. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2012. Verhoef T I, et al. PubMed
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Multi-ethnic distribution of clinically relevant CYP2C genotypes and haplotypes. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2012. Martis S, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19*2 and other genetic variants affecting platelet response to clopidogrel in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Thrombosis research. 2012. Kassimis George, et al. PubMed
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Impact of genetic factors (VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP4F2 and EPHX1) on the anticoagulation response to fluindione. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2012. Lacut Karine, et al. PubMed
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Randomized and Clinical Effectiveness Trial Comparing Two Pharmacogenetic Algorithms and Standard Care for Individualizing Warfarin Dosing: CoumaGen-II. Circulation. 2012. Anderson Jeffrey L, et al. PubMed
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Effects of UGT1A6, UGT2B7, and CYP2C9 genotypes on plasma concentrations of valproic acid in Chinese children with epilepsy. Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics. 2012. Guo Yingjie, et al. PubMed
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Influence of NAT2 polymorphisms on sulfamethoxazole pharmacokinetics in renal transplant recipients. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 2012. Kagaya Hideaki, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphisms are associated with variations in warfarin maintenance dose in Han Chinese patients with venous thromboembolism. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Zhang Wei, et al. PubMed
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Predicting warfarin dosage in European-Americans and African-Americans using DNA samples linked to an electronic health record. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Ramirez Andrea H, et al. PubMed
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Prediction of warfarin dose reductions in Puerto Rican patients, based on combinatorial CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes. The Annals of pharmacotherapy. 2012. Valentin Isa Ivette, et al. PubMed
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VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genotype and patient characteristics explain a large proportion of the variability in warfarin dose requirement among children. Blood. 2012. Biss Tina T, et al. PubMed
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Vitamin K antagonists in children with heart disease: height and VKORC1 genotype are the main determinants of the warfarin dose requirement. Blood. 2012. Moreau Caroline, et al. PubMed
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The population pharmacokinetics of R- and S-warfarin: effect of genetic and clinical factors. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2012. Lane Steven, et al. PubMed
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PharmGKB summary: caffeine pathway. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. Thorn Caroline F, et al. PubMed
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Validation of warfarin pharmacogenetic algorithms in clinical practice. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Marin-Leblanc Mélina, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19*2/ABCB1-C3435T polymorphism and risk of cardiovascular events in coronary artery disease patients on clopidogrel: is clinical testing helpful?. Indian heart journal. 2012. Singh Mukesh, et al. PubMed
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Copy number variation and warfarin dosing: evaluation of CYP2C9, VKORC1, CYP4F2, GGCX and CALU. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Scott Stuart A, et al. PubMed
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Genetic variants in CYP (-1A2, -2C9, -2C19, -3A4 and -3A5), VKORC1 and ABCB1 genes in a black South African population: a window into diversity. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Dandara Collet, et al. PubMed
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An acenocoumarol dosing algorithm using clinical and pharmacogenetic data in spanish patients with thromboembolic disease. PloS one. 2012. Borobia Alberto M, et al. PubMed
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Therapeutic dosing of acenocoumarol: proposal of a population specific pharmacogenetic dosing algorithm and its validation in north Indians. PloS one. 2012. Rathore Saurabh Singh, et al. PubMed
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Low dose requirement for warfarin treatment in a patient with CYP2C9*3/*13 genotype. Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry. 2011. Kwon Min-Jung, et al. PubMed
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Evaluation of the effects of VKORC1 polymorphisms and haplotypes, CYP2C9 genotypes, and clinical factors on warfarin response in Sudanese patients. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2011. Shrif Nassr Eldin M A, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of Coumarin Dosing: Prevalence of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 Polymorphisms in the Lebanese Population. Genetic testing and molecular biomarkers. 2011. Djaffar-Jureidini Isabelle, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 polymorphisms on warfarin and acenocoumarol in a sample of Lebanese people. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2011. Esmerian Maria O, et al. PubMed
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Influence of genetic, biological and pharmacological factors on warfarin dose in a Southern Brazilian population of European ancestry. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2011. Botton Mariana Rodrigues, et al. PubMed
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Extremely low warfarin dose in patients with genotypes of CYP2C9*3/*3 and VKORC1-1639A/A. Chinese medical journal. 2011. Gao Lei, et al. PubMed
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Enantiomers of naringenin as pleiotropic, stereoselective inhibitors of cytochrome P450 isoforms. Chirality. 2011. Lu Wenjie Jessie, et al. PubMed
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Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium Guidelines for CYP2C9 and VKORC1 Genotypes and Warfarin Dosing. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Johnson J A, et al. PubMed
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Complex Drug Interactions of HIV Protease Inhibitors 2: In Vivo Induction and In Vitro to In Vivo Correlation of Induction of Cytochrome P450 1A2, 2B6 and 2C9 by Ritonavir or Nelfinavir. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2011. Kirby Brian J, et al. PubMed
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Possible role of CYP2C9 & CYP2C19 single nucleotide polymorphisms in drug refractory epilepsy. The Indian journal of medical research. 2011. Lakhan Ram, et al. PubMed
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The tamoxifen metabolite norendoxifen is a potent and selective inhibitor of aromatase (CYP19) and a potential lead compound for novel therapeutic agents. Breast cancer research and treatment. 2011. Lu Wenjie Jessie, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphisms and the impact of a higher clopidogrel dose regimen on active metabolite exposure and antiplatelet response in healthy subjects. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Simon T, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 Polymorphisms and their Relationship with Premature Ovarian Failure in Premenopausal Women with Breast Cancer Receiving Doxorubicin and Cyclophosphamide. The breast journal. 2011. Wessels Alette M, et al. PubMed
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Prospective evaluation of a pharmacogenetics-guided warfarin loading and maintenance dose regimen for initiation of therapy. Blood. 2011. Gong Inna Y, et al. PubMed
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Facilitating pharmacogenetic studies using electronic health records and natural-language processing: a case study of warfarin. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA. 2011. Xu Hua, et al. PubMed
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Prospective-retrospective biomarker analysis for regulatory consideration: white paper from the industry pharmacogenomics working group. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Patterson Scott D, et al. PubMed
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Contribution of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 polymorphisms in the interethnic variability of warfarin dose in Malaysian populations. Annals of hematology. 2011. Gan Gin Gin, et al. PubMed
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Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium Guidelines for Cytochrome P450-2C19 (CYP2C19) Genotype and Clopidogrel Therapy. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Scott S A, et al. PubMed
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Carvedilol pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in relation to CYP2D6 and ADRB pharmacogenetics. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Sehrt Daniel, et al. PubMed
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Novel CYP2C9 and VKORC1 gene variants associated with warfarin dosage variability in the South African black population. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Mitchell Cathrine, et al. PubMed
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Activity Levels of Tamoxifen Metabolites at the Estrogen Receptor and the Impact of Genetic Polymorphisms of Phase I and II Enzymes on Their Concentration Levels in Plasma. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Mürdter T E, et al. PubMed
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Genetics informatics trial (GIFT) of warfarin to prevent deep vein thrombosis (DVT): rationale and study design. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2011. Do E J, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C9 polymorphism in patients with epilepsy: genotypic frequency analyzes andphenytoin adverse reactions correlation. Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria. 2011. Twardowschy Carlos Alexandre, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics: the genetics of variable drug responses. Circulation. 2011. Roden Dan M, et al. PubMed
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Prediction of phenprocoumon maintenance dose and phenprocoumon plasma concentration by genetic and non-genetic parameters. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2011. Geisen Christof, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics: From Bench to Byte- An Update of Guidelines. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Swen J J, et al. PubMed
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The missing association: sequencing-based discovery of NOVEL SNPs in VKORC1 and CYP2C9 that affect warfarin dose in African Americans. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Perera M A, et al. PubMed
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Genomics and drug response. The New England journal of medicine. 2011. Wang Liewei, et al. PubMed
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Optimization of warfarin dose by population-specific pharmacogenomic algorithm. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2011. Pavani A, et al. PubMed
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Translational aspects of genetic factors in the prediction of drug response variability: a case study of warfarin pharmacogenomics in a multi-ethnic cohort from Asia. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2011. Chan S L, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics of warfarin dose requirements in Hispanics. Blood cells, molecules & diseases. 2011. Cavallari Larisa H, et al. PubMed
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NAT2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2E1 genetic polymorphisms in anti-TB drug-induced maculopapular eruption. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2011. Kim Sang-Heon, et al. PubMed
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A candidate gene study of antiepileptic drug tolerability and efficacy identifies an association of CYP2C9 variants with phenytoin toxicity. European journal of neurology : the official journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies. 2011. Depondt C, et al. PubMed
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Global patterns of genetic diversity and signals of natural selection for human ADME genes. Human molecular genetics. 2011. Li Jing, et al. PubMed
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Genetic warfarin dosing tables versus algorithms. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2011. Finkelman Brian S, et al. PubMed
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Dependency of phenprocoumon dosage on polymorphisms in the VKORC1, CYP2C9, and CYP4F2 genes. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Teichert Martina, et al. PubMed
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Genetic and nongenetic factors associated with warfarin doserequirements in Egyptian patients. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Shahin Mohamed Hossam A, et al. PubMed
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Comparison of warfarin pharmacogenetic dosing algorithms in a racially diverse large cohort. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Shin Jaekyu, et al. PubMed
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Practical recommendations for pharmacogenomics-based prescription: 2010 ESF-UB Conference on Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Becquemont Laurent, et al. PubMed
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Impact of pharmacokinetic (CYP2C9) and pharmacodynamic (VKORC1, F7, GGCX, CALU, EPHX1) gene variants on the initiation and maintenance phases of phenprocoumon therapy. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2011. Luxembourg Baete, et al. PubMed
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The effect of CYP2C9, VKORC1 genotypes and old age on warfarin pharmacologic sensitivity in korean patients with thromboembolic disease. Annals of clinical and laboratory science. 2011. Moon Hee-Won, et al. PubMed
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In pediatric patients, age has more impact on dosing of vitamin K antagonists than VKORC1 or CYP2C9 genotypes. Blood. 2010. Nowak-Göttl Ulrike, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C9*3 alleles are associated with stent thrombosis: a case-control study. European heart journal. 2010. Harmsze Ankie M, et al. PubMed
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Linkage disequilibrium between the CYP2C19*17 allele and wildtype CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 alleles: identification of CYP2C haplotypes in healthy Nordic populations. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2010. Pedersen Rasmus S, et al. PubMed
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Genome-wide association study identifies genetic determinants of warfarin responsiveness for Japanese. Human molecular genetics. 2010. Cha Pei-Chieng, et al. PubMed
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Clinical and Genetic Determinants of Warfarin Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics during Treatment Initiation. PloS one. 2011. Gong Inna Y, et al. PubMed
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Global pharmacogenomics: Impact of population diversity on the distribution of polymorphisms in the CYP2C cluster among Brazilians. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Suarez-Kurtz G, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP2C9 genetic polymorphism and undernourishment on plasma-free phenytoin concentrations in epileptic patients. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2010. Ramasamy Kesavan, et al. PubMed
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[Development of rapid genotyping methods for single nucleotide polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) and cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) and their clinical application in pediatric patients with epilepsy]. Yakugaku zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan. 2011. Yamamoto Yoshiaki, et al. PubMed
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Effect of CYP2C9 polymorphisms on prescribed dose and time-to-stable dose of sulfonylureas in primary care patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Swen Jesse J, et al. PubMed
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Systematic review of pharmacoeconomic studies of pharmacogenomic tests. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Beaulieu Mathieu, et al. PubMed
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Characterization of 107 genomic DNA reference materials for CYP2D6, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, VKORC1, and UGT1A1: a GeT-RM and Association for Molecular Pathology collaborative project. The Journal of molecular diagnostics : JMD. 2010. Pratt Victoria M, et al. PubMed
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Statistical design of personalized medicine interventions: The Clarification of Optimal Anticoagulation through Genetics (COAG) trial. Trials. 2010. French Benjamin, et al. PubMed
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Impact of CYP2C8 and 2C9 polymorphisms on coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction in the LURIC cohort. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Haschke-Becher Elisabeth, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP2C9 polymorphism on metabolism of valproate and its hepatotoxin metabolite in Iranian patients. Toxicology mechanisms and methods. 2010. Amini-Shirazi Noushin, et al. PubMed
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Clinically significant CYP2C inhibition by noscapine but not by glucosamine. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Rosenborg S, et al. PubMed
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Expectations, validity, and reality in pharmacogenetics. Journal of clinical epidemiology. 2010. Limdi Nita A, et al. PubMed
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Worldwide allele frequency distribution of four polymorphisms associated with warfarin dose requirements. Journal of human genetics. 2010. Ross Kendra A, et al. PubMed
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A haplotype of CYP2C9 associated with warfarin sensitivity in mechanical heart valve replacement patients. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2010. Lee Su-Jun, et al. PubMed
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CYP4F2 rs2108622: a minor significant genetic factor of warfarin dose in Han Chinese patients with mechanical heart valve replacement. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2010. Cen Han-Jing, et al. PubMed
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Gemfibrozil markedly increases the plasma concentrations of montelukast: a previously unrecognized role for CYP2C8 in the metabolism of montelukast. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Karonen T, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms on phenytoin-induced neurological toxicity in Indian epileptic patients. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2010. Kesavan Ramasamy, et al. PubMed
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Clopidogrel pathway. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Sangkuhl Katrin, et al. PubMed
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Extending and evaluating a warfarin dosing algorithm that includes CYP4F2 and pooled rare variants of CYP2C9. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Sagreiya Hersh, et al. PubMed
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Genetic profile of patients with epilepsy on first-line antiepileptic drugs and potential directions for personalized treatment. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Grover Sandeep, et al. PubMed
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A pharmacometric model describing the relationship between warfarin dose and INR response with respect to variations in CYP2C9, VKORC1, and age. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Hamberg A-K, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C9*3 Loss-of-Function Allele Is Associated With Acute Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding Related to the Use of NSAIDs Other Than Aspirin. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Carbonell N, et al. PubMed
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VKORC1 -1639G>A and CYP2C9*3 are the major genetic predictors of phenprocoumon dose requirement. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2010. Puehringer Helene, et al. PubMed
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Warfarin genotyping reduces hospitalization rates results from the MM-WES (Medco-Mayo Warfarin Effectiveness study). Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2010. Epstein Robert S, et al. PubMed
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Combined CYP2C9, VKORC1 and CYP4F2 frequencies among racial and ethnic groups. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Scott Stuart A, et al. PubMed
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Personalized therapy in pain management: where do we stand?. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Stamer Ulrike M, et al. PubMed
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Changes in the gene expression profile of gastric cancer cells in response to ibuprofen: a gene pathway analysis. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Bonelli P, et al. PubMed
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A regression model to predict warfarin dose from clinical variables and polymorphisms in CYP2C9, CYP4F2, and VKORC1: Derivation in a sample with predominantly a history of venous thromboembolism. Thrombosis research. 2010. Wells P S, et al. PubMed
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Contributions of human cytochrome P450 enzymes to glyburide metabolism. Biopharmaceutics & drug disposition. 2010. Zhou Lin, et al. PubMed
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Warfarin pharmacogenetics: a single VKORC1 polymorphism is predictive of dose across 3 racial groups. Blood. 2010. Limdi Nita A, et al. PubMed
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The influence of cytochrome oxidase CYP2A6, CYP2B6, and CYP2C9 polymorphisms on the plasma concentrations of valproic acid in epileptic patients. Clinical neurology and neurosurgery. 2010. Tan Lan, et al. PubMed
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A Phenotype-Genotype Approach to Predicting CYP450 and P-Glycoprotein Drug Interactions With the Mixed Inhibitor/Inducer Tipranavir/Ritonavir. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Dumond J B, et al. PubMed
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Integration of genetic, clinical, and INR data to refine warfarin dosing. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Lenzini P, et al. PubMed
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Identification of the human cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the two oxidative steps in the bioactivation of clopidogrel to its pharmacologically active metabolite. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2010. Kazui Miho, et al. PubMed
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Metabolism and disposition of the thienopyridine antiplatelet drugs ticlopidine, clopidogrel, and prasugrel in humans. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2010. Farid Nagy A, et al. PubMed
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Comparative performance of gene-based warfarin dosing algorithms in a multiethnic population. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2010. Lubitz S A, et al. PubMed
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Besides CYP2C19*2, the variant allele CYP2C9*3 is associated with higher on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity in patients on dual antiplatelet therapy undergoing elective coronary stent implantation. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Harmsze Ankie, et al. PubMed
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A polymorphism in the VKORC1 regulator calumenin predicts higher warfarin dose requirements in African Americans. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Voora D, et al. PubMed
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Genetic and clinical predictors of warfarin dose requirements in African Americans. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Cavallari L H, et al. PubMed
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Genetic and clinical predictors of warfarin dose requirements in African Americans. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Cavallari L H, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 2C9-CYP2C9. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Van Booven Derek, et al. PubMed
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New insights into the regulation of CYP2C9 gene expression: the role of the transcription factor GATA-4. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2010. Mwinyi Jessica, et al. PubMed
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Genetic determinants of acenocoumarol and phenprocoumon maintenance dose requirements. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2010. Cadamuro Janne, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C9*1B promoter polymorphisms, in linkage with CYP2C19*2, affect phenytoin autoinduction of clearance and maintenance dose. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 2010. Chaudhry Amarjit S, et al. PubMed
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SNPs in genes coding for ROS metabolism and signalling in association with docetaxel clearance. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Edvardsen H, et al. PubMed
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Genetic factors (VKORC1, CYP2C9, EPHX1, and CYP4F2) are predictor variables for warfarin response in very elderly, frail inpatients. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Pautas E, et al. PubMed
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Loss-of-function CYP2C9 variants improve therapeutic response to sulfonylureas in type 2 diabetes: a Go-DARTS study. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Zhou K, et al. PubMed
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Transporter pharmacogenetics and statin toxicity. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Niemi M. PubMed
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Ability of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 to predict therapeutic warfarin dose during the initial weeks of therapy. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2010. Ferder N S, et al. PubMed
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VKORC1, CYP2C9 and CYP4F2 genetic-based algorithm for warfarin dosing: an Italian retrospective study. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Zambon Carlo-Federico, et al. PubMed
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Identification of the major human hepatic and placental enzymes responsible for the biotransformation of glyburide. Biochemical pharmacology. 2009. Zharikova Olga L, et al. PubMed
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Cyclophosphamide-metabolizing enzyme polymorphisms and survival outcomes after adjuvant chemotherapy for node-positive breast cancer: a retrospective cohort study. Breast cancer research : BCR. 2010. Gor Priya P, et al. PubMed
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Benzbromarone pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in different cytochrome P450 2C9 genotypes. Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics. 2010. Uchida Shinya, et al. PubMed
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Effects of CYP2C19 and CYP2C9 genotypes on pharmacokinetic variability of valproic acid in Chinese epileptic patients: nonlinear mixed-effect modeling. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2009. Jiang Dechun, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and ABCB1 genotype and hospitalization for phenytoin toxicity. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2009. Hennessy Sean, et al. PubMed
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Genetic determinants of warfarin dosing in the Han-Chinese population. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Lee M T Michael, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics: role in medicines approval and clinical use. Public health genomics. 2010. Novelli G, et al. PubMed
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Influence of clinical and genetic factors on warfarin dose requirements among Japanese patients. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2009. Ohno Masako, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing enzymes and anti-TB drug-induced hepatitis. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Kim Sang-Heon, et al. PubMed
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Presence of CYP2C9*3 allele increases risk for hypoglycemia in Type 2 diabetic patients treated with sulfonylureas. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Ragia Georgia, et al. PubMed
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Interactive modeling for ongoing utility of pharmacogenetic diagnostic testing: application for warfarin therapy. Clinical chemistry. 2009. Linder Mark W, et al. PubMed
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A genome-wide association study of acenocoumarol maintenance dosage. Human molecular genetics. 2009. Teichert Martina, et al. PubMed
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Genetic and environmental factors determining clinical outcomes and cost of warfarin therapy: a prospective study. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2009. Jorgensen Andrea L, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomic trial design: use of a PK/PD model to explore warfarin dosing interventions through clinical trial simulation. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2009. Salinger David H, et al. PubMed
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Genotype-guided dosing of coumarin derivatives: the European pharmacogenetics of anticoagulant therapy (EU-PACT) trial design. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. van Schie Rianne M F, et al. PubMed
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Common polymorphisms in CYP2C9, subclinical atherosclerosis and risk of ischemic vascular disease in 52,000 individuals. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2009. Kaur-Knudsen D, et al. PubMed
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Prevalence of CYP2C9 polymorphisms in the south of Europe. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2009. Sánchez-Diz Paula, et al. PubMed
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Effects of the CYP2C9*13 allele on the pharmacokinetics of losartan in healthy male subjects. Xenobiotica; the fate of foreign compounds in biological systems. 2009. Li Z, et al. PubMed
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Substrate-dependent functional alterations of seven CYP2C9 variants found in Japanese subjects. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2009. Maekawa Keiko, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C9 genotype and pharmacodynamic responses to losartan in patients with primary and secondary kidney diseases. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2009. Joy Melanie S, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics in cardiovascular antithrombotic therapy. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2009. Marín Francisco, et al. PubMed
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Effects of genetic variation at the CYP2C19/CYP2C9 locus on pharmacokinetics of chlorcycloguanil in adult Gambians. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Janha Ramatoulie E, et al. PubMed
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Patterns of pharmacogenetic diversity in African populations: role of ancient and recent history. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Oliveira Elisabete, et al. PubMed
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Generating genome-scale candidate gene lists for pharmacogenomics. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Hansen N T, et al. PubMed
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Exploring warfarin pharmacogenomics with the extreme-discordant-phenotype methodology: impact of FVII polymorphisms on stable anticoagulation with warfarin. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2009. Fuchshuber-Moraes Mateus, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic characteristics of patients with complicated phenprocoumon dosing. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2009. Werner D, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C9*8 is prevalent among African-Americans: implications for pharmacogenetic dosing. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Scott Stuart A, et al. PubMed
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Global variation in CYP2C8-CYP2C9 functional haplotypes. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2009. Speed William C, et al. PubMed
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Clinically available pharmacogenomics tests. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Flockhart D A, et al. PubMed
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Relative impact of genotype and enzyme induction on the metabolic capacity of CYP2C9 in healthy volunteers. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Vormfelde S V, et al. PubMed
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Influence of genetic polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics and pharmaco-dynamics of sulfonylurea drugs. Current drug metabolism. 2009. Xu Hongmei, et al. PubMed
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Effect of silymarin on the pharmacokinetics of losartan and its active metabolite E-3174 in healthy Chinese volunteers. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2009. Han Yang, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C9 amino acid residues influencing phenytoin turnover and metabolite regio- and stereochemistry. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 2009. Mosher Carrie M, et al. PubMed
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Effect of VKORC1-1639 G>A polymorphism, body weight, age, and serum albumin alterations on warfarin response in Japanese patients. Thrombosis research. 2009. Yoshizawa Misa, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic relevance of CYP4F2 V433M polymorphism on acenocoumarol therapy. Blood. 2009. Pérez-Andreu Virginia, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 genetic polymorphisms and the response to prasugrel: relationship to pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and clinical outcomes. Circulation. 2009. Mega Jessica L, et al. PubMed
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The genetics of antiplatelet drug resistance. Clinical genetics. 2009. Feher G, et al. PubMed
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Genetic Polymorphism of the Human Cytochrome P450 2C9 Gene and Its Clinical Significance. Current drug metabolism. 2009. Wang B, et al. PubMed
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Genetic variation of CYP2C19 affects both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic responses to clopidogrel but not prasugrel in aspirin-treated patients with coronary artery disease. European heart journal. 2009. Varenhorst Christoph, et al. PubMed
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P2Y(12) inhibitors: differences in properties and mechanisms of action and potential consequences for clinical use. European heart journal. 2009. Wallentin Lars. PubMed
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ADME pharmacogenetics: current practices and future outlook. Expert opinion on drug metabolism & toxicology. 2009. Grossman Iris. PubMed
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Genetically based impairment in CYP2C8- and CYP2C9-dependent NSAID metabolism as a risk factor for gastrointestinal bleeding: is a combination of pharmacogenomics and metabolomics required to improve personalized medicine?. Expert opinion on drug metabolism & toxicology. 2009. Agúndez José A G, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 2C9 variants influence response to celecoxib for prevention of colorectal adenoma. Gastroenterology. 2009. Chan Andrew T, et al. PubMed
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Frequency of CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 variant alleles in patients receiving clopidogrel that experience repeat acute coronary syndrome. Heart and vessels. 2009. Brackbill Marcia L, et al. PubMed
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Prediction of the effects of genetic polymorphism on the pharmacokinetics of CYP2C9 substrates from in vitro data. Pharmaceutical research. 2009. Kusama Makiko, et al. PubMed
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Epilepsy pharmacogenetics. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Kasperavici¿te Dalia, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics and stroke. Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation. 2009. Meschia James F. PubMed
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Genotypes associated with reduced activity of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 and their modification of acenocoumarol anticoagulation during the initial treatment period. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Teichert M, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP2C9 genotype on warfarin dose requirements--a systematic review and meta-analysis. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2009. Lindh Jonatan D, et al. PubMed
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Polymorphic variation in NFKB1 and other aspirin-related genes and risk of Hodgkin lymphoma. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology. 2009. Chang Ellen T, et al. PubMed
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Data-driven methods to discover molecular determinants of serious adverse drug events. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Chiang A P, et al. PubMed
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Interindividual variation in the pharmacokinetics of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol as related to genetic polymorphisms in CYP2C9. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Sachse-Seeboth C, et al. PubMed
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Polymorphic drug metabolism in anaesthesia. Current drug metabolism. 2009. Restrepo Juan G, et al. PubMed
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A genome-wide association study confirms VKORC1, CYP2C9, and CYP4F2 as principal genetic determinants of warfarin dose. PLoS genetics. 2009. Takeuchi Fumihiko, et al. PubMed
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Validation of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genotypes on interindividual warfarin maintenance dose: a prospective study in Chinese patients. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2009. Huang Sheng-Wen, et al. PubMed
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Application of pharmacogenomics to malaria: a holistic approach for successful chemotherapy. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Mehlotra Rajeev K, et al. PubMed
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Effect of CYP2C9*3 allele on the pharmacokinetics of naproxen in Korean subjects. Archives of pharmacal research. 2009. Bae Jung-Woo, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 genotype is a major factor contributing to the highly variable pharmacokinetics of voriconazole. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2009. Weiss Johanna, et al. PubMed
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Effect of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes on early-phase and steady-state warfarin dosing in Korean patients with mechanical heart valve replacement. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2009. Kim Ho-Sook, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic variation at CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6 at global and microgeographic scales. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2009. Sistonen Johanna, et al. PubMed
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Estimation of the warfarin dose with clinical and pharmacogenetic data. The New England journal of medicine. 2009. International Warfarin Pharmacogenetics Consortium, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics--tailoring treatment for the outliers. The New England journal of medicine. 2009. Woodcock Janet, et al. PubMed
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Cost-effectiveness of using pharmacogenetic information in warfarin dosing for patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Annals of internal medicine. 2009. Eckman Mark H, et al. PubMed
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The largest prospective warfarin-treated cohort supports genetic forecasting. Blood. 2009. Wadelius Mia, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C9 polymorphisms: considerations in NSAID therapy. Current opinion in drug discovery & development. 2009. Ali Zaynah K, et al. PubMed
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Novel variants of major drug-metabolising enzyme genes in diverse African populations and their predicted functional effects. Human genomics. 2009. Matimba Alice, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic relevance of the CYP2C9*3 allele in a tenoxicam bioequivalence study performed on Spaniards. Pharmacological research : the official journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society. 2009. Peiró A M, et al. PubMed
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Determination of the inhibitory potential of 6 fluoroquinolones on CYP1A2 and CYP2C9 in human liver microsomes. Acta pharmacologica Sinica. 2008. Zhang Li, et al. PubMed
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Characterisation of CYP2C8, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 polymorphisms in a Ghanaian population. BMC medical genetics. 2009. Kudzi William, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 on warfarin response during initiation of therapy. Blood cells, molecules & diseases. 2009. Limdi N A, et al. PubMed
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The influence of polymorphisms of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 on major gastrointestinal bleeding risk in anticoagulated patients. British journal of haematology. 2008. Montes Ramón, et al. PubMed
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Arrhythmia pharmacogenomics: methodological considerations. Current pharmaceutical design. 2009. Roden Dan M, et al. PubMed
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VKORC1 diplotype-derived dosing model to explain variability in warfarin dose requirements in Asian patients. Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics. 2009. Sandanaraj Edwin, et al. PubMed
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Polymorphism of human cytochrome P450 enzymes and its clinical impact. Drug metabolism reviews. 2009. Zhou Shu-Feng, et al. PubMed
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Serum concentrations of sertraline and N-desmethyl sertraline in relation to CYP2C19 genotype in psychiatric patients. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2008. Rudberg I, et al. PubMed
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Phenytoin toxicity due to genetic polymorphism. Neurocritical care. 2009. McCluggage Lauren K, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic differences between warfarin, acenocoumarol and phenprocoumon. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2008. Beinema Maarten, et al. PubMed
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Functional pharmacogenetics/genomics of human cytochromes P450 involved in drug biotransformation. Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry. 2008. Zanger Ulrich M, et al. PubMed
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Red meat intake, doneness, polymorphisms in genes that encode carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes, and colorectal cancer risk. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology. 2008. Cotterchio Michelle, et al. PubMed
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Nilotinib: a second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Clinical therapeutics. 2008. Deremer David L, et al. PubMed
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VKORC1 and CYP2C9 allelic variants influence acenocoumarol dose requirements in Greek patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2008. Markatos Christos N, et al. PubMed
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Clinical pharmacogenetics and potential application in personalized medicine. Current drug metabolism. 2008. Zhou Shu-Feng, et al. PubMed
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Evidence for a pharmacogenetic adapted dose of oral anticoagulant in routine medical practice. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2008. Becquemont Laurent. PubMed
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Dosing algorithms to predict warfarin maintenance dose in Caucasians and African Americans. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Schelleman H, et al. PubMed
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Genetic variation in drug transporters in ethnic populations. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Cropp C D, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacokinetics/genotype associations for major cytochrome P450 enzymes in native and first- and third-generation Japanese populations: comparison with Korean, Chinese, and Caucasian populations. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Myrand S P, et al. PubMed
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The critical path of warfarin dosing: finding an optimal dosing strategy using pharmacogenetics. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Lesko L J. PubMed
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Use of pharmacogenetic and clinical factors to predict the therapeutic dose of warfarin. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Gage B F, et al. PubMed
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VKORC1 and CYP2C9 polymorphisms are associated with warfarin dose requirements in Turkish patients. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2008. Oner Ozgon G, et al. PubMed
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Effects of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 on INR variations and dose requirements during initial phase of anticoagulant therapy. Pharmacogenomics. 2008. Spreafico Marta, et al. PubMed
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The relative contribution of human cytochrome P450 isoforms to the four caffeine oxidation pathways: an in vitro comparative study with cDNA-expressed P450s including CYP2C isoforms. Biochemical pharmacology. 2008. Kot Marta, et al. PubMed
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A genome-wide scan for common genetic variants with a large influence on warfarin maintenance dose. Blood. 2008. Cooper Gregory M, et al. PubMed
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Integrating genomic based information into clinical warfarin (Coumadin) management: an illustrative case report. Connecticut medicine. 2008. LaSala Anthony, et al. PubMed
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Genetic variations of CYP2C9 in 724 Japanese individuals and their impact on the antihypertensive effects of losartan. Hypertension research : official journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension. 2008. Yin Tong, et al. PubMed
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Prospective study of warfarin dosage requirements based on CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Wen M-S, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 polymorphisms on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters of racemic and enantiomeric forms of ibuprofen in healthy volunteers. Pharmacological research : the official journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society. 2008. López-Rodríguez Rosario, et al. PubMed
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PK/PD model of indisulam and capecitabine: interaction causes excessive myelosuppression. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Zandvliet A S, et al. PubMed
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Association of CYP2C9 gene polymorphism with bleeding as a complication of warfarin therapy. Collegium antropologicum. 2008. Samardzija Marina, et al. PubMed
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Common variation in cytochrome P450 epoxygenase genes and the risk of incident nonfatal myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2008. Marciante Kristin D, et al. PubMed
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Influence of polymorphisms of drug metabolizing enzymes (CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, GSTA1, GSTP1, ALDH1A1 and ALDH3A1) on the pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide and 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2008. Ekhart Corine, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphism analysis of CYP2C19 in Chinese Han populations from different geographic areas of mainland China. Pharmacogenomics. 2008. Chen Lingling, et al. PubMed
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Combination of phenotype assessments and CYP2C9-VKORC1 polymorphisms in the determination of warfarin dose requirements in heavily medicated patients. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Michaud V, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 induction by rifampicin in healthy subjects: determination using the Karolinska cocktail and the endogenous CYP3A4 marker 4beta-hydroxycholesterol. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Kanebratt K P, et al. PubMed
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Effect of terbinafine and voriconazole on the pharmacokinetics of the antidepressant venlafaxine. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Hynninen V-V, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics: from bench to byte. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Swen J J, et al. PubMed
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Prediction of pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions using human hepatocyte suspension in plasma and cytochrome P450 phenotypic data. II. In vitro-in vivo correlation with ketoconazole. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2008. Lu Chuang, et al. PubMed
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Clinical use and pharmacological properties of selective COX-2 inhibitors. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2008. Shi Shaojun, et al. PubMed
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The pharmacogenetics and pharmacodynamics of clopidogrel response: an analysis from the PRINC (Plavix Response in Coronary Intervention) trial. JACC. Cardiovascular interventions. 2008. Gladding Patrick, et al. PubMed
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Quantitative determination of clopidogrel active metabolite in human plasma by LC-MS/MS. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis. 2008. Takahashi Makoto, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 and nongenetic factors predict poor responsiveness to clopidogrel loading dose after coronary stent implantation. Pharmacogenomics. 2008. Geisler Tobias, et al. PubMed
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The ontogeny of drug metabolism enzymes and implications for adverse drug events. Pharmacology & therapeutics. 2008. Hines Ronald N. PubMed
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CYP2C9 genotype-guided warfarin prescribing enhances the efficacy and safety of anticoagulation: a prospective randomized controlled study. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Caraco Y, et al. PubMed
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Genetic determinants of response to warfarin during initial anticoagulation. The New England journal of medicine. 2008. Schwarz Ute I, et al. PubMed
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Warfarin pharmacogenetics: CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes predict different sensitivity and resistance frequencies in the Ashkenazi and Sephardi Jewish populations. American journal of human genetics. 2008. Scott Stuart A, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 2C9 *2 and *3 polymorphisms and the dose and effect of sulfonylurea in type II diabetes mellitus. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Becker M L, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 1173C/T genotype on the risk of hemorrhagic complications in African-American and European-American patients on warfarin. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Limdi N A, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of warfarin: regulatory, scientific, and clinical issues. Journal of thrombosis and thrombolysis. 2008. Gage Brian F, et al. PubMed
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Dosing algorithm for warfarin using CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotyping from a multi-ethnic population: comparison with other equations. Pharmacogenomics. 2008. Wu Alan H B, et al. PubMed
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Apolipoprotein E genotype and warfarin dosing among Caucasians and African Americans. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2008. Kimmel S E, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C9 genotypes and the quality of anticoagulation control with warfarin therapy among Brazilian patients. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2008. Lima M V, et al. PubMed
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Interaction of CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 genotypes modifies the risk for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs-related acute gastrointestinal bleeding. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2008. Blanco Gerardo, et al. PubMed
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The enzymatic basis of drug-drug interactions with systemic triazole antifungals. Clinical pharmacokinetics. 2008. Nivoix Yasmine, et al. PubMed
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The role of CYP2C9 gene polymorphisms on anticoagulant therapy after heart valve replacement. Medical principles and practice : international journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre. 2008. Yildirim Hatice, et al. PubMed
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Caffeine as a marker substrate for testing cytochrome P450 activity in human and rat. Pharmacological reports : PR. 2008. Kot Marta, et al. PubMed
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Influence of cytochrome P450 polymorphisms on drug therapies: pharmacogenetic, pharmacoepigenetic and clinical aspects. Pharmacology & therapeutics. 2007. Ingelman-Sundberg Magnus, et al. PubMed
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Randomized trial of genotype-guided versus standard warfarin dosing in patients initiating oral anticoagulation. Circulation. 2007. Anderson Jeffrey L, et al. PubMed
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Breast cancer treatment outcome with adjuvant tamoxifen relative to patient CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genotypes. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2007. Schroth Werner, et al. PubMed
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Polymorphic variants of CYP2C9: mechanisms involved in reduced catalytic activity. Molecular pharmacology. 2007. Wei Lian, et al. PubMed
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Conceptual basis and methodology of the SOPHIA study. Pharmacogenomics. 2007. Glorioso N, et al. PubMed
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Factors influencing warfarin dose requirements in African-Americans. Pharmacogenomics. 2007. Momary Kathryn M, et al. PubMed
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Genetic-based dosing in orthopedic patients beginning warfarin therapy. Blood. 2007. Millican Eric A, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genetic polymorphism analysis might be necessary in patients with Factor V Leiden and prothrombin gene G2021A mutation(s). Diagnostic molecular pathology : the American journal of surgical pathology, part B. 2007. Leung Allen, et al. PubMed
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A genomewide screen for late-onset Alzheimer disease in a genetically isolated Dutch population. American journal of human genetics. 2007. Liu Fan, et al. PubMed
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Estimation of warfarin maintenance dose based on VKORC1 (-1639 G>A) and CYP2C9 genotypes. Clinical chemistry. 2007. Zhu Yusheng, et al. PubMed
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The risk of myocardial infarction in patients with reduced activity of cytochrome P450 2C9. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2007. Visser Loes E, et al. PubMed
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Effects of daily ingestion of cranberry juice on the pharmacokinetics of warfarin, tizanidine, and midazolam--probes of CYP2C9, CYP1A2, and CYP3A4. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Lilja J J, et al. PubMed
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Genetic variation at the CYP2C locus and its association with torsemide biotransformation. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2007. Vormfelde S V, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 3A inhibition by ketoconazole affects prasugrel and clopidogrel pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics differently. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Farid N A, et al. PubMed
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Development of the "Inje cocktail" for high-throughput evaluation of five human cytochrome P450 isoforms in vivo. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Ryu J Y, et al. PubMed
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Genetic susceptibility to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-related gastroduodenal bleeding: role of cytochrome P450 2C9 polymorphisms. Gastroenterology. 2007. Pilotto Alberto, et al. PubMed
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Effect of HMGCoA reductase inhibitors on cytochrome P450 expression in endothelial cell line. Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology. 2007. Bertrand-Thiebault Céline, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C9 structure-metabolism relationships: substrates, inhibitors, and metabolites. Journal of medicinal chemistry. 2007. Ahlström Marie M, et al. PubMed
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Common polymorphisms of CYP2C19 and CYP2C9 affect the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic response to clopidogrel but not prasugrel. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2007. Brandt J T, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP2C9 Genotype on warfarin dose among African American and European Americans. Personalized medicine. 2007. Limdi Na, et al. PubMed
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Tolerability of statins is not linked to CYP450 polymorphisms, but reduced CYP2D6 metabolism improves cholesteraemic response to simvastatin and fluvastatin. Pharmacological research : the official journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society. 2007. Zuccaro Piergiorgio, et al. PubMed
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A PK-PD model for predicting the impact of age, CYP2C9, and VKORC1 genotype on individualization of warfarin therapy. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Hamberg A-K, et al. PubMed
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Somatic complications of psychotropic medications in a patient with multiple CYP2 drug metabolism deficiencies. Connecticut medicine. 2007. Ruaño Gualberto, et al. PubMed
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Factors affecting the interindividual variability of warfarin dose requirement in adult Korean patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2007. Cho Hyun-Jung, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of warfarin: current status and future challenges. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2007. Wadelius M, et al. PubMed
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Clinical implications of pharmacogenetics of cytochrome P450 drug metabolizing enzymes. Biochimica et biophysica acta. 2007. Kirchheiner Julia, et al. PubMed
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Evaluation of genetic factors for warfarin dose prediction. Clinical medicine & research. 2007. Caldwell Michael D, et al. PubMed
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Association of warfarin dose with genes involved in its action and metabolism. Human genetics. 2007. Wadelius Mia, et al. PubMed
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Effects of the flavonoid biochanin A on gene expression in primary human hepatocytes and human intestinal cells. Molecular nutrition & food research. 2007. Moon Young Jin, et al. PubMed
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Warfarin and cytochrome P450 2C9 genotype: possible ethnic variation in warfarin sensitivity. Pharmacogenomics. 2007. Kealey Carmel, et al. PubMed
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Appropriate phenotyping procedures for drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters in humans and their simultaneous use in the "cocktail" approach. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Fuhr U, et al. PubMed
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VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genotypes and phenprocoumon anticoagulation status: interaction between both genotypes affects dose requirement. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Schalekamp T, et al. PubMed
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ABCB1 and cytochrome P450 genotypes and phenotypes: influence on methadone plasma levels and response to treatment. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Crettol Séverine, et al. PubMed
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Imatinib: a review of its use in the management of gastrointestinal stromal tumours. Drugs. 2007. Siddiqui M Asif A, et al. PubMed
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Genotypes of the cytochrome p450 isoform, CYP2C9, and the vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 conjointly determine stable warfarin dose: a prospective study. Journal of thrombosis and thrombolysis. 2006. Carlquist John F, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of glucose-lowering drug treatment: a systematic review. Molecular diagnosis & therapy. 2007. Bozkurt Ozlem, et al. PubMed
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Changes at the CYP2C locus and disruption of CYP2C8/9 linkage disequilibrium in patients with essential tremor. Neuromolecular medicine. 2007. Martínez Carmen, et al. PubMed
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Genotypes of vitamin K epoxide reductase, gamma-glutamyl carboxylase, and cytochrome P450 2C9 as determinants of daily warfarin dose in Japanese patients. Thrombosis research. 2007. Kimura Rina, et al. PubMed
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Contribution of CYP2C9, CYP2A6, and CYP2B6 to valproic acid metabolism in hepatic microsomes from individuals with the CYP2C9*1/*1 genotype. Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology. 2006. Kiang Tony K L, et al. PubMed
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Enzyme source effects on CYP2C9 kinetics and inhibition. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2006. Kumar Vikas, et al. PubMed
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A warfarin-dosing model in Asians that uses single-nucleotide polymorphisms in vitamin K epoxide reductase complex and cytochrome P450 2C9. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Tham Lai-San, et al. PubMed
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Paradoxical urinary phenytoin metabolite (S)/(R) ratios in CYP2C19*1/*2 patients. Epilepsy research. 2006. Argikar Upendra A, et al. PubMed
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Polymorphisms in the VKORC1 gene are strongly associated with warfarin dosage requirements in patients receiving anticoagulation. Journal of medical genetics. 2006. Li T, et al. PubMed
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VKORC1 gene variations are the major contributors of variation in warfarin dose in Japanese patients. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Obayashi Kyoko, et al. PubMed
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Tamoxifen inhibits cytochrome P450 2C9 activity in breast cancer patients. Journal of chemotherapy (Florence, Italy). 2006. Boruban M C, et al. PubMed
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VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genotypes and acenocoumarol anticoagulation status: interaction between both genotypes affects overanticoagulation. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Schalekamp Tom, et al. PubMed
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Ketoconazole and miconazole are antagonists of the human glucocorticoid receptor: consequences on the expression and function of the constitutive androstane receptor and the pregnane X receptor. Molecular pharmacology. 2006. Duret Cedric, et al. PubMed
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Four novel defective alleles and comprehensive haplotype analysis of CYP2C9 in Japanese. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2006. Maekawa Keiko, et al. PubMed
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Role of BCRP 421C>A polymorphism on rosuvastatin pharmacokinetics in healthy Chinese males. Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry. 2006. Zhang Wei, et al. PubMed
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Accumulation of celecoxib with a 7-fold higher drug exposure in individuals homozygous for CYP2C9*3. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Lundblad Mia Sandberg, et al. PubMed
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Drug interactions with lipid-lowering drugs: mechanisms and clinical relevance. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Neuvonen Pertti J, et al. PubMed
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Effect of CYP2C9 genetic polymorphisms on the efficacy and pharmacokinetics of glimepiride in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes research and clinical practice. 2006. Suzuki Kazuko, et al. PubMed
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Interactions of two major metabolites of prasugrel, a thienopyridine antiplatelet agent, with the cytochromes P450. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2006. Rehmel Jessica L Fayer, et al. PubMed
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Amodiaquine, its desethylated metabolite, or both, inhibit the metabolism of debrisoquine (CYP2D6) and losartan (CYP2C9) in vivo. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2006. Wennerholm Agneta, et al. PubMed
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Marked interindividual variability in the response to selective inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2. Gastroenterology. 2006. Fries Susanne, et al. PubMed
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The influence of sequence variations in factor VII, gamma-glutamyl carboxylase and vitamin K epoxide reductase complex genes on warfarin dose requirement. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2006. Herman Darja, et al. PubMed
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Effect of the CYP2C9*3 allele on lornoxicam metabolism. Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry. 2006. Liu Ya-Li, et al. PubMed
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Combined genetic profiles of components and regulators of the vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylation system affect individual sensitivity to warfarin. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2006. Vecsler Manuela, et al. PubMed
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Interaction of flurbiprofen with cranberry juice, grape juice, tea, and fluconazole: in vitro and clinical studies. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Greenblatt David J, et al. PubMed
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P450 2C18 catalyzes the metabolic bioactivation of phenytoin. Chemical research in toxicology. 2005. Kinobe Robert T, et al. PubMed
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Methadone enantiomer plasma levels, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, and CYP2C9 genotypes, and response to treatment. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2005. Crettol Séverine, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics-based coumarin therapy. Hematology / the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology. American Society of Hematology. Education Program. 2006. Gage Brian F. PubMed
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Association of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 polymorphisms with warfarin dose requirements in Japanese patients. Journal of human genetics. 2006. Mushiroda Taisei, et al. PubMed
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Genotyping for cytochrome P450 polymorphisms. Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2006. Daly Ann K, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450s and other enzymes in drug metabolism and toxicity. The AAPS journal. 2006. Guengerich F Peter. PubMed
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Influence of CYP2C9, 2C19 and 2D6 genetic polymorphisms on the steady-state plasma concentrations of the enantiomers of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine. Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology. 2005. Scordo Maria G, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C9, CYP2C19, ABCB1 (MDR1) genetic polymorphisms and phenytoin metabolism in a Black Beninese population. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2005. Allabi Aurel C, et al. PubMed
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The impact of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genetic polymorphism and patient characteristics upon warfarin dose requirements: proposal for a new dosing regimen. Blood. 2005. Sconce Elizabeth A, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C9, but not CYP2C19, polymorphisms affect the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of glyburide in Chinese subjects. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2005. Yin Ophelia Q P, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP2C9 genotypes on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of piroxicam. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2005. Perini Jamila A, et al. PubMed
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A prospective, randomized pilot trial of model-based warfarin dose initiation using CYP2C9 genotype and clinical data. Clinical medicine & research. 2005. Hillman Michael A, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) and vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKORC1) genotypes as determinants of acenocoumarol sensitivity. Blood. 2005. Bodin Laurent, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacokinetics of glimepiride and cytochrome P450 2C9 genetic polymorphisms. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2005. Wang Rui, et al. PubMed
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In-vitro and in-vivo effects of the CYP2C9*11 polymorphism on warfarin metabolism and dose. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2005. Tai Guoying, et al. PubMed
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Role of CYP2C9 and its variants (CYP2C9*3 and CYP2C9*13) in the metabolism of lornoxicam in humans. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2005. Guo Yingjie, et al. PubMed
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Clinical consequences of cytochrome P450 2C9 polymorphisms. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2005. Kirchheiner Julia, et al. PubMed
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Common genetic variants of microsomal epoxide hydrolase affect warfarin dose requirements beyond the effect of cytochrome P450 2C9. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2005. Loebstein Ronen, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 2C9 genotype: impact on celecoxib safety and pharmacokinetics in a pediatric patient. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2005. Stempak Diana, et al. PubMed
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Impact of CYP2C9 genotype on pharmacokinetics: are all cyclooxygenase inhibitors the same?. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2005. Rodrigues A David. PubMed
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Prospective dosing of warfarin based on cytochrome P-450 2C9 genotype. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2005. Voora Deepak, et al. PubMed
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Genetic predictors of the maximum doses patients receive during clinical use of the anti-epileptic drugs carbamazepine and phenytoin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2005. Tate Sarah K, et al. PubMed
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Sertraline is metabolized by multiple cytochrome P450 enzymes, monoamine oxidases, and glucuronyl transferases in human: an in vitro study. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2005. Obach R Scott, et al. PubMed
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Ezetimibe: a review of its metabolism, pharmacokinetics and drug interactions. Clinical pharmacokinetics. 2005. Kosoglou Teddy, et al. PubMed
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Clinical pharmacokinetics of imatinib. Clinical pharmacokinetics. 2005. Peng Bin, et al. PubMed
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Clinical pharmacokinetics of losartan. Clinical pharmacokinetics. 2005. Sica Domenic A, et al. PubMed
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Effect of genetic polymorphisms in cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2C9 and CYP2C8 on the pharmacokinetics of oral antidiabetic drugs: clinical relevance. Clinical pharmacokinetics. 2005. Kirchheiner Julia, et al. PubMed
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Polymorphisms in factor II and factor VII genes modulate oral anticoagulation with warfarin. Haematologica. 2004. D'Ambrosio Rosa Lucia, et al. PubMed
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Upstream and coding region CYP2C9 polymorphisms: correlation with warfarin dose and metabolism. Pharmacogenetics. 2004. King Barry P, et al. PubMed
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Common VKORC1 and GGCX polymorphisms associated with warfarin dose. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2005. Wadelius M, et al. PubMed
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Effects of cytochrome P450 2C9 polymorphisms on phenprocoumon anticoagulation status. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2004. Schalekamp Tom, et al. PubMed
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A novel CYP2C9 variant that caused erroneous genotyping in a patient on warfarin therapy. Pharmacogenetics. 2004. Okuda Rika, et al. PubMed
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Dosage recommendation of phenytoin for patients with epilepsy with different CYP2C9/CYP2C19 polymorphisms. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2004. Hung Chin-Chuan, et al. PubMed
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Functional impact of CYP2C95, CYP2C96, CYP2C98, and CYP2C911 in vivo among black Africans. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2004. Allabi Aurel C, et al. PubMed
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Interindividual variability in ibuprofen pharmacokinetics is related to interaction of cytochrome P450 2C8 and 2C9 amino acid polymorphisms. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2004. García-Martín Elena, et al. PubMed
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Discovery of new potentially defective alleles of human CYP2C9. Pharmacogenetics. 2004. Blaisdell Joyce, et al. PubMed
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Relative impact of covariates in prescribing warfarin according to CYP2C9 genotype. Pharmacogenetics. 2004. Hillman Michael A, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C9 genotypes and the pharmacokinetics of tenoxicam in Brazilians. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2004. Vianna-Jorge Rosane, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C9 genetic variants and losartan oxidation in a Turkish population. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2004. Babaoglu Melih O, et al. PubMed
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QTc interval, CYP2D6 and CYP2C9 genotypes and risperidone plasma concentrations. Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England). 2004. Llerena Adrián, et al. PubMed
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Differential activation of CYP2C9 variants by dapsone. Biochemical pharmacology. 2004. Hummel Matthew A, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of acenocoumarol pharmacodynamics. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2004. Morin Sandrine, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphism of cytochrome P450 2C9 in diphenylhydantoin-induced cutaneous adverse drug reactions. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2004. Lee Ai-Young, et al. PubMed
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Association of pharmacokinetic (CYP2C9) and pharmacodynamic (factors II, VII, IX, and X; proteins S and C; and gamma-glutamyl carboxylase) gene variants with warfarin sensitivity. Blood. 2004. Shikata Eriko, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C9 genetic polymorphisms and warfarin. Clinical and applied thrombosis/hemostasis : official journal of the International Academy of Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis. 2004. Redman Andrea R, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C9 genotypes and dose requirements during the induction phase of oral anticoagulant therapy. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2004. Peyvandi Flora, et al. PubMed
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United States Food and Drug Administration Drug Approval summary: Gefitinib (ZD1839; Iressa) tablets. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2004. Cohen Martin H, et al. PubMed
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Effect of CYP2D6 and CYP2C9 genotypes on fluoxetine and norfluoxetine plasma concentrations during steady-state conditions. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2004. LLerena Adrián, et al. PubMed
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Genetic predisposition to acute gastrointestinal bleeding after NSAIDs use. British journal of pharmacology. 2004. Martínez Carmen, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C polymorphisms, phenytoin metabolism and gingival overgrowth in epileptic subjects. Life sciences. 2004. Soga Yoshihiko, et al. PubMed
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Effects of CYP2C9 polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of R- and S-phenprocoumon in healthy volunteers. Pharmacogenetics. 2004. Kirchheiner Julia, et al. PubMed
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The risk of overanticoagulation in patients with cytochrome P450 CYP2C9*2 or CYP2C9*3 alleles on acenocoumarol or phenprocoumon. Pharmacogenetics. 2004. Visser Loes E, et al. PubMed
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Allelic variants of cytochromes P450 2C modify the risk for acute myocardial infarction. Pharmacogenetics. 2003. Yasar Umit, et al. PubMed
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Warfarin sensitivity related to CYP2C9, CYP3A5, ABCB1 (MDR1) and other factors. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2004. Wadelius M, et al. PubMed
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Clinical relevance of genetic polymorphisms in the human CYP2C9 gene. European journal of clinical investigation. 2003. Schwarz U I. PubMed
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Effect of the single CYP2C9*3 allele on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of losartan in healthy Japanese subjects. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2003. Sekino Kazuishi, et al. PubMed
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Effects of polymorphisms in CYP2D6, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 on trimipramine pharmacokinetics. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. 2003. Kirchheiner Julia, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP2C9 polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics and cholesterol-lowering activity of (-)-3S,5R-fluvastatin and (+)-3R,5S-fluvastatin in healthy volunteers. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2003. Kirchheiner Julia, et al. PubMed
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A new class of CYP2C9 inhibitors: probing 2C9 specificity with high-affinity benzbromarone derivatives. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2003. Locuson Charles W, et al. PubMed
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Determination of bleeding risk using genetic markers in patients taking phenprocoumon. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2003. Hummers-Pradier Eva, et al. PubMed
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No major difference in inhibitory susceptibility between CYP2C9.1 and CYP2C9.3. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2003. Hanatani Tadaaki, et al. PubMed
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Losartan and E3174 pharmacokinetics in cytochrome P450 2C9*1/*1, *1/*2, and *1/*3 individuals. Pharmacotherapy. 2003. Lee Craig R, et al. PubMed
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Bioactivation of cyclophosphamide: the role of polymorphic CYP2C enzymes. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2003. Griskevicius Laimonas, et al. PubMed
Influence of CYP2C9 genetic polymorphisms on pharmacokinetics of celecoxib and its metabolites. Pharmacogenetics. 2003. Kirchheiner Julia, et al. PubMed
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Effects of prototypical microsomal enzyme inducers on cytochrome P450 expression in cultured human hepatocytes. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2003. Madan Ajay, et al. PubMed
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Differences in flurbiprofen pharmacokinetics between CYP2C9*1/*1, *1/*2, and *1/*3 genotypes. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2003. Lee Craig R, et al. PubMed
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Severe intoxication after phenytoin infusion: a preventable pharmacogenetic adverse reaction. Neurology. 2003. Citerio G, et al. PubMed
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Population differences in S-warfarin metabolism between CYP2C9 genotype-matched Caucasian and Japanese patients. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2003. Takahashi Harumi, et al. PubMed
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Genetic and environmental risk factors for oral anticoagulant overdose. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2003. Verstuyft C, et al. PubMed
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Human extrahepatic cytochromes P450: function in xenobiotic metabolism and tissue-selective chemical toxicity in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology. 2003. Ding Xinxin, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms on warfarin maintenance dose and metabolic clearance. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2002. Scordo Maria Gabriella, et al. PubMed
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Warfarin dose adjustments based on CYP2C9 genetic polymorphisms. Journal of thrombosis and thrombolysis. 2002. Linder Mark W, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP2C9 genotypes on the formation of a hepatotoxic metabolite of valproic acid in human liver microsomes. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2003. Ho P C, et al. PubMed
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Involvement of multiple UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A isoforms in glucuronidation of 5-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-5-phenylhydantoin in human liver microsomes. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2002. Nakajima Miki, et al. PubMed
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Analysis of CYP2C9*5 in Caucasian, Oriental and black-African populations. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2002. Yasar Umit, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of acenocoumarol: cytochrome P450 CYP2C9 polymorphisms influence dose requirements and stability of anticoagulation. Haematologica. 2002. Tàssies Dolors, et al. PubMed
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The CYP2C9 genotype predicts the blood pressure response to irbesartan: results from the Swedish Irbesartan Left Ventricular Hypertrophy Investigation vs Atenolol (SILVHIA) trial. Journal of hypertension. 2002. Hallberg Pär, et al. PubMed
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Contributions of CYP2D6, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 to the biotransformation of E- and Z-doxepin in healthy volunteers. Pharmacogenetics. 2002. Kirchheiner Julia, et al. PubMed
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Glyburide and glimepiride pharmacokinetics in subjects with different CYP2C9 genotypes. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2002. Niemi Mikko, et al. PubMed
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Enantiospecific effects of cytochrome P450 2C9 amino acid variants on ibuprofen pharmacokinetics and on the inhibition of cyclooxygenases 1 and 2. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2002. Kirchheiner Julia, et al. PubMed
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The N-demethylation of the doxepin isomers is mainly catalyzed by the polymorphic CYP2C19. Pharmaceutical research. 2002. Härtter Sebastian, et al. PubMed
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Expression of CYP3A4, CYP2B6, and CYP2C9 is regulated by the vitamin D receptor pathway in primary human hepatocytes. The Journal of biological chemistry. 2002. Drocourt Lionel, et al. PubMed
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Differential effects of 2C9*3 and 2C9*2 variants of cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9 on sensitivity to acenocoumarol. Blood. 2002. Hermida José, et al. PubMed
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Triethylenethiophosphoramide is a specific inhibitor of cytochrome P450 2B6: implications for cyclophosphamide metabolism. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2002. Rae James M, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C9 polymorphism and warfarin dose requirements. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2002. Daly Ann K, et al. PubMed
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Impact of CYP2C9 amino acid polymorphisms on glyburide kinetics and on the insulin and glucose response in healthy volunteers. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2002. Kirchheiner Julia, et al. PubMed
Association between CYP2C9 genetic variants and anticoagulation-related outcomes during warfarin therapy. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. 2002. Higashi Mitchell K, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 2C9 polymorphisms: a comprehensive review of the in-vitro and human data. Pharmacogenetics. 2002. Lee Craig R, et al. PubMed
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Effects of CYP2C19 and CYP2C9 genetic polymorphisms on the disposition of and blood glucose lowering response to tolbutamide in humans. Pharmacogenetics. 2002. Shon Ji-Hong, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacokinetics of losartan and its metabolite E-3174 in relation to the CYP2C9 genotype. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2002. Yasar Umit, et al. PubMed
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Identification of a null allele of CYP2C9 in an African-American exhibiting toxicity to phenytoin. Pharmacogenetics. 2001. Kidd R S, et al. PubMed
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Med-psych drug-drug interactions update. Psychosomatics. 2002. Armstrong Scott C, et al. PubMed
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Rifampin is a selective, pleiotropic inducer of drug metabolism genes in human hepatocytes: studies with cDNA and oligonucleotide expression arrays. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 2001. Rae J M, et al. PubMed
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In vitro evaluation of valproic acid as an inhibitor of human cytochrome P450 isoforms: preferential inhibition of cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9). British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2001. Wen X, et al. PubMed
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Early acenocoumarol overanticoagulation among cytochrome P450 2C9 poor metabolizers. Pharmacogenetics. 2001. Verstuyft C, et al. PubMed
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Severe phenytoin intoxication in a subject homozygous for CYP2C9*3. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2001. Brandolese R, et al. PubMed
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Calcium channel modulators of the dihydropyridine family are human pregnane X receptor activators and inducers of CYP3A, CYP2B, and CYP2C in human hepatocytes. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2001. Drocourt L, et al. PubMed
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Phenytoin metabolic ratio: a putative marker of CYP2C9 activity in vivo. Pharmacogenetics. 2001. Caraco Y, et al. PubMed
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Peptide mimetic HIV protease inhibitors are ligands for the orphan receptor SXR. The Journal of biological chemistry. 2001. Dussault I, et al. PubMed
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Identification and functional characterization of a new CYP2C9 variant (CYP2C9*5) expressed among African Americans. Molecular pharmacology. 2001. Dickmann L J, et al. PubMed
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Role of CYP2C9 polymorphism in losartan oxidation. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2001. Yasar U, et al. PubMed
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The effect of genetic polymorphism of cytochrome P450 CYP2C9 on phenytoin dose requirement. Pharmacogenetics. 2001. van der Weide J, et al. PubMed
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In-vitro metabolism of celecoxib, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, by allelic variant forms of human liver microsomal cytochrome P450 2C9: correlation with CYP2C9 genotype and in-vivo pharmacokinetics. Pharmacogenetics. 2001. Tang C, et al. PubMed
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Effects of CYP2C19 genotype and CYP2C9 on fluoxetine N-demethylation in human liver microsomes. Acta pharmacologica Sinica. 2001. Liu Z Q, et al. PubMed
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Clinical pharmacokinetics of fluvastatin. Clinical pharmacokinetics. 2001. Scripture C D, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of warfarin elimination and its clinical implications. Clinical pharmacokinetics. 2001. Takahashi H, et al. PubMed
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Formation of a dihydroxy metabolite of phenytoin in human liver microsomes/cytosol: roles of cytochromes P450 2C9, 2C19, and 3A4. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2000. Komatsu T, et al. PubMed
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Association analysis of drug metabolizing enzyme gene polymorphisms in HIV-positive patients with co-trimoxazole hypersensitivity. Pharmacogenetics. 2000. Pirmohamed M, et al. PubMed
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Genetic modulation of oral anticoagulation with warfarin. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2000. Margaglione M, et al. PubMed
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Influence of cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9 polymorphisms on warfarin sensitivity and risk of over-anticoagulation in patients on long-term treatment. Blood. 2000. Taube J, et al. PubMed
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Phenytoin metabolism by human cytochrome P450: involvement of P450 3A and 2C forms in secondary metabolism and drug-protein adduct formation. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2000. Cuttle L, et al. PubMed
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Equally potent inhibitors of cholesterol synthesis in human hepatocytes have distinguishable effects on different cytochrome P450 enzymes. Biopharmaceutics & drug disposition. 2000. Cohen L H, et al. PubMed
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Major role of human liver microsomal cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) in the oxidative metabolism of celecoxib, a novel cyclooxygenase-II inhibitor. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 2000. Tang C, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphism of the CYP2C subfamily and excessive serum phenytoin concentration with central nervous system intoxication. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2000. Ninomiya H, et al. PubMed
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Frequency of cytochrome P450 CYP2C9 variants in a Turkish population and functional relevance for phenytoin. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 1999. Aynacioglu A S, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C9*3 allelic variant and bleeding complications. Lancet. 1999. Ogg M S, et al. PubMed
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Inhibition of CYP2C9 by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: in vitro studies with tolbutamide and (S)-warfarin using human liver microsomes. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 1999. Hemeryck A, et al. PubMed
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The effects of fluvastatin, a CYP2C9 inhibitor, on losartan pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 1999. Meadowcroft A M, et al. PubMed
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Roles of CYP2A6 and CYP2B6 in nicotine C-oxidation by human liver microsomes. Archives of toxicology. 1999. Yamazaki H, et al. PubMed
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Phenotypic and genotypic investigations of a healthy volunteer deficient in the conversion of losartan to its active metabolite E-3174. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 1999. McCrea J B, et al. PubMed
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The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor fluvastatin: effect on human cytochrome P-450 and implications for metabolic drug interactions. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 1999. Fischer V, et al. PubMed
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Role of cytochrome P-4502C9 in irbesartan oxidation by human liver microsomes. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 1999. Bourrié M, et al. PubMed
Association of polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 CYP2C9 with warfarin dose requirement and risk of bleeding complications. Lancet. 1999. Aithal G P, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacokinetics of chlorpheniramine, phenytoin, glipizide and nifedipine in an individual homozygous for the CYP2C9*3 allele. Pharmacogenetics. 1999. Kidd R S, et al. PubMed
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Efavirenz. Drugs. 1998. Adkins J C, et al. PubMed
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The effects of genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 on phenytoin metabolism in Japanese adult patients with epilepsy: studies in stereoselective hydroxylation and population pharmacokinetics. Epilepsia. 1998. Mamiya K, et al. PubMed
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Comparisons between in-vitro and in-vivo metabolism of (S)-warfarin: catalytic activities of cDNA-expressed CYP2C9, its Leu359 variant and their mixture versus unbound clearance in patients with the corresponding CYP2C9 genotypes. Pharmacogenetics. 1998. Takahashi H, et al. PubMed