Gene:
CYP2C19
cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily C, polypeptide 19

Available Guidelines

  1. CPIC Dosing Guideline for amitriptyline and CYP2C19, CYP2D6
  2. CPIC Dosing Guideline for clomipramine and CYP2C19, CYP2D6
  3. CPIC Dosing Guideline for clopidogrel and CYP2C19
  4. CPIC Dosing Guideline for doxepin and CYP2C19, CYP2D6
  5. CPIC Dosing Guideline for imipramine and CYP2C19, CYP2D6
  6. CPIC Dosing Guideline for trimipramine and CYP2C19, CYP2D6
  7. Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for citalopram and CYP2C19
  8. Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for clopidogrel and CYP2C19
  9. Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for escitalopram and CYP2C19
  10. Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for esomeprazole and CYP2C19
  11. Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for imipramine and CYP2C19
  12. Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for lansoprazole and CYP2C19
  13. Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for moclobemide and CYP2C19
  14. Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for omeprazole and CYP2C19
  15. Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for pantoprazole and CYP2C19
  16. Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for rabeprazole and CYP2C19
  17. Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for sertraline and CYP2C19
  18. Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for voriconazole and CYP2C19

last updated 01/16/2013

CPIC Dosing Guideline for amitriptyline and CYP2C19, CYP2D6

Summary

The CPIC Dosing Guideline for amitriptyline recommends an alternative drug for CYP2D6 or CYP2C19 ultrarapid metabolizers and for CYP2D6 poor metabolizers. Consider a 50% dose reduction for CYP2C19 poor metabolizers and a 25% dose reduction for CYP2D6 intermediate metabolizers.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.


last updated 01/16/2013

CPIC Dosing Guideline for clomipramine and CYP2C19, CYP2D6

Summary

Tricyclic antidepressants have comparable pharmacokinetic properties, it may be reasonable to apply the CPIC Dosing Guideline for amitriptyline and CYP2C19, CYP2D6 to other tricyclics including clomipramine. In the guideline for amitriptyline, an alternative drug is recommended for CYP2D6 or CYP2C19 ultrarapid metabolizers and for CYP2D6 poor metabolizers. Consider a 50% dose reduction for CYP2C19 poor metabolizers and a 25% dose reduction for CYP2D6 intermediate metabolizers.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.


last updated 05/22/2013

CPIC Dosing Guideline for clopidogrel and CYP2C19

Summary

The CPIC Dosing Guideline for clopidogrel recommends an alternative antiplatelet therapy (e.g., prasugrel, ticagrelor) for CYP2C19 poor or intermediate metabolizers if there is no contraindicaiton.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.


last updated 01/16/2013

CPIC Dosing Guideline for doxepin and CYP2C19, CYP2D6

Summary

Tricyclic antidepressants have comparable pharmacokinetic properties, it may be reasonable to apply the CPIC Dosing Guideline for amitriptyline and CYP2C19, CYP2D6 to other tricyclics including doxepin. In the guideline for amitriptyline, an alternative drug is recommended for CYP2D6 or CYP2C19 ultrarapid metabolizers and for CYP2D6 poor metabolizers. Consider a 50% dose reduction for CYP2C19 poor metabolizers and a 25% dose reduction for CYP2D6 intermediate metabolizers.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.


last updated 01/16/2013

CPIC Dosing Guideline for imipramine and CYP2C19, CYP2D6

Summary

Tricyclic antidepressants have comparable pharmacokinetic properties, it may be reasonable to apply the CPIC Dosing Guideline for amitriptyline and CYP2C19, CYP2D6 to other tricyclics including imipramine. In the guideline for amitriptyline, an alternative drug is recommended for CYP2D6 or CYP2C19 ultrarapid metabolizers and for CYP2D6 poor metabolizers. Consider a 50% dose reduction for CYP2C19 poor metabolizers and a 25% dose reduction for CYP2D6 intermediate metabolizers.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.


last updated 01/16/2013

CPIC Dosing Guideline for trimipramine and CYP2C19, CYP2D6

Summary

Tricyclic antidepressants have comparable pharmacokinetic properties, it may be reasonable to apply the CPIC Dosing Guideline for amitriptyline and CYP2C19, CYP2D6 to other tricyclics including trimipramine. In the guideline for amitriptyline, an alternative drug is recommended for CYP2D6 or CYP2C19 ultrarapid metabolizers and for CYP2D6 poor metabolizers. Consider a 50% dose reduction for CYP2C19 poor metabolizers and a 25% dose reduction for CYP2D6 intermediate metabolizers.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.



last updated 08/10/2011

Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for clopidogrel and CYP2C19

Summary

The Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for clopidogrel recommends to consider an alternative drug for CYP2C19 poor or intermediate metabolizers, because of increased risk for reduced response to clopidogrel. Prasugrel might be associated with an increased bleeding risk compared to clopidogrel.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.




last updated 08/10/2011

Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for imipramine and CYP2C19

Summary

The Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for imipramine recommends to reduce the dose by 30% in CYP2C19 poor metabolizers, and monitor the plasma concentration of imipramine and desipramine or select alternative drug. For CYP2C19 intermediate metabolizers, select an alternative drug.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.









PharmGKB gathers information regarding PGx on FDA drug labels from the FDA's "Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labels", and from FDA-approved FDA and EMA-approved (European Medicines Agency) EMA labels brought to our attention. Excerpts from the label and downloadable highlighted label PDFs are manually curated by PharmGKB.

Please note that some drugs may have been removed from or added to the FDA's "Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labels" without our knowledge. We periodically check the table for additions to this table and update PharmGKB accordingly.

There is currently no such list for European drug labels - we are working with the EMA to establish a list of European Public Assessment Reports (EPAR)s that contain PGx information. We are constructing this list by initially searching for drugs for which we have PGx-containing FDA drug labels - of these 44 EMA EPARs were identified and are being curated for pgx information.

We welcome any information regarding drug labels containing PGx information approved by the FDA, EMA or other Medicine Agencies around the world - please contact feedback.


Annotated Labels

  1. FDA Label for carisoprodol and CYP2C19
  2. FDA Label for citalopram and CYP2C19, CYP2D6
  3. FDA Label for clobazam and CYP2C19
  4. FDA Label for clopidogrel and CYP2C19
  5. FDA Label for dexlansoprazole and CYP2C19
  6. FDA Label for diazepam and CYP2C19
  7. FDA Label for esomeprazole and CYP2C19
  8. FDA Label for lansoprazole and CYP2C19
  9. FDA Label for nelfinavir and CYP2C19, CYP3A
  10. FDA Label for omeprazole and CYP2C19
  11. FDA Label for pantoprazole and CYP2C19
  12. FDA Label for prasugrel and CYP2C19
  13. FDA Label for rabeprazole and CYP2C19
  14. FDA Label for voriconazole and CYP2C19
  15. FDA Label for drospirenone, ethinyl estradiol and CYP2C19
  16. European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for atazanavir and CYP2C19
  17. European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for axitinib and CYP2C19, UGT1A1
  18. European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for clopidogrel and CYP2C19
  19. European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for esomeprazole and CYP2C19
  20. European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for prasugrel and CYP2C19
  21. European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for ticagrelor and CYP2C19
  22. European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for voriconazole and CYP2C19, CYP2C9, CYP3A4

last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for carisoprodol and CYP2C19

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Actionable PGx

Summary

Carisoprodol (SOMA) should be used with caution in patients with reduced CYP2C19 activity. Published studies indicate that patients who are poor CYP2C19 metabolizers have a 4-fold increase in exposure to carisoprodol and a 50% decreased exposure to meprobamate (a metabolite of carisoprodol) compared to normal CYP2C19 metabolizers.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for citalopram and CYP2C19, CYP2D6

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Actionable PGx

Summary

The FDA-approved drug label recommends a maximum dose of 20 mg/day of citalopram (Celexa) in patients who are CYP2C19 poor metabolizers, due to an increase in citalopram exposure. This increased exposure leads to a greater risk for QT prolongation, a potentially fatal abnormality in the heart's electrical activity.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for clobazam and CYP2C19

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Actionable PGx

Summary

In patients known to be CYP2C19 poor metabolizers, the drug label states that the initial dose of clobazam (ONFI) should be 5 mg/day. Patients can be titrated initially to 10 - 20 mg/day, and then titrated further to a maximum daily dose of 40 mg, if tolerated. This is due to an increase in levels of N-desmethylclobazam, the active metabolite of clobazam.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for clopidogrel and CYP2C19

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Genetic testing recommended

Summary

The FDA-approved drug label for clopidogrel (Plavix) warns that patients who are CYP2C19 poor metabolizers may have diminished effectiveness of the drug, leading to higher cardiovascular event rates following acute coronary syndrome or percutaneous coronary intervention, as compared to patients with normal CYP2C19 function. The drug label suggests that alternative treatment or treatment strategies are considered in patients identified as CYP2C19 poor metabolizers.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for dexlansoprazole and CYP2C19

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Actionable PGx

Summary

The FDA-approved drug label for dexlansoprazole (DEXILANT) notes that systemic exposure of the drug is generally higher in CYP2C19 intermediate and poor metabolizers, as compared to extensive metabolizers.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for diazepam and CYP2C19

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Actionable PGx

Summary

The FDA-approved drug label for diazepam (Diastat) notes that the drug is metabolized by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4, and that inter-individual variation in clearance of the drug is likely attributable to CYP2C19 or CYP3A4 genetic variability.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for esomeprazole and CYP2C19

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Actionable PGx

Summary

The FDA-approved drug label for esomeprazole (NEXIUM) notes that individuals who are CYP2C19 poor metabolizers may have double the steady state area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of esomeprazole compared to extensive metabolizers.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for lansoprazole and CYP2C19

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Informative PGx

Summary

Lansoprazole delayed-release capsules are metabolized mainly by CYP3A and CYP2C19 isozymes. Concomitant administration of lansoprazole and tacrolimus may increase whole blood levels of tacrolimus, especially in transplant patients who are intermediate or poor metabolizers of CYP2C19

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for nelfinavir and CYP2C19, CYP3A

Informative PGx

Summary

Coadministration of VIRACEPT with drugs primarily metabolized by CYP3A may result in increased plasma concentrations of the other drug that could prolong its therapeutic and adverse effects. Coadministration of VIRACEPT and drugs that induce CYP3A or CYP2C19 may decrease nelfinavir plasma concentrations and reduce its therapeutic effect. Coadministration of VIRACEPT and drugs that inhibit CYP3A or CYP2C19 may increase nelfinavir plasma concentrations.

There's more of this label. Read more.



last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for pantoprazole and CYP2C19

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Actionable PGx

Summary

Pantoprazole is metabolized mainly by CYP2C19 and to minor extents by CYPs 3A4, 2D6, and 2C9. For adult patients who are CYP2C19 poor metabolizers, no dosage adjustment is needed. For known pediatric poor metabolizers, a dose reduction should be considered.

There's more of this label. Read more.



last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for rabeprazole and CYP2C19

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Informative PGx

Summary

Rabeprazole is metabolized in the liver primarily by cytochromes P450 3A (CYP3A) and cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19). Patients with the CYP2C19 poor metabolizer genotypes may have slower rabeprazole metabolism and lower suppression of gastric acid as compared to more extensive metabolizers.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for voriconazole and CYP2C19

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Informative PGx

Summary

Voriconazole is an antifungal used to treat serious infections of Aspergillus fumigatu, Candida, Scedosporium, Fusarium and other species. Voriconazole is metabolized in the liver by CYP2C19, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4. It also influences expression of metabolizing enzymes and interacts with several other drugs.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 07/14/2014

FDA Label for drospirenone, ethinyl estradiol and CYP2C19

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Informative PGx

Summary

The FDA-approved drug label for drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol (Yaz) notes that in vitro studies showed an inhibitory effect of drospirenone on the turnover of model substrates of CYP1A1, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. However, in vivo studies using omeprazole as a marker substrate showed that drospirenone has little propensity to interact to a significant extent with cytochrome P450 enzymes at a clinical dose level.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 09/16/2014

European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for atazanavir and CYP2C19

Genetic testing recommended

Summary

The EMA European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) for atazanavir (Reyataz) contains pharmacogenetic information related to co-treatment with voriconazole and ritonavir: both atazanavir and voriconazole exposure is expected to be increased in patients who do not have a functional CYP2C19 allele. The EPAR states that at the time of voriconazole treatment, a test for CYP2C19 genotype should be performed if feasible, and provides therapeutic recommendations based on CYP2C19 genotype.

There's more of this label. Read more.




last updated 05/08/2014

European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for esomeprazole and CYP2C19

Informative PGx

Summary

The EMA European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) for esomeprazole (Nexium Control) notes that CYP2C19 poor metabolizers have higher plasma concentrations of the drug compared to extensive metabolizers, but there are no implications for dosing.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/27/2013

European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for prasugrel and CYP2C19

Informative PGx

Summary

The EMA European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) for prasugrel (Efient) contains information regarding the lack of effect of genetic variants in the CYP3A5, CYP2B6, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 genes on the pharmacokinetics of prasugrel or response.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/29/2013

European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for ticagrelor and CYP2C19

Actionable PGx

Summary

The EMA European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) for ticagrelor (Brilique) contains information regarding a study in which CYP2C19 and ABCB1 genotyping was carried out (PLATO - platelet inhibition and patient outcomes). In patients with one or more CYP2C19 loss of function allele, non-coronary artery by-pass grafting (non-CABG) PLATO major bleeding was increased when treated with ticagrelor compared to clopidogrel, but was similar in patients with no loss of function alleles.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 08/06/2014

European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for voriconazole and CYP2C19, CYP2C9, CYP3A4

Informative PGx

Summary

The EMA European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) for voriconazole (VFEND) does not contain pharmacogenetic information. It contains warning information regarding the co-administration of drugs that are substrates, inhibitors or activators of CYP3A4, CYP2C9 or CYP2C19 due to drug-drug interactions.

There's more of this label. Read more.


Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria, manually curated by PharmGKB, are shown below. Please follow the link in the "Position" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Position" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the table.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

? = Mouse-over for quick help

This is a non-comprehensive list of genetic tests with pharmacogenetics relevance, typically submitted by the manufacturer and manually curated by PharmGKB. The information listed is provided for educational purposes only and does not constitute an endorsement of any listed test or manufacturer.

A more complete listing of genetic tests is found at the Genetic Testing Registry (GTR).

PGx Test Variants Assayed Related Drugs?
Roche AmpliChip CYP450 Test Variant in CYP2C19
DMET Plus (Affymetrix, Inc) Variant in CYP2C19
VeraCode ADME Core Panel (Illumina, Inc) Variant in CYP2C19
TaqMan Drug Metabolism Genotyping Assay Sets (Applied Biosystems, Inc) Variant in CYP2C19
Laboratory Corporation of America Variant in CYP2C19
iPLEX ADME PGx (Sequenom, Inc) CYP2C19*1, CYP2C19*12, CYP2C19*17, CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3, CYP2C19*4, CYP2C19*5A, CYP2C19*5B, CYP2C19*6, CYP2C19*7, CYP2C19*8
AmpliChip CYP450 Test (Roche Molecular Systems, Inc) CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3
eSensor 2C19 Genotyping Test (GenMark Diagnostics, Inc) CYP2C19*10, CYP2C19*13, CYP2C19*17, CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3, CYP2C19*4, CYP2C19*5, CYP2C19*6, CYP2C19*7, CYP2C19*8, CYP2C19*9
Luminex xTAG CYP2C19 CYP2C19*1, CYP2C19*10, CYP2C19*17, CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3, CYP2C19*4, CYP2C19*5, CYP2C19*6, CYP2C19*7, CYP2C19*8, CYP2C19*9
Spartan RX CYP2C19 System CYP2C19*17, CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3 , rs12248560 , rs4986893 , rs4244285
INFINITI CYP2C19 (AutoGenomics, Inc) CYP2C19*17, CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3 , rs12248560 , rs4986893 , rs4244285
INFINITI CYP450 2C19+ (AutoGenomics, Inc) CYP2C19*10, CYP2C19*17, CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3, CYP2C19*4, CYP2C19*5, CYP2C19*6, CYP2C19*7, CYP2C19*8, CYP2C19*9 , rs12248560 , rs28399504 , rs41291556 , rs72552267 , rs17884712 , rs4986893 , rs6413438 , rs4244285 , rs72558186 , rs56337013

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page on the appropriate tab.

Links in the "Drugs" column lead to PharmGKB Drug Pages.

Variant?
(138)
Alternate Names / Tag SNPs ? Drugs ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available CA VA *1 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *1A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *1B N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *1C N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *2 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *2A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *2B N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *2C N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *2D N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *3 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *3A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *3B N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *4 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *5 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *5A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *5B N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *6 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *7 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *8 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *9 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *10 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *11 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *12 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *13 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *14 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *15 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *16 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *17 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *18 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *19 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *22 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *23 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *25 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *26 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *27 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *28 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
CYP2C19 poor metabolizers N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
CYP2C19 poor metabolizer N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
CYP2C19 poor metabolizer genotype N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
CYP2C19 ultrarapid metabolizer phenotype N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
CYP2C19 extensive metabolizers N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA
rs11188072 -3402, 1599C>T, 47323525C>T, 96519061C>T, CYP2C19:, CYP2C19: -3402C>T, part of CYP2C19*17
C > T
Not Available
rs12248560 -806C>A, -806C>T, 4195C>A, 4195C>T, 47326121C>A, 47326121C>T, 96521657C>A, 96521657C>T, CYP2C19*17, CYP2C19*17 CYP2C19: -806C>T, CYP2C19: -806C>T
C > T
C > A
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs12768009 168+3235G>A, 47330329G>A, 8403G>A, 8621C>T, 96525865G>A
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs145119820
G > A
Missense
Val113Ile
No VIP available CA VA
rs28399504 1A>G, 47326927A>G, 5001A>G, 80161A>G, 96522463A>G, 99C>T, CYP2C19*4, CYP2C19:A1G, Met1Val
A > G
Missense
Met1Val
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3814637 -1418C>G, -1418C>T, 3583C>G, 3583C>T, 47325509C>G, 47325509C>T, 96521045C>G, 96521045C>T
C > G
C > T
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs41291556 12711T>C, 17711T>C, 358T>C, 47339637T>C, 96535173T>C, CYP2C19:358T>C, T358C, Trp120Arg, W120R
T > C
Missense
Trp120Arg
rs4244285 24154G>A, 24154G>C, 47346080G>A, 47346080G>C, 681G>A, 681G>C, 96541616G>A, 96541616G>C, CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19:681G>A, CYP2C19:G681A, Pro227=
G > C
G > A
Synonymous
Pro227Pro
rs4986893 22948G>A, 47344874G>A, 636G>A, 96540410G>A, CYP2C19*3, CYP2C19:636G>A, CYP2C19:G636A, Trp212Ter
G > A
Stop Codon
Trp212null
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs55948420 1180G>A, 47414168G>A, 92242G>A, 96609704G>A, Val394Met
G > A
Missense
Val394Met
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs56337013 1297C>T, 47416959C>T, 95033C>T, 96612495C>T, CYP2C19:1297C>T, R433W
C > T
Missense
Arg433Trp
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 138

Overview

Alternate Names:  None
Alternate Symbols:  CPCJ; P450IIC19
PharmGKB Accession Id: PA124

Details

Cytogenetic Location: chr10 : q23.33 - q23.33
GP mRNA Boundary: chr10 : 96522463 - 96612671
GP Gene Boundary: chr10 : 96512463 - 96615671
Strand: plus
The mRNA boundaries are calculated using the gene's default feature set from NCBI, mapped onto the UCSC Golden Path. PharmGKB sets gene boundaries by expanding the mRNA boundaries by no less than 10,000 bases upstream (5') and 3,000 bases downstream (3') to allow for potential regulatory regions.

Introduction
The cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily C, polypeptide 19 (CYP2C19) gene is located within a cluster of cytochrome P450 genes (Centromere-CYP2C18-CYP2C19-CYP2C9-CYP2C8-Telomere) on chromosome 10q23.33. The CYP2C19 enzyme contributes to the metabolism of a large number of clinically relevant drugs and drug classes such as antidepressants [Article:15199661], benzodiazepines [Article:8148870], mephenytoin [Article:8195181], proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) [Article:15258107], and the antiplatelet prodrug clopidogrel [Article:16772608]. Like other CYP450 genes, inherited genetic variation in CYP2C19 and its variable hepatic expression contributes to interindividual phenotypic variability in CYP2C19-substrate metabolism. The CYP2C19 "poor metabolism" phenotype was initially discovered by studies on impaired mephenytoin metabolism and the major molecular defect responsible for the trait is the CYP2C19*2 (c.681G>A; rs4244285) loss-of-function allele [Article:8195181]. CYP2C19 genotype has since been shown to affect the metabolism of several drugs and clinical CYP2C19 genetic testing is currently available [Article:21716271, 21412232].

Expression
CYP2C19 is predominantly expressed in the liver and, to a lesser extent, in the small intestine [Article:10487415]. Constitutive expression of CYP2C19 is largely mediated by hepatic nuclear factors 4 alpha (HNF4alpha, HNF4A) and 3 gamma (HNF3gamma, FOXA3) [Article:17827783, 17576804, 15130783], and transcriptional activation is mediated by the drug responsive nuclear receptors CAR (NR1I3), PXR (NR1I2), and GRalpha (NR3C1) [Article:12869636, 11181490], suggesting regulation by endogenous hormones and by drugs such as rifampicin [Article:2223426, 20086032]. In addition to rifampicin, human CYP2C19 can be induced by ritonavir, nelfinavir, hyperforin, St. John's wort, dexamethasone, and artemisinin [Article:19702536]. In vitro expression studies have recently shown that the GATA-4 (GATA4) transcription factor also upregulates CYP2C19 transcriptional activity by binding to two predicted GATA-specific promoter elements [Article:20206639]. Reduced CYP2C19 activity among women using steroid oral contraceptives results from transcriptional down-regulation of CYP2C19 expression through binding of ligand-activated estrogen receptor alpha to a specific ERE consensus half-site in the CYP2C19 promoter [Article:20675569].

Certain selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs; e.g., fluoxetine, fluvoxamine) [Article:18691982, 8880055] and PPIs (e.g. omeprazole, and lansoprazole) [Article:11309556, 9433390, 9224780] have an inhibitory effect on CYP2C19, which may cause drug-drug interactions with co-administered CYP2C19-metabolized drugs. For example, early studies suggested that omeprazole (a common PPI) diminished the pharmacodynamic antiplatelet effects of clopidogrel and increased corresponding cardiovascular risks [Article:19258584, 18206732]. However, it is currently not clear if identified changes in ex vivo platelet aggregation due to concomitant omeprazole and clopidogrel administration translates into clinically meaningful outcome differences (for review see [Article:21126648]).

Clinical CYP2C19 Pharmacogenetic Testing
Although a number of genotyping technologies can be used to interrogate variant CYP2C19 alleles in Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA)-approved laboratories, two genotyping platforms have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) at the time of this writing: the AmpliChip‚® CYP450 Test (Roche Molecular Systems, Inc., Pleasanton, CA) that interrogates CYP2C19*2 and *3 (plus CYP2D6 variant alleles) and the Infiniti‚® CYP2C19 Assay (AutoGenomics, Inc., Vista, CA) that interrogates CYP2C19*2, *3, and *17. For test interpretation and clopidogrel dosing suggestions, see the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) guidelines for CYP2C19 genotype and clopidogrel therapy [Article:21716271]. Additionally, a recent clinical pharmacogenetics practice review provides dosing guidelines for clopidogrel and other CYP2C19-metabolized drugs [Article:21412232] and CYP2C19/CYP2D6 genotype-based antidepressant dosing recommendations have been previously reported [Article:11531654].

Citation PharmGKB summary: very important pharmacogene information for cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily C, polypeptide 19. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Scott Stuart A, Sangkuhl Katrin, Shuldiner Alan R, Hulot Jean-Sébastien, Thorn Caroline F, Altman Russ B, Klein Teri E. PubMed
History

Submitted by Jason Robarge, Rebecca Fletcher, Anne Nguyen (COBRA), Caroline F. Thorn

Updated by Scott SA, Sangkuhl K, Shuldiner AR, Hulot JS, Thorn CF

Variant Summaries rs12248560, rs4244285, rs4986893
Haplotype Summaries CYP2C19*3, CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*17
Drugs
Phenotypes Poor Metabolizer

Haplotype Overview

The Translational Pharmacogenetics Project (TPP) is a PGRN-led initiative with the goal to operationalize the work of CPIC by translating widely accepted actionable pharmacogenetics discoveries into real-world clinical practice. Download the TPP file for CYP2C19 here: CYP2C19 lookup table and CYP2C19 work flow document (updated 2 July 2014).

Haplotypes are derived from the Human Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Allele Nomenclature Database. The Human Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Allele Nomenclature Database states that nucleotide changes listed below are based on NCBI Reference Sequence NT_030059.13. Note that the nucleotide positions from the Human Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Allele Nomenclature Database do not directly match the given NCBI reference sequence. For questions about nucleotide positions, please contact the Human Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Allele Nomenclature Database directly, as they are the authoritative source on cytochrome P450 nomenclature.

PharmGKB has added some alleles below (e.g. the rows for *1 and *2), inserted for star alleles with subgroups (e.g. A, B etc). These rows reflect only the defining SNP for the star allele to accommodate how the star allele is referred to in the literature.

Source: PharmGKB

All alleles in the download file are on the positive chromosomal strand. PharmGKB considers the first haplotype listed in each table as the reference haplotype for that set.

PharmGKB Curated Pathways

Pathways created internally by PharmGKB based primarily on literature evidence.

  1. Atorvastatin/Lovastatin/Simvastatin Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Drug-specific representation of the candidate genes involved in transport, metabolism and clearance.
  1. Carbamazepine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Stylized liver cell depicting candidate genes involved in the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine.
  1. Citalopram Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Pharmacokinetics of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram.
  1. Clomipramine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Schematic representation of clomipramine metabolism in human liver.
  1. Clopidogrel Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Clopidogrel metabolism.
  1. Cyclophosphamide Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Model human liver cell showing genes involved in the metabolism of cyclophosphamide.
  1. Doxepin Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Stylized liver cell showing candidate genes involved in the metabolism of the tricyclic doxepin.
  1. Fluoxetine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of the candidate genes involved in the metabolism of fluoxetine.
  1. Fluvastatin Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Drug-specific representation of the candidate genes involved in transport, metabolism and clearance.
  1. Gefitinib Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of the candidate genes involved in the transportation and metabolism of gefitinib.
  1. Glucocorticoid Pathway - Transcription Regulation, Pharmacodynamics
    Model displaying genes which may be involved in the nuclear complex formed that regulates transcription in response to glucocorticoids.
  1. Ibuprofen Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Stylized diagram of metabolism and transport of ibuprofen in the liver and kidney.
  1. Imipramine/Desipramine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of the candidate genes involved in the metabolism of the tricyclic antidepressants imipramine and desipramine.
  1. Paroxetine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Genes involved in the metabolism of paroxetine and in the mechanism of action.
  1. Phenytoin Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Genes involved in the metabolism of phenytoin in the human liver cell.
  1. Platelet Aggregation Inhibitor Pathway, Pharmacodynamics
    Effects of antiplatelet drugs on platelet aggregation pathway.
  1. Proton Pump Inhibitor Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Omeprazole metabolism in the liver.
  1. Statin Pathway - Generalized, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of the superset of all genes involved in the transport, metabolism and clearance of statin class drugs.
  1. Tamoxifen Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Tamoxifen metabolism in the liver.
  1. Venlafaxine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Stylized cells depicting the metabolism and mechanism of action of venlafaxine.
  1. Warfarin Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of the candidate genes involved in transport, metabolism and clearance of warfarin.

External Pathways

Links to non-PharmGKB pathways.

  1. Xenobiotics - (Reactome via Pathway Interaction Database)
No related genes are available

Curated Information ?

Evidence Drug
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
3-cyano-7-ethoxycoumarin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
acenocoumarol
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
afatinib
amitriptyline
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
aspirin
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
atazanavir
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available PW
atorvastatin
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
axitinib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
bupropion
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
busulfan
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
carbamazepine
carisoprodol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
carvedilol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
celecoxib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
chloramphenicol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
cilostazol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
cimetidine
citalopram
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
clobazam
clomipramine
clopidogrel
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
clozapine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
crizotinib
cyclophosphamide
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
dabrafenib
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
dasatinib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
desipramine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
dexlansoprazole
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
dextromethorphan
No Dosing Guideline available DL CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
diazepam
doxepin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
doxorubicin
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
drospirenone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
duloxetine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
efavirenz
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
eltrombopag
DG No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
escitalopram
esomeprazole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
ethambutol
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ethinyl estradiol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
etravirine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
famotidine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
felbamate
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
fluconazole
fluoxetine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
fluvastatin
fluvoxamine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ginkgo biloba extract
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
hexobarbital
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
ibuprofen
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
icotinib
imipramine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
indomethacin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
isoniazid
ketoconazole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
labetalol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
lafutidine
lansoprazole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
leflunomide
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
letrozole
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
lomitapide
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
lovastatin
mephenytoin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
methadone
methylphenobarbital
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
metoprolol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
mirtazapine
moclobemide
modafinil
nelfinavir
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
nevirapine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
norethindrone
omeprazole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
oxcarbazepine
pantoprazole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available PW
paroxetine
phenobarbital
phenytoin
No Dosing Guideline available DL CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
prasugrel
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
prednisone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
primidone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
probenecid
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
progesterone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
proguanil
propranolol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
pyrazinamide
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
quinidine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
quinine
rabeprazole
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
regorafenib
rifampin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
risperidone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
rosuvastatin
DG No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
sertraline
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
simeprevir
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
simvastatin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
tacrolimus
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available PW
tamoxifen
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
teniposide
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ticagrelor
ticlopidine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
tolbutamide
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
tolterodine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
topiramate
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
tranylcypromine
DG No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
trimipramine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
troglitazone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
valproic acid
venlafaxine
voriconazole
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
vortioxetine
warfarin

Curated Information ?

Publications related to CYP2C19: 586

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Impact of Cytochrome P450 2C19 Polymorphisms on Citalopram/Escitalopram Exposure: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Clinical pharmacokinetics. 2014. Chang Ming, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Gene Variants in CYP2C19 are Associated with Altered In Vivo Bupropion Pharmacokinetics but not Bupropion Assisted Smoking Cessation Outcomes. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2014. Zhu Andy Z X, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Comparison of acid inhibition with standard dosages of proton pump inhibitors in relation to CYP2C19 genotype in Japanese. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Sugimoto Mitsushige, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Gene polymorphism of cytochrome P450 2C19*2 and clopidogrel resistance reflected by platelet function assays: a meta-analysis. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Hou Xiaowen, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Impact of age on serum concentrations of venlafaxine and escitalopram in different CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genotype subgroups. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Waade Ragnhild Birkeland, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2C19 variation, not citalopram dose nor serum level, is associated with QTc prolongation. Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England). 2014. Kumar Yingying, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic polymorphisms affect efficacy and adverse drug reactions of DMARDs in rheumatoid arthritis. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2014. Zhang Ling Ling, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Effect of polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of risperidone in healthy volunteers. Human psychopharmacology. 2014. Cabaleiro Teresa, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Voriconazole and atazanavir: a CYP2C19-dependent manageable drug-drug interaction. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Calcagno Andrea, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Functional characterization of 21 CYP2C19 allelic variants for clopidogrel 2-oxidation. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2014. Takahashi M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
The role of clinical parameters and of CYP2C19 G681 and CYP4F2 G1347A polymorphisms on platelet reactivity during dual antiplatelet therapy. Blood coagulation & fibrinolysis : an international journal in haemostasis and thrombosis. 2014. Tatarunas Vacis, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
The influence of the CYP2C19*10 allele on clopidogrel activation and CYP2C19*2 genotyping. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2014. Langaee Taimour Y, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Analysis of compound heterozygous CYP2C19 genotypes to determine cis and trans configurations. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Skierka Jennifer M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Development of a broad-based ADME panel for use in pharmacogenomic studies. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Brown Andrew Mk, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Personalized pharmacogenomics profiling using whole-genome sequencing. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Mizzi Clint, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics of antidepressant treatment in obsessive-compulsive disorder: an update and implications for clinicians. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Zai Gwyneth, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Resolution of a clinical AmpliChip CYP450 Test™ no call: discovery and characterization of novel CYP2D6*1 haplotypes. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Gaedigk Andrea, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Voriconazole plasma concentrations in immunocompromised pediatric patients vary by CYP2C19 diplotypes. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Hicks J Kevin, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Cytochrome P450 Gene Variants, Race, and Mortality Among Clopidogrel Treated Patients Following Acute Myocardial Infarction. Circulation. Cardiovascular genetics. 2014. Cresci Sharon, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Prioritizing genomic applications for action by level of evidence: a horizon-scanning method. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2014. Dotson W D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Lack of association between peri-procedural myocardial damage and CYP2C19 gene variant in elective percutaneous coronary intervention. Heart and vessels. 2014. Yoshimura Hiromi, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Effectiveness of clopidogrel dose escalation to normalize active metabolite exposure and antiplatelet effects in CYP2C19 poor metabolizers. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Horenstein Richard B, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
The Influence of Genetic Polymorphism of Cyp2c19 Isoenzyme on the Pharmacokinetics of Clopidogrel and Its Metabolites in Patients With Cardiovascular Diseases. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Karaźniewicz-Łada Marta, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Impact of CYP2C19 polymorphism on clinical outcome following coronary stenting is more important in non-diabetic than diabetic patients. Thrombosis research. 2014. Mizobe Michio, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Prevalence of CYP2C19 variant alleles and pharmacodynamic variability of aspirin and clopidogrel in Native Americans. American heart journal. 2014. Oestreich Julie H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Implementation of pharmacogenetics: The University of Maryland personalized anti-platelet pharmacogenetics program. American journal of medical genetics. Part C, Seminars in medical genetics. 2014. Shuldiner Alan R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PG4KDS: A model for the clinical implementation of pre-emptive pharmacogenetics. American journal of medical genetics. Part C, Seminars in medical genetics. 2014. Hoffman James M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Expansion of a PBPK model to predict disposition in pregnant women of drugs cleared via multiple CYP enzymes, including CYP2B6, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Ke Alice Ban, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2C19 polymorphisms and coronary heart disease risk factors synergistically impact clopidogrel response variety after percutaneous coronary intervention. Coronary artery disease. 2014. Liu Tao, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacoepidemiologic and in Vitro Evaluation of Potential Drug-Drug Interactions of Sulfonylureas with Fibrates and Statins. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Schelleman H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
CES1A -816C as a genetic marker to predict greater platelet clopidogrel response in patients with percutaneous coronary intervention. Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology. 2014. Zou Jian-Jun, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Positive Clinical Response to Clopidogrel is Independent of Paraoxonase 1 Q192R and CYP2C19 Genetic Variants. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Martínez-Quintana Efrén, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
The effects of CES1A2 A(-816)C and CYP2C19 loss-of-function polymorphisms on clopidogrel response variability among Chinese patients with coronary heart disease. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2014. Xie Cheng, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Understanding variability with voriconazole using a population pharmacokinetic approach: implications for optimal dosing. The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy. 2014. Dolton Michael J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association of genetic polymorphisms with warfarin dose requirements in Chinese patients. Genetic testing and molecular biomarkers. 2013. Liang Yundan, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
CYP 450 2C19 polymorphisms in Indian patients with coronary artery disease. Indian heart journal. 2014. Shetkar Sudhir S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Relationship between statin type and responsiveness to clopidogrel in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention: a subgroup analysis of the CILON-T trial. Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis. 2014. Suh Jung-Won, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
A pharmacogenetics-based warfarin maintenance dosing algorithm from northern chinese patients. PloS one. 2014. Chen Jinxing, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Thrombin-induced platelet-fibrin clot strength: Relation to high on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity, genotype, and post-percutaneous coronary intervention outcomes. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2013. Jeong Y-H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Clinically actionable genotypes among 10,000 patients with preemptive pharmacogenomic testing. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2013. Van Driest Sara L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Routine assessment of on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity and gene polymorphisms in predicting clinical outcome following drug-eluting stent implantation in patients with stable coronary artery disease. JACC. Cardiovascular interventions. 2013. Viviani Anselmi Chiara, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
The effect of CYP2C19 genotype on the time course of platelet aggregation inhibition after clopidogrel administration. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Kim Ho-Sook, et al. PubMed
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Genetic differences in cytochrome P450 enzymes and antidepressant treatment response. Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England). 2013. Hodgson Karen, et al. PubMed
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Effect of genetic variants GSTA1 and CYP39A1 and age on busulfan clearance in pediatric patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Ten Brink Marloes H, et al. PubMed
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Pregnancy and pharmacogenomics in the context of drug metabolism and response. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Helldén Anders, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome CYP2C19 polymorphism and risk of adverse clinical events in clopidogrel-treated patients: a meta-analysis based on 23,035 subjects. Archives of cardiovascular diseases. 2013. Mao Liu, et al. PubMed
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Personalized antiplatelet therapy according to CYP2C19 genotype after percutaneous coronary intervention: a randomized control trial. International journal of cardiology. 2013. Xie Xiang, et al. PubMed
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Impact of CYP2C19 Polymorphism on Platelet Function Tests and Coagulation and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention. Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis. 2013. Kaikita Koichi, et al. PubMed
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Sex differences in the effect of cytochrome P450 2C19 polymorphisms on the risk of diabetic retinopathy: a retrospective longitudinal study in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. Kajiwara Ayami, et al. PubMed
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Utility of integrated pharmacogenomic testing to support the treatment of major depressive disorder in a psychiatric outpatient setting. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. Hall-Flavin Daniel K, et al. PubMed
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The association of cytochrome P450 genetic polymorphisms with sulfolane formation and the efficacy of a busulfan-based conditioning regimen in pediatric patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2013. Uppugunduri C R S, et al. PubMed
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PON1 Q192R genotype influences clopidogrel responsiveness by relative platelet inhibition instead of on-treatment platelet reactivity. Thrombosis research. 2013. Li Xiaoqi, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 Poor Metabolizer Is Associated with Clinical Outcome of Clopidogrel Therapy in Acute Myocardial Infarction but Not Stable Angina. Circulation. Cardiovascular genetics. 2013. Kim Ho-Sook, et al. PubMed
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Inhibition of cytochrome p450 enzymes by the e- and z-isomers of norendoxifen. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2013. Liu Jinzhong, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic polymorphisms and response to escitalopram and venlafaxine over 8 weeks in major depression. Human psychopharmacology. 2013. Ng Chee, et al. PubMed
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The impact of CYP2C19 genotype on cardiovascular events and platelet reactivity in patients with coronary artery disease receiving clopidogrel. International journal of cardiology. 2013. Tousoulis Dimitris, et al. PubMed
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Novel CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 variants identified in a patient with adverse reactions towards venlafaxine monotherapy and dual therapy with nortriptyline and fluoxetine. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. Chua Eng Wee, et al. PubMed
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Racial disparity with on-treatment platelet reactivity in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. American heart journal. 2013. Pendyala Lakshmana K, et al. PubMed
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Estimation of CYP2D6*10 genotypes on citalopram disposition in Chinese subjects by population pharmacokinetic assay. Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. 2013. Chen B, et al. PubMed
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Impact of the CYP2C19*17 polymorphism on the clinical outcome of clopidogrel therapy in Asian patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. Park Mahn-Won, et al. PubMed
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Effects of polymorphisms in ABCG2, SLCO1B1, SLC10A1 and CYP2C9/19 on plasma concentrations of rosuvastatin and lipid response in Chinese patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Lee Hon-Kit, et al. PubMed
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Correlation of CYP2C19 Phenotype With Voriconazole Plasma Concentration in Children. Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology. 2013. Narita Atsushi, et al. PubMed
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Genetic determinants of high on-treatment platelet reactivity in clopidogrel treated Chinese patients. Thrombosis research. 2013. Zhang Lanning, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP2C19*2 and *3 loss-of-function alleles on the pharmacodynamic effects of standard- and high-dose clopidogrel in East Asians undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: the results of the ACCEL-DOUBLE-2N3 study. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2013. Jeong Y-H, et al. PubMed
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The CYP2C19*17 Variant is not Independently Associated with Clopidogrel Response. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2013. Lewis Jp, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 polymorphisms and antiplatelet effects of clopidogrel in acute ischemic stroke in China. Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation. 2013. Jia Dong-mei, et al. PubMed
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Impact of ABCC3/MRP3 -211C/T polymorphism on clopidogrel responsiveness in patients with percutaneous coronary intervention. Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology. 2013. Zou Jian-Jun, et al. PubMed
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Clinical Implementation of Pharmacogenetics: More than One Gene at a Time. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2013. Johnson J A, et al. PubMed
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Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) guidelines for cytochrome P450-2C19 (CYP2C19) genotype and clopidogrel therapy: 2013 Update. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2013. Scott Stuart A, et al. PubMed
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Challenges in pharmacogenetics. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Cascorbi Ingolf, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacokinetic model incorporating mechanism-based inactivation of CYP2D6 can explain both non-linear kinetics and drug interactions of paroxetine. International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2013. Mikami Akiko, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics of anti-platelet therapy: how much evidence is enough for clinical implementation?. Journal of human genetics. 2013. Perry Christina G, et al. PubMed
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Phenobarbital-induced severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions are associated with CYP2C19*2 in Thai children. Pediatric allergy and immunology : official publication of the European Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. 2013. Manuyakorn Wiparat, et al. PubMed
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Impact of CYP2C9 polymorphisms on the vulnerability to pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions during acenocoumarol treatment. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Gschwind Liliane, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 genotype has a major influence on labetalol pharmacokinetics in healthy male Chinese subjects. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Chan Sze Wa, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP2C19 loss-of-function variants on the antiplatelet effects and cardiovascular events in clopidogrel-treated Chinese patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Zou Jian-Jun, et al. PubMed
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Anti-Parkinson's disease drugs and pharmacogenetic considerations. Expert opinion on drug metabolism & toxicology. 2013. Agúndez José A G, et al. PubMed
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Besides CYP2C19, PON1 genetic variant influences post-clopidogrel platelet reactivity in Chinese patients. International journal of cardiology. 2013. Wu Hongyi, et al. PubMed
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Effect of CYP2C19*2 and *17 genetic variants on platelet response to clopidogrel and prasugrel maintenance dose and relation to bleeding complications. The American journal of cardiology. 2013. Grosdidier Charlotte, et al. PubMed
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Association of CYP2C19 Polymorphisms and Lansoprazole-Associated Respiratory Adverse Effects in Children. The Journal of pediatrics. 2013. Lima John J, et al. PubMed
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Efavirenz-mediated induction of omeprazole metabolism is CYP2C19 genotype dependent. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2013. Michaud V, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 gene variants on antidepressant response in obsessive-compulsive disorder. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2013. Brandl E J, et al. PubMed
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Effects of coexisting polymorphisms of CYP2C19 and P2Y12 on clopidogrel responsiveness and clinical outcome in patients with acute coronary syndromes undergoing stent-based coronary intervention. Chinese medical journal. 2013. Tang Xiao-Fang, et al. PubMed
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Relationship Between CYP2C19 Loss-of-Function Polymorphism and Platelet Reactivities With Clopidogrel Treatment in Japanese Patients Undergoing Coronary Stent Implantation. Circulation journal : official journal of the Japanese Circulation Society. 2013. Nakata Tomoyuki, et al. PubMed
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Relationship Between CYP2C19 Loss-of-Function Polymorphism and Platelet Reactivities With Clopidogrel Treatment in Japanese Patients Undergoing Coronary Stent Implantation. Circulation journal : official journal of the Japanese Circulation Society. 2013. Nakata Tomoyuki, et al. PubMed
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Clopidogrel and warfarin pharmacogenetic tests: what is the evidence for use in clinical practice?. Current opinion in cardiology. 2013. Shahin Mohamed H A, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 polymorphism and antiplatelet effects of clopidogrel in Chinese stroke patients. Die Pharmazie. 2013. Yang Jie, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C19 influences the response to clopidogrel in ischemic heart disease patients in the South Indian Tamilian population. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Subraja K, et al. PubMed
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Responsiveness to low-dose warfarin associated with genetic variants of VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP4F2 in an Indonesian population. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Rusdiana T, et al. PubMed
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Spaced administration of PA32540 and clopidogrel results in greater platelet inhibition than synchronous administration of enteric-coated aspirin and enteric-coated omeprazole and clopidogrel. American heart journal. 2013. Gurbel Paul A, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19*17 gain-of-function polymorphism is associated with peptic ulcer disease. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2013. Musumba C O, et al. PubMed
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Mutational analysis clopidogrel resistance and platelet function in patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting. Genomics. 2013. Correll Mick, et al. PubMed
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High-dose atorvastatin on the pharmacodynamic effects of double-dose clopidogrel in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions: The ACHIDO (Atorvastatin and Clopidogrel HIgh DOse in stable patients with residual high platelet activity) study. JACC. Cardiovascular interventions. 2013. Leoncini Mario, et al. PubMed
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Relationship of CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*3 Gene Polymorphism with Clopidogrel Response Variability and Recurrent Cardiovascular Events in Chinese Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention. Pharmacology. 2013. Liu Yamin, et al. PubMed
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Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium Guideline for CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 Genotypes and Dosing of Tricyclic Antidepressants. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2013. Hicks J K, et al. PubMed
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Clinical pharmacogenomics: opportunities and challenges at point of care. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2013. Scott S A. PubMed
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Amlodipine - Not a Significant Contributor to Clopidogrel Non-Response?. Heart (British Cardiac Society). 2013. Kreutz Rolf P, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics-based population pharmacokinetic analysis of etravirine in HIV-1 infected individuals. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. Lubomirov Rubin, et al. PubMed
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Role of pharmacogenetics in busulfan/cyclophosphamide conditioning therapy prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Hassan Moustapha, et al. PubMed
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Cardiovascular risk among patients on clopidogrel anti-platelet therapy after placement of drug-eluting stents is modified by genetic variants in both the CYP2C19 and ABCB1 genes. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2013. Carlquist J F, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 3A4*22, PPAR-alpha, and ARNT polymorphisms and clopidogrel response. Clinical pharmacology : advances and applications. 2013. Kreutz Rolf P, et al. PubMed
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Effect of the CYP2C19 genotype on the pharmacokinetics of icotinib in healthy male volunteers. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2012. Ruan Can-Jun, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19*2 and *17 alleles have a significant impact on platelet response and bleeding risk in patients treated with prasugrel after acute coronary syndrome. JACC. Cardiovascular interventions. 2012. Cuisset Thomas, et al. PubMed
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Is (+)-[(13)C]-pantoprazole better than (±)-[(13)C]-pantoprazole for the breath test to evaluate CYP2C19 enzyme activity?. Journal of breath research. 2012. Thacker David L, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism in the brain. Journal of psychiatry & neuroscience : JPN. 2012. Miksys Sharon, et al. PubMed
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Human genetic variation of CYP450 superfamily: analysis of functional diversity in worldwide populations. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Polimanti Renato, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics and beyond: variability of voriconazole plasma levels in a patient with primary immunodeficiency. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Autmizguine Julie, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 polymorphisms in the Thai population and the clinical response to clopidogrel in patients with atherothrombotic-risk factors. Pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine. 2013. Sukasem Chonlaphat, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics and cardiovascular disease--implications for personalized medicine. Pharmacological reviews. 2013. Johnson Julie A, et al. PubMed
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Effects of VerifyNow P2Y12 test and CYP2C19*2 testing on clinical outcomes of patients with cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Platelets. 2013. Yamaguchi Yusuke, et al. PubMed
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Effects of CYP2C19 loss-of-function variants on the eradication of H. pylori infection in patients treated with proton pump inhibitor-based triple therapy regimens: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. PloS one. 2013. Tang Hui-Lin, et al. PubMed
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Indirect estimation of the comparative treatment effect in pharmacogenomic subgroups. PloS one. 2013. Sorich Michael J, et al. PubMed
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Increased Hospital Stay and Allograft Disfunction in Renal Transplanted Patients with CYP2C19 AA Variant in SNP RS4244285. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2012. Boso Virginia, et al. PubMed
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Clarifying the importance of CYP2C19 and PON1 in the mechanism of clopidogrel bioactivation and in vivo antiplatelet response. European heart journal. 2012. Gong Inna Y, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 genetics in fatal carisoprodol intoxications. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2012. Høiseth Gudrun, et al. PubMed
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Effect of the CYP2C19*2 and *3 genotypes, ABCB1 C3435T and PON1 Q192R alleles on the pharmacodynamics and adverse clinical events of clopidogrel in Chinese people after percutaneous coronary intervention. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2012. Tang Xiao-Fang, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics in clinical practice and drug development. Nature biotechnology. 2012. Harper Andrew R, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphisms and novel allelic variants of CYP2C19 in the Chinese Han population. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Hu Li-Ming, et al. PubMed
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Linkage disequilibrium between the CYP2C19*17 allele and other clinically important CYP2C allelic variants in a healthy Scandinavian population. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2012. Pedersen Rasmus Steen, et al. PubMed
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Similarity in recombination rate and linkage disequilibrium at CYP2C and CYP2D cytochrome P450 gene regions among Europeans indicates signs of selection and no advantage of using tagSNPs in population isolates. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. Pimenoff Ville N, et al. PubMed
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Interpreting Pharmacogenetic Data in the Developing Neonate: The Challenge of Hitting a Moving Target. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2012. Leeder J S, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 polymorphism affects single-dose pharmacokinetics of oral pantoprazole in healthy volunteers. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2012. Gawrońska-Szklarz Barbara, et al. PubMed
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CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms and zolpidem metabolism in the Chinese Han population: A pilot study. Forensic science international. 2012. Shen Min, et al. PubMed
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Effects of CYP2C19 variant alleles on postclopidogrel platelet reactivity and clinical outcomes in an actual clinical setting in China. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. Wu Hongyi, et al. PubMed
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The paraoxonase-1 pathway is not a major bioactivation pathway of clopidogrel in vitro. British journal of pharmacology. 2012. Ancrenaz V, et al. PubMed
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Ability of rabeprazole to prevent gastric mucosal damage from clopidogrel and low doses of aspirin depends on CYP2C19 genotype. Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association. 2012. Uotani Takahiro, et al. PubMed
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The AmpliChip® CYP450 test and response to treatment in schizophrenia and obsessive compulsive disorder: a pilot study and focus on cases with abnormal CYP2D6 drug metabolism. Genetic testing and molecular biomarkers. 2012. Müller Daniel J, et al. PubMed
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Value of platelet pharmacogenetics in common clinical practice of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. International journal of cardiology. 2012. Verschuren Jeffrey J W, et al. PubMed
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Meta-analysis of cytochrome P450 2C19 polymorphism and risk of adverse clinical outcomes among coronary artery disease patients of different ethnic groups treated with clopidogrel. The American journal of cardiology. 2012. Jang Jae-Sik, et al. PubMed
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Protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) mediated platelet aggregation is dependant on clopidogrel response. Thrombosis research. 2012. Kreutz Rolf P, et al. PubMed
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Operational implementation of prospective genotyping for personalized medicine: the design of the Vanderbilt PREDICT project. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2012. Pulley J M, et al. PubMed
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The Dual Role of Pharmacogenetics in HIV Treatment: Mutations and Polymorphisms Regulating Antiretroviral Drug Resistance and Disposition. Pharmacological reviews. 2012. Michaud Veronique, et al. PubMed
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Systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between cytochrome P450 2C19 genotype and bleeding. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2012. Sorich Michael J, et al. PubMed
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Factors associated with the failure of clopidogrel dose-adjustment according to platelet reactivity monitoring to optimize P2Y12-ADP receptor blockade. Thrombosis research. 2012. Bonello Laurent, et al. PubMed
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Effects of cytochrome P450 (CYP)2C19 polymorphisms on pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital in neonates and infants with seizures. Archives of disease in childhood. 2012. Lee Soon Min, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of clopidogrel: comparison between a standard and a rapid genetic testing. Genetic testing and molecular biomarkers. 2012. Saracini Claudia, et al. PubMed
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PharmGKB summary: phenytoin pathway. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. Thorn Caroline F, et al. PubMed
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Effects of CYP4F2 gene polymorphisms on warfarin clearance and sensitivity in Korean patients with mechanical cardiac valves. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2012. Lee Kyung-Eun, et al. PubMed
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Relationship between cytochrome P450 2C19*17 genotype distribution, platelet aggregation and bleeding risk in patients with blood stasis syndrome of coronary artery disease treated with clopidogrel. Zhong xi yi jie he xue bao = Journal of Chinese integrative medicine. 2012. Dai Ze-long, et al. PubMed
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Clopidogrel: a case for indication-specific pharmacogenetics. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2012. Johnson J A, et al. PubMed
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Evaluation of lansoprazole as a probe for assessing cytochrome P450 2C19 activity and genotype-phenotype correlation in childhood. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2012. Gumus Ersin, et al. PubMed
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Meta-analysis of contribution of genetic polymorphisms in drug-metabolizing enzymes or transporters to axitinib pharmacokinetics. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2012. Brennan Meghan, et al. PubMed
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Influence of genetic polymorphisms on the effect of high- and standard-dose clopidogrel after percutaneous coronary intervention: the GIFT (Genotype Information and Functional Testing) study. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2012. Price Matthew J, et al. PubMed
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Point-of-care genetic testing for personalisation of antiplatelet treatment (RAPID GENE): a prospective, randomised, proof-of-concept trial. Lancet. 2012. Roberts Jason D, et al. PubMed
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Neurological toxicity after phenytoin infusion in a pediatric patient with epilepsy: influence of CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and ABCB1 genetic polymorphisms. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2012. Dorado P, et al. PubMed
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A comparison of the acid-inhibitory effects of esomeprazole and rabeprazole in relation to pharmacokinetics and CYP2C19 polymorphism. Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics. 2012. Hunfeld N G, et al. PubMed
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The impact of genetic polymorphisms of P2Y12, CYP3A5 and CYP2C19 on clopidogrel response variability in Iranian patients. Biochemical pharmacology. 2012. Namazi Soha, et al. PubMed
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Interaction analysis between genetic polymorphisms and pharmacodynamic effect in patients treated with adjunctive cilostazol to dual antiplatelet therapy: results of the ACCEL-TRIPLE (Accelerated Platelet Inhibition by Triple Antiplatelet Therapy According to Gene Polymorphism) study. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2012. Kim In-Suk, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 genotype and cardiovascular events. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. 2012. Shuldiner Alan R, et al. PubMed
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Cardiovascular pharmacogenomics: current status and future directions-report of a national heart, lung, and blood institute working group. Journal of the American Heart Association. 2012. Musunuru Kiran, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 and PON1 polymorphisms regulating clopidogrel bioactivation in Chinese, Malay and Indian subjects. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Chan Mark Y, et al. PubMed
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Multi-ethnic distribution of clinically relevant CYP2C genotypes and haplotypes. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2012. Martis S, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19*2 and other genetic variants affecting platelet response to clopidogrel in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Thrombosis research. 2012. Kassimis George, et al. PubMed
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Induction of CYP2C19 and CYP3A activity following repeated administration of efavirenz in healthy volunteers. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2012. Michaud V, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 genotype predicts steady state escitalopram concentration in GENDEP. Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England). 2012. Huezo-Diaz Patricia, et al. PubMed
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Predicting clopidogrel response using DNA samples linked to an electronic health record. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2012. Delaney J T, et al. PubMed
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The gain-of-function variant allele CYP2C19*17: a double-edged sword between thrombosis and bleeding in clopidogrel-treated patients. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2012. Li Y, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics following maintenance doses of prasugrel and clopidogrel in Chinese carriers of CYP2C19 variants. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2012. Kelly Ronan P, et al. PubMed
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The population pharmacokinetics of R- and S-warfarin: effect of genetic and clinical factors. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2012. Lane Steven, et al. PubMed
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Association of cytochrome P450 2C19*2 polymorphism with clopidogrel response variability and cardiovascular events in Koreans treated with drug-eluting stents. Heart (British Cardiac Society). 2012. Oh Il-Young, et al. PubMed
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The influence of CYP2C19*2 and *17 on on-treatment platelet reactivity and bleeding events in patients undergoing elective coronary stenting. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. Harmsze Ankie M, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of drugs withdrawn from the market. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Zhang Wei, et al. PubMed
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Comparison of pharmacokinetics and safety of voriconazole intravenous-to-oral switch in immunocompromised adolescents and healthy adults. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 2011. Driscoll Timothy A, et al. PubMed
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Comparison of pharmacokinetics and safety of voriconazole intravenous-to-oral switch in immunocompromised children and healthy adults. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 2011. Driscoll Timothy A, et al. PubMed
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Effect of CYP2C19*2 and *3 loss-of-function alleles on platelet reactivity and adverse clinical events in East Asian acute myocardial infarction survivors treated with clopidogrel and aspirin. Circulation. Cardiovascular interventions. 2011. Jeong Young-Hoon, et al. PubMed
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Influence of paraoxonase-1 Q192R and cytochrome P450 2C19 polymorphisms on clopidogrel response. Clinical pharmacology : advances and applications. 2012. Kreutz Rolf P, et al. PubMed
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Whole genome amplification of DNA for genotyping pharmacogenetics candidate genes. Frontiers in pharmacology. 2012. Philips Santosh, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 genotype, clopidogrel metabolism, platelet function, and cardiovascular events: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. 2011. Holmes Michael V, et al. PubMed
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Antiplatelet effects of prasugrel vs. double clopidogrel in patients on hemodialysis and with high on-treatment platelet reactivity. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2011. Alexopoulos D, et al. PubMed
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Genetic variants in CYP (-1A2, -2C9, -2C19, -3A4 and -3A5), VKORC1 and ABCB1 genes in a black South African population: a window into diversity. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Dandara Collet, et al. PubMed
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High on-treatment platelet reactivity by ADP and increased risk of MACE in good clopidogrel metabolizers. Platelets. 2012. Marcucci Rossella, et al. PubMed
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Paraoxonase-1 is not a major determinant of stent thrombosis in a Taiwanese population. PloS one. 2012. Chen Dong-Yi, et al. PubMed
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Dosing Clopidogrel Based on CYP2C19 Genotype and the Effect on Platelet Reactivity in Patients With Stable Cardiovascular Disease. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. 2011. Mega Jessica L, et al. PubMed
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Integration of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination genotyping data into a population pharmacokinetic analysis of nevirapine. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Lehr Thorsten, et al. PubMed
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Evaluation of a microarray-based genotyping assay for the rapid detection of cytochrome P450 2C19 *2 and *3 polymorphisms from whole blood using nanoparticle probes. American journal of clinical pathology. 2011. Buchan Blake W, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 But Not PON1 Genetic Variants Influence Clopidogrel Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Clinical Efficacy in Post-Myocardial Infarction Patients. Circulation. Cardiovascular interventions. 2011. Hulot Jean-Sébastien, et al. PubMed
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Effect of paraoxonase-1 polymorphism on clinical outcomes in patients treated with clopidogrel after an acute myocardial infarction. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Simon T, et al. PubMed
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Clinical, angiographic, and genetic factors associated with early coronary stent thrombosis. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. 2011. Cayla Guillaume, et al. PubMed
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PharmGKB summary: very important pharmacogene information for cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily C, polypeptide 19. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Scott Stuart A, et al. PubMed
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SULT1A1, CYP2C19 and disease-free survival in early breast cancer patients receiving tamoxifen. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Moyer Ann M, et al. PubMed
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Enantiomers of naringenin as pleiotropic, stereoselective inhibitors of cytochrome P450 isoforms. Chirality. 2011. Lu Wenjie Jessie, et al. PubMed
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Stereoselective pharmacokinetics of stable isotope (+/-)-[(13) C]-pantoprazole: Implications for a rapid screening phenotype test of CYP2C19 activity. Chirality. 2011. Thacker David L, et al. PubMed
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Impact of genetic variants on post-clopidogrel platelet reactivity in patients after elective percutaneous coronary intervention. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Rideg Orsolya, et al. PubMed
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Possible role of CYP2C9 & CYP2C19 single nucleotide polymorphisms in drug refractory epilepsy. The Indian journal of medical research. 2011. Lakhan Ram, et al. PubMed
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Evaluation of the effects of 18 non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms of CYP450 2C19 on in vitro drug inhibition potential by a fluorescence-based high-throughput assay. Xenobiotica; the fate of foreign compounds in biological systems. 2011. Wang Huijuan, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 2C19 polymorphism is associated with reduced clopidogrel response in cerebrovascular disease. Yonsei medical journal. 2011. Lee Jun-Beom, et al. PubMed
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The tamoxifen metabolite norendoxifen is a potent and selective inhibitor of aromatase (CYP19) and a potential lead compound for novel therapeutic agents. Breast cancer research and treatment. 2011. Lu Wenjie Jessie, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphisms and the impact of a higher clopidogrel dose regimen on active metabolite exposure and antiplatelet response in healthy subjects. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Simon T, et al. PubMed
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Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) Gene Variants Are Not Associated With Clopidogrel Response. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Lewis J P, et al. PubMed
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Variability in on-treatment platelet reactivity explained by CYP2C19*2 genotype is modest in clopidogrel pretreated patients undergoing coronary stenting. Heart (British Cardiac Society). 2011. Bouman Heleen J, et al. PubMed
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The CYP2C19*2 genotype predicts tamoxifen treatment outcome in advanced breast cancer patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. van Schaik Ron H N, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 Polymorphisms and their Relationship with Premature Ovarian Failure in Premenopausal Women with Breast Cancer Receiving Doxorubicin and Cyclophosphamide. The breast journal. 2011. Wessels Alette M, et al. PubMed
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Prospective-retrospective biomarker analysis for regulatory consideration: white paper from the industry pharmacogenomics working group. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Patterson Scott D, et al. PubMed
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Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium Guidelines for Cytochrome P450-2C19 (CYP2C19) Genotype and Clopidogrel Therapy. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Scott S A, et al. PubMed
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Carrying one or two reduced-function CYP2C19 alleles is associated with an increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events in people undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention and treated with clopidogrel. Evidence-based medicine. 2011. Ramirez Andrea H, et al. PubMed
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Carvedilol pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in relation to CYP2D6 and ADRB pharmacogenetics. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Sehrt Daniel, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics of the triazole antifungal agent voriconazole. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Mikus Gerd, et al. PubMed
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Evaluation of a CYP2C19 genotype panel on the GenMark eSensor® platform and the comparison to the Autogenomics Infiniti™ and Luminex CYP2C19 panels. Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry. 2011. Lee Christine C, et al. PubMed
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Activity Levels of Tamoxifen Metabolites at the Estrogen Receptor and the Impact of Genetic Polymorphisms of Phase I and II Enzymes on Their Concentration Levels in Plasma. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Mürdter T E, et al. PubMed
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Evaluation of the effects of 20 nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms of CYP2C19 on S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation and omeprazole 5'-hydroxylation. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2011. Wang Huijuan, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics: the genetics of variable drug responses. Circulation. 2011. Roden Dan M, et al. PubMed
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No association of paraoxonase-1 Q192R genotypes with platelet response to clopidogrel and risk of stent thrombosis after coronary stenting. European heart journal. 2011. Sibbing Dirk, et al. PubMed
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Cilostazol attenuates on-treatment platelet reactivity in patients with CYP2C19 loss of function alleles receiving dual antiplatelet therapy: a genetic substudy of the CILON-T randomised controlled trial. Heart (British Cardiac Society). 2011. Park Kyung Woo, et al. PubMed
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Platelet inhibition by adjunctive cilostazol versus high maintenance-dose clopidogrel in patients with acute myocardial infarction according to cytochrome P450 2C19 genotype. JACC. Cardiovascular interventions. 2011. Kim In-Suk, et al. PubMed
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Clinical, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacogenetic determinants of clopidogrel resistance in Korean patients with acute coronary syndrome. The Korean journal of laboratory medicine. 2011. Park Kyoung-Jin, et al. PubMed
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The relation between CYP2C19 genotype and phenotype in stented patients on maintenance dual antiplatelet therapy. American heart journal. 2011. Gurbel Paul A, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics: From Bench to Byte- An Update of Guidelines. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Swen J J, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics of the RNA world: structural RNA polymorphisms in drug therapy. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Sadee W, et al. PubMed
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Effect of cytochrome P450 2C19 genotype on voriconazole exposure in cystic fibrosis lung transplant patients. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2011. Berge Maud, et al. PubMed
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Impact of CYP2C19 polymorphism on residual platelet reactivity in patients with coronary heart disease during antiplatelet therapy. Journal of cardiology. 2011. Yamamoto Koichiro, et al. PubMed
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Effect of CYP2C19 Polymorphism on the Pharmacokinetics of Voriconazole After Single and Multiple Doses in Healthy Volunteers. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2011. Lee Seunghwan, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 2C19 polymorphism is associated with poor clinical outcomes in coronary artery disease patients treated with clopidogrel. Molecular biology reports. 2011. Jin Bo, et al. PubMed
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Role of omeprazole dosage and cytochrome P450 2C19 genotype in patients receiving omeprazole-amoxicillin dual therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication. Pharmacotherapy. 2011. Yang Jyh-Chin, et al. PubMed
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Genomics and drug response. The New England journal of medicine. 2011. Wang Liewei, et al. PubMed
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Identification of CYP2C19*4B: pharmacogenetic implications for drug metabolism including clopidogrel responsiveness. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2011. Scott S A, et al. PubMed
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Differential Impacts of CYP2C19 Gene Polymorphisms on the Antiplatelet Effects of Clopidogrel and Ticlopidine. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Maeda A, et al. PubMed
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NAT2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2E1 genetic polymorphisms in anti-TB drug-induced maculopapular eruption. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2011. Kim Sang-Heon, et al. PubMed
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Global patterns of genetic diversity and signals of natural selection for human ADME genes. Human molecular genetics. 2011. Li Jing, et al. PubMed
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Genetic substudy of the PLATO trial. Lancet. 2011. Hulot Jean-Sébastien, et al. PubMed
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Modulators of very low voriconazole concentrations in routine therapeutic drug monitoring. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2011. Hassan Arwa, et al. PubMed
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Clinical Events as a Function of Proton Pump Inhibitor Use, Clopidogrel Use, and Cytochrome P450 2C19 Genotype in a Large Nationwide Cohort of Acute Myocardial Infarction: Results From the French Registry of Acute ST-Elevation and Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (FAST-MI) Registry. Circulation. 2011. Simon Tabassome, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics and Clopidogrel Response in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Interventions. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Beitelshees A L, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 variation and citalopram response. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Mrazek David A, et al. PubMed
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Practical recommendations for pharmacogenomics-based prescription: 2010 ESF-UB Conference on Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Becquemont Laurent, et al. PubMed
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The cytochrome 2C19*2 and *3 alleles attenuate response to clopidogrel similarly in East Asian patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention. Thrombosis research. 2011. Hwang Seok-Jae, et al. PubMed
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Impact of cytochrome P450 2C19*2 polymorphism on intra-stent thrombus after drug-eluting stent implantation in Japanese patients receiving clopidogrel. Circulation journal : official journal of the Japanese Circulation Society. 2010. Sawada Takahiro, et al. PubMed
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Breaking Barriers in the Genomics and Pharmacogenetics of Drug Addiction. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Ho M K, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C9*3 alleles are associated with stent thrombosis: a case-control study. European heart journal. 2010. Harmsze Ankie M, et al. PubMed
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Linkage disequilibrium between the CYP2C19*17 allele and wildtype CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 alleles: identification of CYP2C haplotypes in healthy Nordic populations. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2010. Pedersen Rasmus S, et al. PubMed
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The effect of cytochrome P2C19 and interleukin-1 polymorphisms on H. pylori eradication rate of 1-week triple therapy with omeprazole or rabeprazole, amoxycillin and clarithromycin in Chinese people. Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. 2010. Zhang L, et al. PubMed
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Global pharmacogenomics: Impact of population diversity on the distribution of polymorphisms in the CYP2C cluster among Brazilians. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Suarez-Kurtz G, et al. PubMed
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The influence of CYP 2C19*2 polymorphism on platelet function testing during single antiplatelet treatment with clopidogrel. Thrombosis journal. 2011. Pettersen Alf-Aage R, et al. PubMed
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Impact of CYP2C19 polymorphism and smoking on response to clopidogrel in patients with stable coronary artery disease. Chinese medical journal. 2010. Liu Xiao-Li, et al. PubMed
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Efficacy and tolerability of first-line triple therapy with levofloxacin and amoxicillin plus esomeprazole or rabeprazole for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection and the effect of CYP2C19 genotype: a 1-week, randomized, open-label study in Chinese adults. Clinical therapeutics. 2010. Pan Xiaolin, et al. PubMed
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Effects of erythromycin on voriconazole pharmacokinetics and association with CYP2C19 polymorphism. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2010. Shi Hui-Yan, et al. PubMed
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Pre-procedural platelet reactivity after clopidogrel loading in korean patients undergoing scheduled percutaneous coronary intervention. Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis. 2010. Kang Min-Kyung, et al. PubMed
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Clopidogrel loading dose adjustment according to platelet reactivity monitoring in patients carrying the 2C19*2 loss of function polymorphism. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2010. Bonello Laurent, et al. PubMed
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Systematic review of pharmacoeconomic studies of pharmacogenomic tests. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Beaulieu Mathieu, et al. PubMed
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Characterization of 107 genomic DNA reference materials for CYP2D6, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, VKORC1, and UGT1A1: a GeT-RM and Association for Molecular Pathology collaborative project. The Journal of molecular diagnostics : JMD. 2010. Pratt Victoria M, et al. PubMed
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Letter by Gurbel et al regarding article, "Cytochrome 2C19*17 allelic variant, platelet aggregation, bleeding events, and stent thrombosis in clopidogrel-treated patients with coronary stent placement". Circulation. 2010. Gurbel Paul A, et al. PubMed
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Impact of genetic polymorphisms and drug-drug interactions on clopidogrel and prasugrel response variability. Current drug metabolism. 2010. Ancrenaz V, et al. PubMed
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Pilot study of the antiplatelet effect of increased clopidogrel maintenance dosing and its relationship to CYP2C19 genotype in patients with high on-treatment reactivity. JACC. Cardiovascular interventions. 2010. Barker Colin M, et al. PubMed
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Clopidogrel and the reduced-function CYP2C19 genetic variant: a limited piece of the overall therapeutic puzzle. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. 2010. Fuster Valentin, et al. PubMed
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Reduced-function CYP2C19 genotype and risk of adverse clinical outcomes among patients treated with clopidogrel predominantly for PCI: a meta-analysis. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. 2010. Mega Jessica L, et al. PubMed
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Effect of CYP2C19 and ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms on outcomes of treatment with ticagrelor versus clopidogrel for acute coronary syndromes: a genetic substudy of the PLATO trial. Lancet. 2010. Wallentin Lars, et al. PubMed
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Genetic variants in ABCB1 and CYP2C19 and cardiovascular outcomes after treatment with clopidogrel and prasugrel in the TRITON-TIMI 38 trial: a pharmacogenetic analysis. Lancet. 2010. Mega Jessica L, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19*2 polymorphism is associated with increased survival in breast cancer patients using tamoxifen. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Ruiter Rikje, et al. PubMed
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Effects of CYP2C19 genotype on outcomes of clopidogrel treatment. The New England journal of medicine. 2010. Paré Guillaume, et al. PubMed
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Protective effect of the CYP2C19 *17 polymorphism with increased activation of clopidogrel on cardiovascular events. American heart journal. 2010. Tiroch Klaus A, et al. PubMed
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Association between CYP2C19 polymorphism and depressive symptoms. American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics. 2010. Sim Sarah C, et al. PubMed
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Clinically significant CYP2C inhibition by noscapine but not by glucosamine. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Rosenborg S, et al. PubMed
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High frequency of occurrence of CYP2D6 gene duplication/multiduplication indicating ultrarapid metabolism among suicide cases. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Zackrisson A L, et al. PubMed
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Responding to the clopidogrel warning by the US food and drug administration: real life is complicated. Circulation. 2010. Roden Dan M, et al. PubMed
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Rabeprazole can overcome the impact of CYP2C19 polymorphism on quadruple therapy. Helicobacter. 2010. Kuo Chao-Hung, et al. PubMed
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Isolated and interactive impact of common CYP2C19 genetic variants on the antiplatelet effect of chronic clopidogrel therapy. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2010. Sibbing D, et al. PubMed
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Prasugrel vs. clopidogrel for cytochrome P450 2C19-genotyped subgroups: integration of the TRITON-TIMI 38 trial data. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2010. Sorich M J, et al. PubMed
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Characterization of the genetic profile of CYP2C19 in two South African populations. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Drögemöller Britt I, et al. PubMed
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Carriage of cytochrome 2C19 polymorphism is associated with risk of high post-treatment platelet reactivity on high maintenance-dose clopidogrel of 150 mg/day: results of the ACCEL-DOUBLE (Accelerated Platelet Inhibition by a Double Dose of Clopidogrel According to Gene Polymorphism) study. JACC. Cardiovascular interventions. 2010. Jeong Young-Hoon, et al. PubMed
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ACCF/AHA clopidogrel clinical alert: approaches to the FDA "boxed warning": a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Task Force on clinical expert consensus documents and the American Heart Association endorsed by the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2010. Holmes David R, et al. PubMed
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Cardiovascular risk in clopidogrel-treated patients according to cytochrome P450 2C19*2 loss-of-function allele or proton pump inhibitor coadministration: a systematic meta-analysis. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2010. Hulot Jean-Sébastien, et al. PubMed
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Genotyping: one piece of the puzzle to personalize antiplatelet therapy. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2010. Gurbel Paul A, et al. PubMed
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Clopidogrel pathway. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Sangkuhl Katrin, et al. PubMed
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Genetic profile of patients with epilepsy on first-line antiepileptic drugs and potential directions for personalized treatment. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Grover Sandeep, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP2C19 on the relationship between pharmacokinetics and intragastric pH of omeprazole administered by successive intravenous infusions in Chinese healthy volunteers. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2010. Wang Yongqing, et al. PubMed
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The Influence of CYP2C19 Polymorphism on Eradication of Helicobacter pylori: A Prospective Randomized Study of Lansoprazole and Rabeprazole. Gut and liver. 2010. Lee Jeong Hoon, et al. PubMed
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Impact of cytochrome P450 2C19 loss-of-function polymorphism and of major demographic characteristics on residual platelet function after loading and maintenance treatment with clopidogrel in patients undergoing elective coronary stent placement. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2010. Hochholzer Willibald, et al. PubMed
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Platelet pharmacogenomics. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2010. Zuern C S, et al. PubMed
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Association between CYP2C19*17 and metabolism of amitriptyline, citalopram and clomipramine in Dutch hospitalized patients. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. de Vos A, et al. PubMed
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The CYP2C19*17 genotype is associated with lower imipramine plasma concentrations in a large group of depressed patients. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Schenk P W, et al. PubMed
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A comparison of the acid-inhibitory effects of esomeprazole and pantoprazole in relation to pharmacokinetics and CYP2C19 polymorphism. Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics. 2010. Hunfeld N G, et al. PubMed
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Contributions of human cytochrome P450 enzymes to glyburide metabolism. Biopharmaceutics & drug disposition. 2010. Zhou Lin, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of CYP2C19: functional and clinical implications of a new variant CYP2C19*17. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2010. Li-Wan-Po Alain, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome 2C19*17 allelic variant, platelet aggregation, bleeding events, and stent thrombosis in clopidogrel-treated patients with coronary stent placement. Circulation. 2010. Sibbing Dirk, et al. PubMed
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A Phenotype-Genotype Approach to Predicting CYP450 and P-Glycoprotein Drug Interactions With the Mixed Inhibitor/Inducer Tipranavir/Ritonavir. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Dumond J B, et al. PubMed
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Identification of the human cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the two oxidative steps in the bioactivation of clopidogrel to its pharmacologically active metabolite. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2010. Kazui Miho, et al. PubMed
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Impact of the CYP2C19*17 Allele on the Pharmacokinetics of Omeprazole and Pantoprazole in Children: Evidence for a Differential Effect. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2010. Kearns Gregory L, et al. PubMed
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Evaluation of the influence of sex and CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 polymorphisms in the disposition of citalopram. European journal of pharmacology. 2010. Fudio Salvador, et al. PubMed
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Relation of CYP2C19 loss-of-function polymorphism to the occurrence of stent thrombosis. Expert opinion on drug metabolism & toxicology. 2010. Giusti Betti, et al. PubMed
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Effect of age, weight, and CYP2C19 genotype on escitalopram exposure. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2010. Jin Yuyan, et al. PubMed
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Metabolism and disposition of the thienopyridine antiplatelet drugs ticlopidine, clopidogrel, and prasugrel in humans. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2010. Farid Nagy A, et al. PubMed
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Clinical assessment incorporating a personal genome. Lancet. 2010. Ashley Euan A, et al. PubMed
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The transcription factor GATA-4 regulates cytochrome P4502C19 gene expression. Life sciences. 2010. Mwinyi Jessica, et al. PubMed
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Besides CYP2C19*2, the variant allele CYP2C9*3 is associated with higher on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity in patients on dual antiplatelet therapy undergoing elective coronary stent implantation. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Harmsze Ankie, et al. PubMed
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Impact of genetic and acquired alteration in cytochrome P450 system on pharmacologic and clinical response to clopidogrel. Pharmacology & therapeutics. 2010. Ma Terry K W, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 enzymes influence metabolism of the antidepressant escitalopram and treatment response. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Tsai Ming-Hsien, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of cyclophosphamide and CYP2C19 polymorphism in Thai systemic lupus erythematosus. Rheumatology international. 2010. Ngamjanyaporn Pintip, et al. PubMed
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Influence of pharmacogenetics on response and toxicity in breast cancer patients treated with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide. British journal of cancer. 2010. Bray J, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 2C19(*)2 polymorphism and cardiovascular recurrences in patients taking clopidogrel: a meta-analysis. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Sofi F, et al. PubMed
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Efficacy of tamoxifen based on cytochrome P450 2D6, CYP2C19 and SULT1A1 genotype in the Italian Tamoxifen Prevention Trial. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Serrano D, et al. PubMed
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Alteration of pharmacokinetics of proguanil in healthy volunteers following concurrent administration of efavirenz. European journal of pharmaceutical sciences : official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2010. Soyinka Julius Olugbenga, et al. PubMed
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SNPs in genes coding for ROS metabolism and signalling in association with docetaxel clearance. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Edvardsen H, et al. PubMed
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Molecular genetics and epigenetics of the cytochrome P450 gene family and its relevance for cancer risk and treatment. Human genetics. 2010. Rodriguez-Antona Cristina, et al. PubMed
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Identification of the major human hepatic and placental enzymes responsible for the biotransformation of glyburide. Biochemical pharmacology. 2009. Zharikova Olga L, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacokinetics, metabolism and bioavailability of the triazole antifungal agent voriconazole in relation to CYP2C19 genotype. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2009. Scholz Ina, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 2C19 polymorphism, suboptimal reperfusion and all-cause mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Cardiology. 2010. Małek Lukasz A, et al. PubMed
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Effects of CYP2C19 and CYP2C9 genotypes on pharmacokinetic variability of valproic acid in Chinese epileptic patients: nonlinear mixed-effect modeling. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2009. Jiang Dechun, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and ABCB1 genotype and hospitalization for phenytoin toxicity. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2009. Hennessy Sean, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of antimalarial drugs: effect on metabolism and transport. The Lancet infectious diseases. 2009. Kerb Reinhold, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphism, linkage disequilibrium, haplotype structure and novel allele analysis of CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 in Han Chinese. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2009. Zhou Q, et al. PubMed
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Association of CYP2B6, CYP3A5, and CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms with sibutramine pharmacokinetics in healthy Korean subjects. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Kim K A, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing enzymes and anti-TB drug-induced hepatitis. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Kim Sang-Heon, et al. PubMed
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Inhibition of drug metabolizing cytochrome P450s by the aromatase inhibitor drug letrozole and its major oxidative metabolite 4,4'-methanol-bisbenzonitrile in vitro. Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology. 2009. Jeong Seongwook, et al. PubMed
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Investigation of the influence of CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 genetic polymorphism on 2-Cyano-3-hydroxy-N-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-2-butenamide (A77 1726) pharmacokinetics in leflunomide-treated patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2009. Bohanec Grabar Petra, et al. PubMed
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Genetic and environmental factors determining clinical outcomes and cost of warfarin therapy: a prospective study. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2009. Jorgensen Andrea L, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP3A and CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of cilostazol in healthy subjects. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Yoo H-D, et al. PubMed
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Is there a place for drug combination strategies using clinical pharmacology attributes?--review of current trends in research. Current clinical pharmacology. 2009. Srinivas Nuggehally R. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 genes are not associated with response and remission in a sample of depressive patients. International clinical psychopharmacology. 2009. Serretti Alessandro, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics in cardiovascular antithrombotic therapy. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2009. Marín Francisco, et al. PubMed
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Effects of genetic variation at the CYP2C19/CYP2C9 locus on pharmacokinetics of chlorcycloguanil in adult Gambians. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Janha Ramatoulie E, et al. PubMed
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Valproic acid at therapeutic plasma levels may increase 5-azacytidine efficacy in higher risk myelodysplastic syndromes. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2009. Voso Maria Teresa, et al. PubMed
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ABCB1 and cytochrome P450 polymorphisms: clinical pharmacogenetics of clozapine. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. 2009. Jaquenoud Sirot Eveline, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 genotype is associated with symptomatic recurrence of GERD during maintenance therapy with low-dose lansoprazole. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2009. Furuta Takahisa, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and associated adverse drug reactions. Pharmacotherapy. 2009. Thomas Kelan L H, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of anxiolytic drugs. Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996). 2009. Tiwari Arun K, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacokinetic- pharmacodynamic analysis of the role of CYP2C19 genotypes in short-term rabeprazole-based triple therapy against Helicobacter pylori. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2009. Yang Jyh-Chin, et al. PubMed
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Can we override clopidogrel resistance?. Circulation. 2009. Pena Ana, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 genetic polymorphisms and the response to prasugrel: relationship to pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and clinical outcomes. Circulation. 2009. Mega Jessica L, et al. PubMed
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Impact of CYP2C19 polymorphisms on the antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel in an actual clinical setting in Japan. Circulation journal : official journal of the Japanese Circulation Society. 2009. Jinnai Toshikazu, et al. PubMed
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Identification of a novel CYP2C19-mediated metabolic pathway of S-citalopram in vitro. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2009. Rudberg I, et al. PubMed
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Identification of new CYP2C19 variants exhibiting decreased enzyme activity in the metabolism of S-mephenytoin and omeprazole. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2009. Lee Su-Jun, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 2C19 loss-of-function polymorphism and stent thrombosis following percutaneous coronary intervention. European heart journal. 2009. Sibbing Dirk, et al. PubMed
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Genetic variation of CYP2C19 affects both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic responses to clopidogrel but not prasugrel in aspirin-treated patients with coronary artery disease. European heart journal. 2009. Varenhorst Christoph, et al. PubMed
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P2Y(12) inhibitors: differences in properties and mechanisms of action and potential consequences for clinical use. European heart journal. 2009. Wallentin Lars. PubMed
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Impact of CYP2C19 phenotypes on escitalopram metabolism and an evaluation of pupillometry as a serotonergic biomarker. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2009. Noehr-Jensen L, et al. PubMed
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Optimal dose regimens of esomeprazole for gastric acid suppression with minimal influence of the CYP2C19 polymorphism. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2009. Lou Horng-Yuan, et al. PubMed
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ADME pharmacogenetics: current practices and future outlook. Expert opinion on drug metabolism & toxicology. 2009. Grossman Iris. PubMed
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Recent developments in clopidogrel pharmacology and their relation to clinical outcomes. Expert opinion on drug metabolism & toxicology. 2009. Gurbel Paul A, et al. PubMed
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Frequency of CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 variant alleles in patients receiving clopidogrel that experience repeat acute coronary syndrome. Heart and vessels. 2009. Brackbill Marcia L, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic testing for clopidogrel using the rapid INFINITI analyzer: a dose-escalation study. JACC. Cardiovascular interventions. 2009. Gladding Patrick, et al. PubMed
Association of cytochrome P450 2C19 genotype with the antiplatelet effect and clinical efficacy of clopidogrel therapy. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. 2009. Shuldiner Alan R, et al. PubMed
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Clopidogrel inhibits CYP2C19-dependent hydroxylation of omeprazole related to CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2009. Chen B L, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 haplotypes in Koreans as a marker of enzyme activity evaluated with omeprazole. Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. 2009. Jin S K, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19*2 polymorphism is not the sole determinant of the response to clopidogrel: implications for its monitoring. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2009. Aleil B, et al. PubMed
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The CYP2C19*17 allele is associated with better platelet response to clopidogrel in patients admitted for non-ST acute coronary syndrome. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2009. Frére C, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 2C19 polymorphism in young patients treated with clopidogrel after myocardial infarction: a cohort study. Lancet. 2009. Collet Jean-Philippe, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacodynamic effect and clinical efficacy of clopidogrel and prasugrel with or without a proton-pump inhibitor: an analysis of two randomised trials. Lancet. 2009. O'Donoghue Michelle L, et al. PubMed
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Antiplatelet drug 'resistance'. Part 1: mechanisms and clinical measurements. Nature reviews. Cardiology. 2009. Sweeny Joseph M, et al. PubMed
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Clopidogrel pharmacogenomics and risk of inadequate platelet inhibition: US FDA recommendations. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Ellis Kyle J, et al. PubMed
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Epilepsy pharmacogenetics. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Kasperavici¿te Dalia, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics and stroke. Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation. 2009. Meschia James F. PubMed
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Relation of cytochrome P450 2C19 loss-of-function polymorphism to occurrence of drug-eluting coronary stent thrombosis. The American journal of cardiology. 2009. Giusti Betti, et al. PubMed
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Relation of genetic polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 gene with clopidogrel resistance after drug-eluting stent implantation in Koreans. The American journal of cardiology. 2009. Lee Jung Myung, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P-450 polymorphisms and response to clopidogrel. The New England journal of medicine. 2009. Taubert Dirk, et al. PubMed
Cytochrome p-450 polymorphisms and response to clopidogrel. The New England journal of medicine. 2009. Mega Jessica L, et al. PubMed
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Genetic determinants of response to clopidogrel and cardiovascular events. The New England journal of medicine. 2009. Simon Tabassome, et al. PubMed
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Differential time- and NADPH-dependent inhibition of CYP2C19 by enantiomers of fluoxetine. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2009. Stresser David M, et al. PubMed
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Lack of effect of Ginkgo biloba on voriconazole pharmacokinetics in Chinese volunteers identified as CYP2C19 poor and extensive metabolizers. The Annals of pharmacotherapy. 2009. Lei He-Ping, et al. PubMed
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The CYP2C19 ultra-rapid metabolizer genotype influences the pharmacokinetics of voriconazole in healthy male volunteers. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2009. Wang Guo, et al. PubMed
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Application of pharmacogenomics to malaria: a holistic approach for successful chemotherapy. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Mehlotra Rajeev K, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 genotype is a major factor contributing to the highly variable pharmacokinetics of voriconazole. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2009. Weiss Johanna, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic variation at CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6 at global and microgeographic scales. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2009. Sistonen Johanna, et al. PubMed
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The largest prospective warfarin-treated cohort supports genetic forecasting. Blood. 2009. Wadelius Mia, et al. PubMed
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DNA microarray technology in the clinical environment: the AmpliChip CYP450 test for CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genotyping. CNS spectrums. 2009. de Leon Jose, et al. PubMed
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Novel variants of major drug-metabolising enzyme genes in diverse African populations and their predicted functional effects. Human genomics. 2009. Matimba Alice, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics: the promise of personalized medicine for CNS disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 2009. de Leon Jose. PubMed
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Characterisation of CYP2C8, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 polymorphisms in a Ghanaian population. BMC medical genetics. 2009. Kudzi William, et al. PubMed
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A polymorphism in the TC21 promoter associates with an unfavorable tamoxifen treatment outcome in breast cancer. Cancer research. 2008. Rokavec Matjaz, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics-guided dose modifications of antidepressants. Clinics in laboratory medicine. 2008. Seeringer Angela, et al. PubMed
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Influence of the genetic polymorphisms in the 5' flanking and exonic regions of CYP2C19 on proguanil oxidation. Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics. 2009. Satyanarayana Chakradhara Rao Uppugunduri, et al. PubMed
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Polymorphism of human cytochrome P450 enzymes and its clinical impact. Drug metabolism reviews. 2009. Zhou Shu-Feng, et al. PubMed
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Serum concentrations of sertraline and N-desmethyl sertraline in relation to CYP2C19 genotype in psychiatric patients. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2008. Rudberg I, et al. PubMed
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Functional pharmacogenetics/genomics of human cytochromes P450 involved in drug biotransformation. Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry. 2008. Zanger Ulrich M, et al. PubMed
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Single-dose pharmacokinetics of oral and intravenous pantoprazole in children and adolescents. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2008. Kearns Gregory L, et al. PubMed
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Benzodiazepine metabolism: an analytical perspective. Current drug metabolism. 2008. Mandrioli Roberto, et al. PubMed
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Clinical pharmacogenetics and potential application in personalized medicine. Current drug metabolism. 2008. Zhou Shu-Feng, et al. PubMed
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Race as a variable in pharmacogenomics science: from empirical ethics to publication standards. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2008. Ozdemir Vural, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacokinetics/genotype associations for major cytochrome P450 enzymes in native and first- and third-generation Japanese populations: comparison with Korean, Chinese, and Caucasian populations. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Myrand S P, et al. PubMed
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Pathways of carbamazepine bioactivation in vitro. III. The role of human cytochrome P450 enzymes in the formation of 2,3-dihydroxycarbamazepine. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2008. Pearce Robin E, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of P450 oxidoreductase: effect of sequence variants on activities of CYP1A2 and CYP2C19. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2008. Agrawal Vishal, et al. PubMed
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Association of graded allele-specific changes in CYP2D6 function with imipramine dose requirement in a large group of depressed patients. Molecular psychiatry. 2008. Schenk P W, et al. PubMed
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Influence of polymorphisms of drug metabolizing enzymes (CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, GSTA1, GSTP1, ALDH1A1 and ALDH3A1) on the pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide and 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2008. Ekhart Corine, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphism of CYP2C19 & therapeutic response to proton pump inhibitors. The Indian journal of medical research. 2008. Chaudhry A S, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP2C19*18 and CYP2C19*19 alleles on omeprazole 5-hydroxylation: in vitro functional analysis of recombinant enzymes expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology. 2008. Hanioka Nobumitsu, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 pharmacogenetics in advanced cancer: compromised function independent of genotype. British journal of cancer. 2008. Helsby N A, et al. PubMed
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Effect of CYP2C19*2 and *17 mutations on pharmacodynamics and kinetics of proton pump inhibitors in Caucasians. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2008. Hunfeld Nicole G, et al. PubMed
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Increased omeprazole metabolism in carriers of the CYP2C19*17 allele; a pharmacokinetic study in healthy volunteers. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2008. Baldwin R Michael, et al. PubMed
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Coexisting polymorphisms of P2Y12 and CYP2C19 genes as a risk factor for persistent platelet activation with clopidogrel. Circulation journal : official journal of the Japanese Circulation Society. 2008. Malek Lukasz A, et al. PubMed
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Inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation by clopidogrel is related to CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms. Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology. 2008. Chen Bi-Lian, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 induction by rifampicin in healthy subjects: determination using the Karolinska cocktail and the endogenous CYP3A4 marker 4beta-hydroxycholesterol. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Kanebratt K P, et al. PubMed
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Effect of terbinafine and voriconazole on the pharmacokinetics of the antidepressant venlafaxine. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Hynninen V-V, et al. PubMed
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Impact of the ultrarapid CYP2C19*17 allele on serum concentration of escitalopram in psychiatric patients. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Rudberg I, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics: from bench to byte. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Swen J J, et al. PubMed
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The effect of CYP2C19 polymorphism on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of clopidogrel: a possible mechanism for clopidogrel resistance. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Kim K A, et al. PubMed
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Endoscopic analysis of gastric ulcer after one week's treatment with omeprazole and rabeprazole in relation to CYP2C19 genotype. Digestive diseases and sciences. 2008. Ando Takashi, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 inhibition: the impact of substrate probe selection on in vitro inhibition profiles. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2008. Foti Robert S, et al. PubMed
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Prediction of pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions using human hepatocyte suspension in plasma and cytochrome P450 phenotypic data. II. In vitro-in vivo correlation with ketoconazole. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2008. Lu Chuang, et al. PubMed
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Kinetics of omeprazole and escitalopram in relation to the CYP2C19*17 allele in healthy subjects. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2008. Ohlsson Rosenborg Staffan, et al. PubMed
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Proton pump inhibitors: an update of their clinical use and pharmacokinetics. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2008. Shi Shaojun, et al. PubMed
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Effect of CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms on the efficacy of proton pump inhibitor-based triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a meta-analysis. Helicobacter. 2008. Zhao Fujun, et al. PubMed
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The pharmacogenetics and pharmacodynamics of clopidogrel response: an analysis from the PRINC (Plavix Response in Coronary Intervention) trial. JACC. Cardiovascular interventions. 2008. Gladding Patrick, et al. PubMed
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Effect of the CYP2C19 polymorphism on the eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori infection by 7-day triple therapy with regular proton pump inhibitor dosage. Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology. 2008. Kang Jung Mook, et al. PubMed
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Quantitative determination of clopidogrel active metabolite in human plasma by LC-MS/MS. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis. 2008. Takahashi Makoto, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 2C19 681G>A polymorphism and high on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity associated with adverse 1-year clinical outcome of elective percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting or bare-metal stents. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2008. Trenk Dietmar, et al. PubMed
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The common gene variants of CYP2C19 affect pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in an active metabolite of clopidogrel in healthy subjects. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2008. Umemura K, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 and nongenetic factors predict poor responsiveness to clopidogrel loading dose after coronary stent implantation. Pharmacogenomics. 2008. Geisler Tobias, et al. PubMed
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Impact of CYP2C19 polymorphisms on the efficacy of clobazam therapy. Pharmacogenomics. 2008. Seo Takayuki, et al. PubMed
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Effect of cytochrome p450 polymorphisms on platelet reactivity after treatment with clopidogrel in acute coronary syndrome. The American journal of cardiology. 2008. Frere Corinne, et al. PubMed
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Plasma concentration of rabeprazole after 8-week administration in gastroesophageal reflux disease patients and intragastric pH elevation. Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology. 2008. Yamano Hiro-o, et al. PubMed
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Correlation of inter-individual variations of amitriptyline metabolism examined in hairs with CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 polymorphisms. International journal of legal medicine. 2008. Thieme Detlef, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacokinetic genes do not influence response or tolerance to citalopram in the STAR*D sample. PloS one. 2008. Peters Eric J, et al. PubMed
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Biological effect of increased maintenance dose of clopidogrel in cardiovascular outpatients and influence of the cytochrome P450 2C19*2 allele on clopidogrel responsiveness. Thrombosis research. 2008. Fontana Pierre, et al. PubMed
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The enzymatic basis of drug-drug interactions with systemic triazole antifungals. Clinical pharmacokinetics. 2008. Nivoix Yasmine, et al. PubMed
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Caffeine as a marker substrate for testing cytochrome P450 activity in human and rat. Pharmacological reports : PR. 2008. Kot Marta, et al. PubMed
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Influence of cytochrome P450 polymorphisms on drug therapies: pharmacogenetic, pharmacoepigenetic and clinical aspects. Pharmacology & therapeutics. 2007. Ingelman-Sundberg Magnus, et al. PubMed
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Factors affecting drug concentrations and QT interval during thioridazine therapy. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Thanacoody R H K, et al. PubMed
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Breast cancer treatment outcome with adjuvant tamoxifen relative to patient CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genotypes. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2007. Schroth Werner, et al. PubMed
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Characterization of human cytochrome p450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of cilostazol. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2007. Hiratsuka Masahiro, et al. PubMed
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Low-dose intravenous pantoprazole for optimal inhibition of gastric acid in Korean patients. Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology. 2007. Oh Jung-Hwan, et al. PubMed
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Effects of genetic polymorphism of cytochrome P450 enzymes on the pharmacokinetics of benzodiazepines. Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. 2007. Fukasawa T, et al. PubMed
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A genomewide screen for late-onset Alzheimer disease in a genetically isolated Dutch population. American journal of human genetics. 2007. Liu Fan, et al. PubMed
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Artemisinin antimalarials moderately affect cytochrome P450 enzyme activity in healthy subjects. Fundamental & clinical pharmacology. 2007. Asimus Sara, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 3A inhibition by ketoconazole affects prasugrel and clopidogrel pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics differently. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Farid N A, et al. PubMed
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Development of the "Inje cocktail" for high-throughput evaluation of five human cytochrome P450 isoforms in vivo. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Ryu J Y, et al. PubMed
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Common polymorphisms of CYP2C19 and CYP2C9 affect the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic response to clopidogrel but not prasugrel. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2007. Brandt J T, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 gene polymorphisms on clopidogrel responsiveness in healthy subjects. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2007. Fontana P, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 2C19 loss-of-function polymorphism, but not CYP3A4 IVS10 + 12G/A and P2Y12 T744C polymorphisms, is associated with response variability to dual antiplatelet treatment in high-risk vascular patients. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2007. Giusti Betti, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 pharmacogenomics associated with therapy of Helicobacter pylori infection and gastro-esophageal reflux diseases with a proton pump inhibitor. Pharmacogenomics. 2007. Furuta Takahisa, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics-based tailored versus standard therapeutic regimen for eradication of H. pylori. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Furuta T, et al. PubMed
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Somatic complications of psychotropic medications in a patient with multiple CYP2 drug metabolism deficiencies. Connecticut medicine. 2007. Ruaño Gualberto, et al. PubMed
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Functional characterization of two novel CYP2C19 variants (CYP2C19*18 and CYP2C19*19) found in a Japanese population. Xenobiotica; the fate of foreign compounds in biological systems. 2007. Hanioka N, et al. PubMed
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Association of warfarin dose with genes involved in its action and metabolism. Human genetics. 2007. Wadelius Mia, et al. PubMed
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Appropriate phenotyping procedures for drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters in humans and their simultaneous use in the "cocktail" approach. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Fuhr U, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 2C19 polymorphism influences the preventive effect of lansoprazole on the recurrence of erosive reflux esophagitis. Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology. 2007. Kawamura Masashi, et al. PubMed
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Influence of smoking and CYP2C19 genotypes on H. pylori eradication success. Epidemiology and infection. 2007. Suzuki T, et al. PubMed
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ABCB1 and cytochrome P450 genotypes and phenotypes: influence on methadone plasma levels and response to treatment. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Crettol Séverine, et al. PubMed
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Effect of CYP2C19*17 gene variant on Helicobacter pylori eradication in peptic ulcer patients. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2006. Kurzawski Mateusz, et al. PubMed
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Paradoxical urinary phenytoin metabolite (S)/(R) ratios in CYP2C19*1/*2 patients. Epilepsy research. 2006. Argikar Upendra A, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 2C19 loss-of-function polymorphism is a major determinant of clopidogrel responsiveness in healthy subjects. Blood. 2006. Hulot Jean-Sébastien, et al. PubMed
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ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein/MDR1) gene G2677T/a sequence variation (polymorphism): lack of association with side effects and therapeutic response in depressed inpatients treated with amitriptyline. Clinical chemistry. 2006. Laika Barbara, et al.