Drug/Small Molecule:
warfarin

last updated 06/19/2014

CPIC Dosing Guideline for warfarin and CYP2C9, VKORC1

Summary

The best way to estimate the anticipated stable dose of warfarin is to use the algorithms available on http://www.warfarindosing.org 

Annotation

November 2013 Update

CPIC guideline authors are aware of several recently published studies on warfarin pharmacogenetics [Articles:24251361, 24251363, 24251360]. These papers have prompted several opinion pieces [Articles:24328463, 24251364]. The authors are evaluating the information, which will be incorporated into the next update of the CPIC guideline on warfarin.

October 2011

Advance online publication September 2011.

  • Guideline regarding the use of pharmacogenomic tests in dosing for warfarin was published in Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics by the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC).
  • These guidelines are applicable to:
    • adult patients
  • Download and read:
  • Excerpt from the 2011 warfarin dosing guideline:
    • "Pharmacogenetic algorithm-based warfarin dosing: Numerous studies have derived warfarin dosing algorithms that use both genetic and non-genetic factors to predict warfarin dose [Articles:18305455, 19228618, 18574025]. Two algorithms perform well in estimating stable warfarin dose across different ethnic populations; [Articles:18305455, 19228618] these were created using more than 5,000 subjects. Dosing algorithms using genetics outperform nongenetic clinical algorithms and fixed-dose approaches in dose prediction [Articles:18305455, 19228618]. The best way to estimate the anticipated stable dose of warfarin is to use the algorithms available on http://www.warfarindosing.org (offering both high-performing algorithms [Articles:18305455, 19228618]). The dosing algorithm published by the International Warfarin Pharmacogenetics Consortium is also online, at [ IWPC Pharmacogenetic Dosing Algorithm ]. The two algorithms provide very similar dose recommendations."
    • "Approach to pharmacogenetic-based warfarin dosing without access to dosing algorithms: In 2007, the FDA modified the warfarin label, stating that CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes may be useful in determining the optimal initial dose of warfarin [Article:17906972]. The label was further updated in 2010 to include a table (Table 1) describing recommendations for initial dosing ranges for patients with different combinations of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes. Genetics-based algorithms also better predict warfarin dose than the FDA-approved warfarin label table [Article:21272753]. Therefore, the use of pharmacogenetic algorithm-based dosing is recommended when possible, although if electronic means for such dosing are not available, the table-based dosing approaches (Table 1) are suggested. The range of doses by VKORC1 genotype and the range of dose recommendations/predictions by the FDA table and algorithm are shown in Figure 2."

Figure 2. Frequency histograms of stable therapeutic warfarin doses in mg/week, stratified by VKORC1 -1639G>A genotype.

Adapted from Figure 2 of the 2011 guideline manuscript

Figure 2 Legend: Frequency histograms of stable therapeutic warfarin doses in mg/week, stratified by VKORC1 -1639G>A genotype in 3,616 patients recruited by the International Warfarin Pharmacogenetics Consortium (IWPC) who did not carry the CYP2C9*2 or *3 allele (i.e., coded as *1*1 for US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) table and algorithm dosing). The range of doses within each genotype group recommended on the FDA table is shown via the shaded rectangle. The range of doses predicted using the IWPC dosing algorithm in these 3,616 patients is shown by the solid lines.
Figure 2 demonstrates that the range of individuals covered by the FDA table is much narrower than that of the algorithm. The article and supplement detail important variables that are not covered by the table that should also be taken into consideration.

Table 1: Recommended daily warfarin doses (mg/day) to achieve a therapeutic INR based on CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotype using the warfarin product insert approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration:

Adapted from Table 1 of the 2011 guideline manuscript

VKORC1 Genotype (-1639G>A, rs9923231) CYP2C9*1/*1 CYP2C9*1/*2 CYP2C9*1/*3 CYP2C9*2/*2 CYP2C9*2/*3 CYP2C9*3/*3
GG 5-7 5-7 3-4 3-4 3-4 0.5-2
GA 5-7 3-4 3-4 3-4 0.5-2 0.5-2
AA 3-4 3-4 0.5-2 0.5-2 0.5-2 0.5-2

Reproduced from updated warfarin (Coumadin¿¿) product label.

Supplemental Table S1. Genotypes that constitute the * alleles for CYP2C9

Adapted from Table S1 of the 2011 guideline supplement

Allele Constituted by genotypes at: Amino acid changes Enzymatic Activity
*1 reference allele at all positions Normal
*2 C>T at rs1799853 R144C Decreased
*3 A>C at rs1057910 I359L Decreased

PharmGKB gathers information regarding PGx on FDA drug labels from the FDA's "Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labels", and from FDA-approved FDA and EMA-approved (European Medicines Agency) EMA labels brought to our attention. Excerpts from the label and downloadable highlighted label PDFs are manually curated by PharmGKB.

Please note that some drugs may have been removed from or added to the FDA's "Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labels" without our knowledge. We periodically check the table for additions to this table and update PharmGKB accordingly.

There is currently no such list for European drug labels - we are working with the EMA to establish a list of European Public Assessment Reports (EPAR)s that contain PGx information. We are constructing this list by initially searching for drugs for which we have PGx-containing FDA drug labels - of these 44 EMA EPARs were identified and are being curated for pgx information.

We welcome any information regarding drug labels containing PGx information approved by the FDA, EMA or other Medicine Agencies around the world - please contact feedback.


last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for warfarin and CYP2C9, VKORC1

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Actionable PGx

Summary

Warfarin (Coumadin) is an anticoagulant used as a prophylaxis and to treat venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, thromboembolic complications from atrial fibrillationa and cardiac valve replacement, and to reduce the recurrence of myocardial infarction. The FDA recommends genetic testing for CYP2C9 and VKORC1 variants prior to initiating treatment with warfarin.

Annotation

The VKORC1:G-1639A polymorphism is associated with lower dose requirements for warfarin in Caucasian and Asian patients. Increased bleeding risk and lower initial warfarin dose requirements have been associated with the CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 alleles. Approximately 30% of the variance in warfarin dose could be attributed to genetic variation in VKORC1, and about 40% of dose variance could be explained taking into consideration both VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genetic polymorphisms. Accounting for genetic variation in both VKORC1 and CYP2C9, age, height, body weight, interacting drugs, and indication for warfarin therapy explained about 55% of the variability in warfarin dose.

Excerpt from the warfarin drug label:

The patient's CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotype information, when available, can assist in selection of the starting dose. Table 5 describes the range of stable maintenance doses observed in multiple patients having different combinations of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 gene variants. Consider these ranges in choosing the initial dose.

For the complete drug label text with sections containing pharmacogenetic information highlighted, see the warfarin drug label. Pharmacogenomics-related dosing information is found in Table 5 on page 27.

*Disclaimer: The contents of this page have not been endorsed by the FDA and are the sole responsibility of PharmGKB.

Full label available at DailyMed

Genes and/or phenotypes found in this label


Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria, manually curated by PharmGKB, are shown below.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the page.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

? = Mouse-over for quick help

This is a non-comprehensive list of genetic tests with pharmacogenetics relevance, typically submitted by the manufacturer and manually curated by PharmGKB. The information listed is provided for educational purposes only and does not constitute an endorsement of any listed test or manufacturer.

A more complete listing of genetic tests is found at the Genetic Testing Registry (GTR).

PGx Test Variants Assayed Gene?
DMET Plus (Affymetrix, Inc) Variant in CYP2C9 , Variant in VKORC1
VeraCode ADME Core Panel (Illumina, Inc) Variant in CYP2C9 , Variant in VKORC1
TaqMan Drug Metabolism Genotyping Assay Sets (Applied Biosystems, Inc) Variant in CYP2C9 , Variant in VKORC1
TrimGen Corporation eQ-PCR LC Warfarin Genotyping Kit CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3 , rs9923231
Warfarin Genotyping Reagents (Idaho Technology Inc) CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3
INFINITI Warfarin Assay (IVD) (AutoGenomics, Inc) CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3
INFINITI CYP450 2C9-VKORC1 (AutoGenomics, Inc) CYP2C9*11, CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3, CYP2C9*4, CYP2C9*5, CYP2C9*6
eSensor Warfarin Sensitivity Test (GenMark Diagnostics, Inc) CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3
Verigene Warfarin Metabolism (Nanosphere, Inc) CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3
Warfarin Genotyping Reagents (Idaho Technology Inc) rs9923231 , VKORC1 VKORC1 3673(-1639G>A)
INFINITI Warfarin Assay (IVD) (AutoGenomics, Inc) rs9923231 , VKORC1 VKORC1 3673(-1639G>A)
eSensor Warfarin Sensitivity Test (GenMark Diagnostics, Inc) rs9923231 , VKORC1 VKORC1 3673(-1639G>A)
Verigene Warfarin Metabolism (Nanosphere, Inc) rs9934438 , VKORC1 VKORC1 1173C>T
Spartan RX CYP2C19 System CYP2C19*17, CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3 , rs12248560 , rs4986893 , rs4244285
INFINITI CYP450 2C9-VKORC1 (AutoGenomics, Inc) rs7294 , rs2359612 , rs9934438 , rs17708472 , rs9923231 , VKORC1 VKORC1 3673 (-1639G>A) , VKORC1 VKORC1 7566 (2255C>T) , VKORC1 VKORC1 6009 (698C>T) , VKORC1 VKORC1 8773 (358C>T) , VKORC1 VKORC1 6484 (1173C>T) , VKORC1 VKORC1 9041 (3730G>A) , VKORC1 VKORC1 6853 (1542G>C)

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page.

Links in the "Gene" column lead to PharmGKB Gene Pages.

Gene ? Variant?
(138)
Alternate Names / Tag SNPs ? Drugs ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2C19 *1A N/A N/A N/A
VIP No VIP available VA CYP2C19 *2A N/A N/A N/A
VIP No VIP available No VIP available CYP2C19 *3A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA CYP2C9 *1 N/A N/A N/A
VIP CA VA CYP2C9 *2 N/A N/A N/A
VIP CA VA CYP2C9 *3 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2C9 *4 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2C9 *5 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2C9 *6 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2C9 *8 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2C9 *9 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2C9 *10 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2C9 *11 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2C9 *12 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2C9 *13 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2C9 *14 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2C9 *25 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2C9 *57 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2C9 *58 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP4F2 *1 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP4F2 *3 N/A N/A N/A
VIP No VIP available VA VKORC1 *1 N/A N/A N/A
VIP No VIP available VA VKORC1 *2 N/A N/A N/A
VIP No VIP available VA VKORC1 *3 N/A N/A N/A
VIP No VIP available VA VKORC1 *4 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA VKORC1 H1 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA VKORC1 H2 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA VKORC1 H7 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA VKORC1 H8 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA VKORC1 H9 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
CYP2C19 poor metabolizer genotype N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1043550 *4A>G, *77A>G, 128409225A>G, 66442068A>G
A > G
3' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1045642 208920T>A, 208920T>C, 25171488A>G, 25171488A>T, 3435T>A, 3435T>C, 87138645A>G, 87138645A>T, ABCB1*6, ABCB1: 3435C>T, ABCB1: C3435T, ABCB1: c.3435C>T, ABCB1:3435C>T, Ile1145=, Ile1145Ile, MDR1 3435C>T, MDR1 C3435T, PGP C3435T, c.3435C>T, mRNA 3853C>T
A > T
A > G
Synonymous
Ile1145Ile
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1048943 1384A>C, 1384A>G, 1384A>T, 3103T>A, 3103T>C, 3103T>G, 45803542T>A, 45803542T>C, 45803542T>G, 75012985T>A, 75012985T>C, 75012985T>G, CYP1A1*2C, CYP1A1:2455A>G, CYP1A1:4889A>G, CYP1A1:Hinc II, CYP1A1:I462V, CYP1A1:m2, Ile462Leu, Ile462Phe, Ile462Val
T > G
T > A
T > C
Missense
Ile462Phe
Ile462Val
Ile462Leu
No VIP available CA VA
rs104894539 31045966C>A, 31105966C>A, 5311G>T, 85G>T, Val29Leu
C > A
Missense
Val29Leu
No VIP available CA VA
rs104894540 134T>C, 31045917A>G, 31105917A>G, 5360T>C, Val45Ala
A > G
Missense
Val45Ala
No VIP available CA VA
rs104894541 172A>G, 31045879T>C, 31105879T>C, 5398A>G, Arg58Gly
T > C
Missense
Arg58Gly
No VIP available CA VA
rs104894542 273T>G, 31042564A>C, 31102564A>C, 383T>G, 8713T>G, Ala91=, Leu128Arg
A > C
Synonymous
Ala91Arg
Ala91Ala
No VIP available CA VA
rs10509680 40925G>T, 47538803G>T, 961+2337G>T, 96734339G>T
G > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1051740 19537412T>C, 226019633T>C, 26837T>C, 337T>C, EPHX1: Y113H, NM_000120.2: c.337T>C, NT_004559.13: g.2221786T>C, Tyr113His, c.337T>C, mRNA 378T>C, mRNA 612T>C, p.Tyr113His
T > C
Missense
Tyr113His
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1051741 1071C>T, 19550008C>T, 226032229C>T, 39433C>T, Asn357=
C > T
Synonymous
Asn357Asn
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1057868 13647849C>T, 1508C>T, 3514924C>T, 75587C>T, 75615006C>T, Ala503Val, POR A503V, POR*28
C > T
Missense
Ala503Val
rs1057910 1075A>C, 47545517A>C, 47639A>C, 96741053A>C, CYP2C9*3, CYP2C9*3:Ile359Leu, CYP2C9: I359L, CYP2C9:359Ile>Leu, CYP2C9:Ile359Leu, Ile359Leu, mRNA 11A>C
A > C
Missense
Ile359Leu
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs10654848 12071_12072insAACAACAACAAC, 12071_12072insCAACAA, 555-158_555-157insAACAACAACAAC, 555-158_555-157insCAACAA, 64603473_64603474insGTTGTTGTTGTT, 64603473_64603474insTTGTTG, 726-158_726-157insAACAACAACAAC, 726-158_726-157insCAACAA, 85781586_85781587insGTTGTTGTTGTT, 85781586_85781587insTTGTTG
- > TTGTTG
- > GTTGTTGTTGTT
Non-synonymous
No VIP available CA VA
rs10871454 30988079C>T, 31048079C>T, 379-1168C>T, STX4
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs11150606 31039011T>C, 31099011T>C, 89A>G, Gln30Arg
T > C
Missense
Gln30Arg
No VIP available CA VA
rs1131873 19537432G>A, 226019653G>A, 26857G>A, 357G>A, Lys119=
G > A
Synonymous
Lys119Lys
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs11636419 *171A>G, 37718A>G, 45838157A>G, 75047600A>G
A > G
3' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs11653 *359T>A, *432T>A, 128409580T>A, 3'UTR T/A, 66442423T>A, CALU
T > A
3' UTR
No VIP available CA VA
rs11676382 16025G>C, 1913+45G>C, 2084+45G>C, 64599520C>G, 85777633C>G
C > G
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs12065184 12767319A>C, 161278677A>C, 6086T>G, 67+952T>G
A > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs12460590 12011T>G, 1283T>G, 13649865A>C, 1436T>G, 41381647A>C, Val428Gly, Val479Gly
A > C
Missense
Val479Gly
No VIP available CA VA
rs12714145 214+597G>A, 44-1143G>A, 6317G>A, 64609228C>T, 85787341C>T, GGCZ, intron 2 C/T
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs12777823 47209966G>A, 96405502G>A
G > A
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs12782374 1937G>A, 47499815G>A, 96695351G>A
G > A
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1415774 *1000A>G, 10843A>G, 33765616A>G, 3961708A>G
A > G
3' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1687390 117089888G>A, 46254420G>A, 9586G>A, ORM1, downstream G/A
G > A
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs17650 117092297G>C, 117092297G>T, 46256829G>C, 46256829G>T
G > A
Not Available
No VIP available CA VA
rs17708472 173+525C>T, 31045353G>A, 31105353G>A, 5924C>T, 698C>T, VKORC1: 6009C>T
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs17878544 -1877A>G, 31047927T>C, 31107927T>C, 3350A>G
T > C
5' Flanking
No VIP available CA VA
rs17880887 31050501G>T, 31110501G>T, 776C>A
G > T
Not Available
No VIP available CA VA
rs17886199 173+1431T>C, 283+186T>C, 31044447A>G, 31104447A>G, 6830T>C
A > G
Intronic
rs1799853 430C>T, 47506511C>T, 8633C>T, 96702047C>T, Arg144Cys, CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9:144Arg>Cys, CYP2C9:Arg144Cys, mRNA 455C>T
C > T
Missense
Arg144Cys
No VIP available CA VA
rs1800566 20389C>T, 23359344G>A, 445C>T, 457C>T, 559C>T, 69745145G>A, NQO1*2, NQO1:C609T, NQO1:P187S, NQO1:c.558C>T, Pro149Ser, Pro153Ser, Pro187Ser, rs1800566 C>T
G > A
Missense
Pro149Ser
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1877724 -5-3071C>T, -6+110C>T, 19531134C>T, 20559C>T, 226013355C>T
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2069514 (-2964)G>A, 28338G>A, 3860G>A, 45828777G>A, 75038220G>A, CYP1A2*1C
G > A
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2069919 128179553G>A, 17928216G>A, 237+528G>A, 8558G>A, PROC, intron 3 G/A
G > A
Intronic
rs2108622 1297G>A, 14389G>A, 15990431C>T, 23454G>A, 7253233C>T, CYP4F2 exon 11, CYP4F2: C>T, CYP4F2: V433M, CYP4F2:V433M, V433M, Val433Met, c.1297G>A, mRNA 1347G>A, p.Val433Met
C > T
Missense
Val433Met
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs216013 2669632A>G, 2729632A>G, 3819+8453A>G, 3828+8453A>G, 3888+8453A>G, 654681A>G
A > G
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2189784 15959200G>A, 7222002G>A
G > A
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2234922 19544185A>G, 226026406A>G, 33610A>G, 416A>G, EPHX1: H139R, His139Arg, NM_000120.2: c.416A>G, NT_004559.13: g.2228559A>G, mRNA 457A>G, mRNA 691A>G, p.His139Arg
A > G
Missense
His139Arg
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2242480 1023+12G>A, 1026+12G>A, 25343G>A, 37394309C>T, 99361466C>T
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2260863 19537553G>C, 226019774G>C, 26978G>C, 364+114G>C, intron 3 G/C
G > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2286461 *20+388C>T, 15963673G>A, 7145470G>A
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2290228 -39+9162G>A, 11G>A, 128388648G>A, 35G>A, 66421491G>A, Arg12Gln, Arg4Gln
G > A
Missense
Arg4Gln
No VIP available CA VA
rs2359612 174-1133T>C, 283+837T>C, 31043796A>G, 31103796A>G, 7481T>C, 7566C>T, VKORC1: 2255C>T
A > G
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2592551 1047C>T, 1218C>T, 13527C>T, 64602018G>A, 85780131G>A, Arg349=, Arg406=
G > A
Synonymous
Arg349Arg
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2645400 11609416T>G, 4084767T>G, 52700T>G, 909+1671T>G
T > G
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs28371685 1003C>T, 47545445C>T, 47567C>T, 96740981C>T, Arg335Trp, CYP2C9*11, CYP2C9:R335W
C > T
Missense
Arg335Trp
No VIP available CA VA
rs28371686 1080C>G, 47545522C>G, 47644C>G, 96741058C>G, Asp360Glu, CYP2C9*5, CYP2C9:D360E
C > G
Missense
Asp360Glu
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs28371759 25183T>C, 37394469A>G, 875T>C, 878T>C, 99361626A>G, CYP3A4*18, L293P, Leu292Pro, Leu293Pro
A > G
Missense
Leu293Pro
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2868177 13622746A>G, 188+6405A>G, 3489821A>G, 50484A>G, 75589903A>G
A > G
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs2884737 173+324T>G, 31045554A>C, 31105554A>C, 5723T>G
A > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2901783 14849A>G, 47257563A>G, 482-1575A>G, 96453099A>G
A > G
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3093105 15837578A>G, 15837578A>T, 15897578A>G, 15897578A>T, 34T>A, 34T>C, 5497T>A, 5497T>C, Trp12Arg
A > C
Not Available
Trp12Arg
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3093158 13719G>A, 16000166C>T, 4654G>A, 7262968C>T, 918+67G>A
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3136516 1726-59G>A, 25014G>A, 46700756G>A, 46760756G>A
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs339097 128399224A>G, 129+133A>G, 582+133A>G, 606+133A>G, 66432067A>G
A > G
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3756009 -1340A>G, 111733832A>G, 187186111A>G, 3994A>G
A > G
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3814637 -1418C>G, -1418C>T, 3583C>G, 3583C>T, 47325509C>G, 47325509C>T, 96521045C>G, 96521045C>T
C > G
C > T
5' Flanking
rs4244285 24154G>A, 24154G>C, 47346080G>A, 47346080G>C, 681G>A, 681G>C, 96541616G>A, 96541616G>C, CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19:681G>A, CYP2C19:G681A, Pro227=
G > C
G > A
Synonymous
Pro227Pro
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs429358 17680159T>C, 388T>C, 45411941T>C, 7903T>C, APOE:Cys112Arg, ApoE epsilon 4, ApoE4, Cys130Arg
T > C
Missense
Cys130Arg
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4653436 19512990G>A, 225995211G>A, 2415G>A, upstream G/A
G > A
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4841588 11614225G>T, 4089576G>T, 57509G>T, 998-219G>T
G > T
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs4917639 *2*3 tag, 32121A>C, 47529999A>C, 820-6326A>C, 96725535A>C, CYP2C9
A > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4918758 -1188T>C, 3838T>C, 47501716T>C, 96697252T>C, CYP2C9(-1158)C>T
T > C
5' Flanking
rs4986893 22948G>A, 47344874G>A, 636G>A, 96540410G>A, CYP2C19*3, CYP2C19:636G>A, CYP2C19:G636A, Trp212Ter
G > A
Stop Codon
Trp212null
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4986910 1331T>C, 1334 C allele, 1334T>C, 28285T>C, 37391367A>G, 445Thr allele, 99358524A>G, CYP3A4*3, CYP3A4:M445T, Met444Thr, Met445Thr, mRNA 1438T>C
A > G
Missense
Met445Thr
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs510317 -348A>G, -348A>T, -402A>G, -402A>T, 113759754A>G, 113759754A>T, 1255760A>G, 1255760A>T, 4650A>G, 4650A>T
A > T
A > G
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs510335 -347G>A, -347G>C, -347G>T, -401G>A, -401G>C, -401G>T, 113759755G>A, 113759755G>C, 113759755G>T, 1255761G>A, 1255761G>C, 1255761G>T, 4651G>A, 4651G>C, 4651G>T
G > T
G > C
G > A
5' Flanking
No VIP available CA VA
rs56165452 1076T>A, 1076T>C, 47545518T>A, 47545518T>C, 47640T>A, 47640T>C, 96741054T>A, 96741054T>C, Ile359Asn, Ile359Thr
T > A
T > C
Missense
Ile359Thr
Ile359Asn
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs570317 21555449A>G, 49287231A>G
A > G
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs5896 46685003C>T, 46745003C>T, 494C>T, 9261C>T, Thr165Met
C > T
Missense
Thr165Met
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs5985 103G>T, 6258795C>A, 6318795C>A, 7130G>T, Val35Leu
C > A
Missense
Val35Leu
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs6046 1047G>A, 1047G>C, 1047G>T, 113773159G>A, 113773159G>C, 113773159G>T, 1172G>A, 1172G>C, 1172G>T, 1238G>A, 1238G>C, 1238G>T, 1259G>A, 1259G>C, 1259G>T, 1269165G>A, 1269165G>C, 1269165G>T, 18055G>A, 18055G>C, 18055G>T, 986G>A, 986G>C, 986G>T, Arg329Gln, Arg329Leu, Arg329Pro, Arg391Gln, Arg391Leu, Arg391Pro, Arg413Gln, Arg413Leu, Arg413Pro
G > C
G > T
G > A
Not Available
Arg329Gln
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs60711313
A > G
Not Available
No VIP available CA VA
rs61162043 31054234A>G, 31114234A>G
A > G
Not Available
No VIP available CA VA
rs61742245 106G>T, 31045945C>A, 31105945C>A, 5332G>T, Asp36Tyr
C > A
Missense
Asp36Tyr
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs699664 13122G>A, 64602423C>T, 803G>A, 85780536C>T, 974G>A, Arg268Gln, Arg325Gln
C > T
Missense
Arg268Gln
No VIP available CA VA
rs7089580 11809A>T, 47509687A>T, 482-2313A>T, 96705223A>T
A > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs71486745 2362_2363delGT, 47500240_47500241delGT, 96695776_96695777delGT
GT > -
Not Available
No VIP available CA VA
rs7196161 296C>T, 31050981G>A, 31110981G>A
G > A
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs72558187 269T>C, 47506179T>C, 8301T>C, 96701715T>C, Leu90Pro
T > C
Missense
Leu90Pro
rs7294 *134G>A, *237G>A, 31042321C>T, 31102321C>T, 8956G>A, VKORC1:3730G>A, VKORC1:G9041A
C > T
3' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs7412 17680297C>T, 45412079C>T, 526C>T, 8041C>T, APOE epsilon 2, ApoE2, Arg176Cys
C > T
Missense
Arg176Cys
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs7542281 169536439C>T, 21025081C>T, 24331G>A, 373+5020G>A
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs762551 -9-154C>A, 32035C>A, 45832474C>A, 75041917C>A, CYP1A2*1F, CYP1A2:734C>A
C > A
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs7856096 -12-25A>G, 130566539A>G, 139-25A>G, 59731071A>G, 6386A>G
A > G
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs7900194 449G>A, 449G>T, 47506530G>A, 47506530G>T, 8652G>A, 8652G>T, 96702066G>A, 96702066G>T, Arg150His, Arg150Leu, CYP2C9*8, CYP2C9:R150H
G > T
G > A
Missense
Arg150Leu
Arg150His
No VIP available CA VA
rs8050894 173+1369G>C, 283+124G>C, 31044509C>G, 31104509C>G, 6768G>C, 6853G>C, VKORC1: 1542G>C
C > G
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs9332096 -1565C>T, 3461C>T, 47501339C>T, 96696875C>T, CYP2C9(-1565)C>T
C > T
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs9332127 14057G>C, 47511935G>C, 482-65G>C, 96707471G>C
G > C
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs9332131 15625delA, 47513503delA, 817delA, 96709039delA, CYP2C9*6, CYP2C9:null allele, Lys273Argfs
A > -
Frameshift
Lys273Arg
rs9923231 -1639G>A, -1639G>C, -1639G>T, 12609882C>A, 12609882C>G, 12609882C>T, 31096368C>A, 31096368C>G, 31096368C>T, 3588G>A, 3588G>C, 3588G>T, VKORC1: -1639G>A, VKORC1:-1639, VKORC1:G3673A, upstream -1639G>A
C > G
C > T
C > A
Not Available
rs9934438 173+1000C>T, 174-136C>T, 31044878G>A, 31104878G>A, 6399C>T, VKORC1: 1173C>T, VKORC1:C1173T, VKORC1:C6484T
G > A
Intronic
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 138
2D structure from PubChem
provided by PubChem

Overview

Generic Names
  • Warfarin sodium
Trade Names
  • Athrombin
  • Athrombin-K
  • Athrombine-K
  • Brumolin
  • Co-Rax
  • Coumadin
  • Coumadin Tabs
  • Coumafen
  • Coumafene
  • Coumaphen
  • Coumaphene
  • Coumarins
  • Coumefene
  • D-Con
  • Dethmor
  • Dethnel
  • Dicusat E
  • Frass-Ratron
  • Jantoven
  • Kumader
  • Kumadu
  • Kumatox
  • Kypfarin
  • Latka 42
  • Mar-Frin
  • Marevan
  • Maveran
  • Panwarfin
  • Place-Pax
  • Prothromadin
  • RAX
  • Rosex
  • Sofarin
  • Solfarin
  • Sorexa Plus
  • Temus W
  • Tintorane
  • Tox-Hid
  • Vampirinip II
  • Vampirinip III
  • Waran
  • Warf 42
  • Warfarat
  • Warfarin Plus
  • Warfarin Q
  • Warfarine
  • Warficide
  • Warfilone
  • Zoocoumarin
Brand Mixture Names

PharmGKB Accession Id:
PA451906

Description

An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.

Source: Drug Bank

Indication

For the treatment of retinal vascular occlusion, pulmonary embolism, cardiomyopathy, atrial fibrillation and flutter, cerebral embolism, transient cerebral ischaemia, arterial embolism and thrombosis.

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

Warfarin inhibits vitamin K reductase, resulting in depletion of the reduced form of vitamin K (vitamin KH2). As vitamin K is a cofactor for the carboxylation of glutamate residues on the N-terminal regions of vitamin K-dependent proteins, this limits the gamma-carboxylation and subsequent activation of the vitamin K-dependent coagulant proteins. The synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors II, VII, IX, and X and anticoagulant proteins C and S is inhibited. Depression of three of the four vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors (factors II, VII, and X) results in decreased prothrombin levels and a decrease in the amount of thrombin generated and bound to fibrin. This reduces the thrombogenicity of clots.

Source: Drug Bank

Pharmacology

Warfarin, a coumarin anticoagulant, is a racemic mixture of two active isomers. It is used in the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic disease including venous thrombosis, thromboembolism, and pulmonary embolism as well as for the prevention of ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF).

Source: Drug Bank

Food Interaction

Consult your doctor before ingesting large amounts of dietary Vitamin K (e.g. from green leafy vegetables).|Avoid alcohol.|Limit garlic, ginger, gingko, and horse chestnut.|Avoid St. John's Wort.|Avoid drastic changes in dietary habit.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity

Biotransformation

Metabolized stereo- and regio-selectively by hepatic microsomal enzymes. S-warfarin is predominantly metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 to yield the 6- and 7-hydroxylated metabolites. R-warfarin is metabolized by CYP1A1, 1A2, and 3A4 to yield 6-, 8-, and 10-hydroxylated metabolites. Hydroxylated metabolites may be further conjugated prior to excretion into bile and urine. UGT1A1 appears to be responsible for producing the 6-O-glucuronide of warfarin, with a possibly contribution from UGT1A10. Five UGT1As may be involved in the formation of 7-O-glucuronide warfarin. S-warfarin has higher potency than R-warfarin and genetic polymorphisms in CYP2C9 may dramatically decrease clearance of and increase toxicity of the medication.

Source: Drug Bank

Protein Binding

99% bound primarily to albumin

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption

Rapidly absorbed following oral administration with considerable interindividual variations. Also absorbed percutaneously.

Source: Drug Bank

Half-Life

R-warfarin t 1/2=37-89 hours; S-warfarin t 1/2=21-43 hours.

Source: Drug Bank

Toxicity

LD 50=374 (orally in mice)

Source: Drug Bank

Clearance

Source: Drug Bank

Route of Elimination

The elimination of warfarin is almost entirely by metabolism. Very little warfarin is excreted unchanged in urine. The metabolites are principally excreted into the urine; and to a lesser extent into the bile.

Source: Drug Bank

Volume of Distribution

  • 0.14 L/kg

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula

C19H16O4

Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES

CC(=O)CC(c1ccccc1)c2c(c3ccccc3oc2=O)O

Source: OpenEye

Canonical SMILES

CC(=O)CC(C1=CC=CC=C1)C1=C(O)C2=C(OC1=O)C=CC=C2

Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight

308.3279

Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight

308.104859

Source: Drug Bank

PharmGKB Curated Pathways

Pathways created internally by PharmGKB based primarily on literature evidence.

  1. Warfarin Pathway, Pharmacodynamics
    Simplified diagram of the target of warfarin action and downstream genes and effects.
  1. Warfarin Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of the candidate genes involved in transport, metabolism and clearance of warfarin.

External Pathways

Links to non-PharmGKB pathways.

PharmGKB contains no links to external pathways for this drug. To report a pathway, click here.

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Curated Information ?

Drug Targets

Gene Description
F2 (source: Drug Bank)
VKORC1 (source: Drug Bank)
VKORC1L1 (source: Drug Bank)

Drug Interactions

Drug Description
warfarin Acetaminophen increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Acetaminophen increases the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of warfarin if acetaminophen is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Allopurinol increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Allopurinol may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The agent decreases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Aminoglutethimide may decrease the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Amiodarone may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The IV penicillin increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Amprenavir may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin by increasing its serum concentration. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Aprepitant may decrease the anticoagulant effect of warfarin by decreasing its serum concentration. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The salicylate increases the effect of anticoagulant (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Acetylsalicylic acid increases the effect of the anticoagulant, warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The protease inhibitor increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The protease inhibitor, atazanavir, may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The thiopurine decreases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Azathioprine may decrease the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Azithromycin may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin by increasing its serum concentration. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The corticosteroid, betamethasone, alters the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Bosentan may decrease the anticoagulant effect of warfarin by increasing its metabolism. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The antineoplastic agent increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Capecitabine may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin by increasing its serum concentration. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Decreases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Carbamazepine may decrease the anticoagulant effect of warfarin by decreasing its serum concentration. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The IV penicillin increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The cephalosporin, cefotetan, may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The cephalosporin increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The cephalosporin, cefoxitin, may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The cephalosporin increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The cephalosporin, ceftriaxone, may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Celecoxib may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The gastro-intestinal binding agent decreases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The bile acid sequestrant, cholestyramine, may decrease the anticoagulant effect of warfarin by decreasing its absorption. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The anti-H2 increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Cimetidine may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The quinolone increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The quinolone antibiotic, ciprofloxacin, may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Cisapride may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The SSRI increases the effect of anticoagulant (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The SSRI, citalopram, increases the effect of anticoagulant, warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The macrolide increases anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The macrolide, clarithromycin, may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The fibrate increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The fibrate increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The IV penicillin increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The gastro-intestinal binding agent decreases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The bile acid sequestrant, colestipol, may decrease the anticoagulant effect of warfarin by decreasing its absorption. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The antineoplastic agent, cyclophosphamide may alter the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The androgen, danazol, may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The tetracycline, demeclocycline, may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The corticosteroid alters the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The corticosteroid, dexamethasone, alters the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The thyroid hormone, dextrothyroxine, increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The NSAID increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The NSAID, diclofenac, may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Dicloxacillin may decrease the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The NSAID increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The NSAID, diflunisal, may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Disulfiram may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The tetracycline increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The tetracycline, doxycycline, may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The macrolide increases anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The macrolide, erythromycin, may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Ethacrynic acid increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Ethchlorvynol may decrease the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Increased thrombotic risk due to estrogen (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Increased thrombotic risk due to estrogen (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The NSAID increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The NSAID, etodolac, may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Etoricoxib may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Retinoids decreases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The fibrate increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Fenofibrate may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The NSAID increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The NSAID, fenoprofen, may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Fluconazole may increase the serum concentration of warfarin by decreasing its metabolism. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The corticosteroid, fludrocortisone, alters the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The antineoplasic agent increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The antineoplasic agent, fluorouracil, may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The SSRI increases the effect of anticoagulant (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The SSRI, fluoxetine, increases the effect of anticoagulant, warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The androgen, fluoxymesterone, may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The NSAID increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The NSAID, flurbiprofen, may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Flutamide increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The statin increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The statin increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Fluvoxamine increases the effect of the anticoagulant (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Fluvoxamine may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin by increasing its serum concentration. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The protease inhibitor increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The protease inhibitor, fosamprenavir, may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Increased hydantoin levels and risk of bleeding (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Gatifloxacin increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Gefitinib increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Gefitinib may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The agent increases the effect of anticoagulant (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Gemfibrozil increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Gemfibrozil may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Additive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects may increase bleed risk. Concomitant therapy should be avoided. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Glutethimide may decrease the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Griseofulvin decreases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Griseofulvin may decrease the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The corticosteroid alters the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The corticosteroid, hydrocortisone, alters the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The NSAID increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The NSAID, ibuprofen, may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Imatinib increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Imatinib may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. Imatinib may increase the serum concentration of warfarin by decreasing its metabolism. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The protease inhibitor increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The protease inhibitor, indinavir, may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The NSAID increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The NSAID, indomethacin, may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The agent increases the effect of anticoagulant (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Isoniazid may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The imidazole increases the effect of the anticoagulant (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Itraconazole may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin by decreasing its metabolism. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The imidazole increases the effect of the anticoagulant (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Ketoconazole may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin by decreasing its metabolism. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The NSAID increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The NSAID, ketoprofen, may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The NSAID increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The NSAID, ketorolac, may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Leflunomide increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Leflunomide may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The agent increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Levamisole may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The quinolone increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The quinolone antibiotic, levofloxacin, may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Thyroid hormones increase the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The thyroid hormone, levothyroxine, increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The statin increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The statin increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Lumiracoxib may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The agent increases the effect of anticoagulant (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Medroxyprogesterone may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The NSAID increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The NSAID, mefanamic acid, may increase the anticoagulant effect warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Mefloquine can increase the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Mefloquine may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Meloxicam increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Meloxicam may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Mercaptopurine may decrease the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The antithyroid agent causes variations in the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The antithyroid agent, methimazole, may decrease the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Metronidazole increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Metronidazole may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin by decreasing its metabolism. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Vaginal miconazole increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Miconazole may increase the serum concentration of warfarin by decreasing its metabolism. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The tetracycline increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The tetracycline, minocycline, may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Mitotane may decrease the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Moxifloxacin increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The quinolone antibiotic, moxifloxacin, may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The NSAID increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The NSAID, nabumetone, may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The quinolone antibiotic, nalidixic acid, may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The NSAID increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The NSAID, naproxen, may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The protease inhibitor increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The protease inhibitor, nelfinavir, may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Nevirapine decreases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Nevirapine may decrease the anticoagulant effect of warfarin by increasing metabolism of R-warfarin via CYP3A4. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The quinolone increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The quinolone antibiotic, norfloxacin, may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The quinolone increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The quinolone antibiotic, ofloxacin, may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Orlistat increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Orlistat may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The NSAID increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The NSAID, oxaprozin, may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The NSAID increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The NSAID, oxyphenbutazone, may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The SSRI increases the effect of the anticoagulant (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The SSRI, paroxetine, increases the effect of the anticoagulant, warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The IV penicillin increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Pentoxifylline increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Pentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The barbiturate decreases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The barbiturate, phenobarbital, decreases the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The NSAID increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The NSAID, phenylbutazone, may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Increased hydantoin levels and risk of bleeding (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Increased hydantoin levels and risk of bleeding (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The IV penicillin increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The NSAID increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The NSAID, piroxicam, may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The corticosteroid alters the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The corticosteroid, prednisolone, alters the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The corticosteroid alters the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The corticosteroid, prednisone, alters the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The barbiturate decreases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The barbiturate, primidone, decreases the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The agent increases the effect of anticoagulant (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Propafenone may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Propoxyphene increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Propoxyphene may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The anti-thyroid agent causes variations in the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The anti-thyroid agent, propylthiouracil, may decrease the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Quinine/quinidine increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Quinidine may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Quinine/quinidine increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Quinine, a moderate CYP2C9 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of S-warfarin by decreasing its metabolism via CYP2C9. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The anti-H2 increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Ranitidine may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (Conflicting evidence) (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The rifamycin decreases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Rifabutin may decrease the anticoagulant effect of warfarin by increasing its metabolism. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The rifamycin decreases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Rifampin may decrease the anticoagulant effect of warfarin by increasing its metabolism. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The NSAID, sulindac, may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding during concomitant therapy. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Tamoxifen may increase the serum concentration of Warfarin increasing the risk of bleeding. Concomitant therapy should be avoided. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Tamoxifen may increase the serum concentration of Warfarin increasing the risk of bleeding. Concomitant therapy should be avoided. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Telithromycin increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Telithromycin may increase the anticoagulant effect of Warfarin. INR should be monitored and Warfarin dose adjusted accordingly during concomitant therapy. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The NSAID increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The NSAID, tenoxicam, may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Terbinafine decreases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The androgen, Testolactone, may incrase the anticoagulant effect of the Vitamin K antagonist, Warfarin. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic effect of Warfarin if Testolactone is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The androgen increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The androgen, Testosterone, may incrase the anticoagulant effect of the Vitamin K antagonist, Warfarin. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic effect of Warfarin if Testosterone is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The androgen, Testosterone, may incrase the anticoagulant effect of the Vitamin K antagonist, Warfarin. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic effect of Warfarin if Testosterone is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The tetracycline increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Tetracycline may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Thiopental may increase the metabolism of the Vitamin K antagonist, Warfarin. Warfarin dose adjustment may be required. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Thiopental may increase the metabolism of the Vitamin K antagonist, Warfarin. Warfarin dose adjustment may be required. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Increased risk of bleeding. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Increased bleeding risk. Monitor INR. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Tigecycline may increase the serum concentration of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Tolbutamide, a strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Warfarin. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in Warfarin therapeutic and adverse effects if Tolbutamide is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Tolbutamide, a strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Warfarin. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in Warfarin therapeutic and adverse effects if Tolbutamide is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Increased risk of bleeding. Monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Trazodone decreases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Trazodone decreases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The prostacyclin analogue, Treprostinil, increases the risk of bleeding when combined with the anticoagulant, Warfarin. Monitor for increased bleeding during concomitant thearpy. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The corticosteroid alters the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The corticosteroid, triamcinolone, alters the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The anticoagulant effect of Warfarin, a Vitamin K antagonist, may be altered by antineoplastics such as Trimetrexate. Monitor for changes in the anticoagulant effects of warfarin and other coumarin derivatives during concomitant use. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The anticoagulant effect of Warfarin, a Vitamin K antagonist, may be altered by antineoplastics such as Trimetrexate. Monitor for changes in the anticoagulant effects of warfarin and other coumarin derivatives during concomitant use. (source: Drug Bank)
allopurinol Allopurinol may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. Monitor for changes in prothrombin times and therapeutic effects of warfarin if allopurinol is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
aminoglutethimide Aminoglutethimide may decrease the anticoagulant effect of warfarin by increasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in prothrombin time and therapeutic effects of warfarin if aminoglutethimide is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
amiodarone Amiodarone may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. Monitor for changes in prothrombin time and therapeutic effects of warfarin if amiodarone is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
amobarbital Amobarbital may decrease the serum concentration of warfarin by increasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of warfarin if amobarbital is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
bezafibrate Bezafibrate may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. Monitor prothrombin time and therapeutic and adverse effects of warfarin if bezafibrate is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
butabarbital Butabarbital may decrease the serum concentration of warfarin by increasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of warfarin if butabarbital is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
butalbital Butalbital may decrease the serum concentration of warfarin by increasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of warfarin if butalbital is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
capecitabine Capecitabine may increase the serum concentration of warfarin by decreasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in prothrombin time and therapeutic effects of warfarin if capecitabine is initiated or discontinued. Subsequent cycles of capecitabine may increase this effect. (source: Drug Bank)
carbamazepine Carbamazepine may decrease the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. Monitor for changes in prothrombin time and therapeutic and adverse effects of warfarin if carbamazepine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
cimetidine Cimetidine may increase the serum concentration of warfarin. Monitor for changes in prothrombin time and therapeutic and adverse effects of warfarin if cimetidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
clopidogrel Increased bleed risk may occur as a result of additive anticoagulant effects. Increase monitoring for signs and symptoms of bleeding during concomitant therapy. (source: Drug Bank)
danazol Danazol may increase the serum concentration and anticoagulant effect of warfarin. Monitor for changes in prothrombin time and therapeutic effects of warfarin if danazol is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
delavirdine Delavirdine, a strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism of warfarin. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of warfarin if delavirdine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
desogestrel Desogestrol may alter the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. Concomitant therapy should be avoided. Monitor for changes in coagulation status if desogestrol is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
diclofenac The antiplatelet effects of oral diclofenac may increase the bleed risk associated with warfarin. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding during concomitant therapy. (source: Drug Bank)
diflunisal The antiplatelet effects of diflunisal may increase the bleed risk associated with warfarin. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding during concomitant therapy. (source: Drug Bank)
drospirenone Drospirenone may alter the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. Concomitant therapy should be avoided. Monitor for changes in coagulation status if drospirenone is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
ethynodiol diacetate Ethynodiol diacetate may alter the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. Concomitant therapy should be avoided. Monitor for changes in coagulation status if ethynodiol diacetate is initiated, discontinued or dose (source: Drug Bank)
etodolac The antiplatelet effects of etodolac may increase the bleed risk associated with warfarin. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding during concomitant therapy. (source: Drug Bank)
etonogestrel Etonogestrel may alter the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. Concomitant therapy should be avoided. Monitor for changes in coagulation status if etonogestrel is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
fenofibrate Fenofibrate may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. Monitor prothrombin time and therapeutic and adverse effects of warfarin if fenofibrate is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
fenoprofen The antiplatelet effects of fenoprofen may increase the bleed risk associated with warfarin. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding during concomitant therapy. (source: Drug Bank)
floxuridine Floxuridine, a strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism of warfarin. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of warfarin if floxuridine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
fluconazole Fluconazole, a strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism of warfarin. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of warfarin if fluconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
fluorouracil Fluorouracil, a strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism of warfarin. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of warfarin if fluorouracil is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
fluoxymesterone Fluoxymesterone may increase the serum concentration and anticoagulant effect of warfarin. Monitor for changes in prothrombin time and therapeutic effects of warfarin if fluoxymesterone is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
flurbiprofen Flurbiprofen, a strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism of warfarin. The antiplatelet effect of flurbiprofen may also increase the bleed risk associated with warfarin. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of warfarin if flurbiprofen is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
gemfibrozil Gemfibrozil, a strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism of warfarin. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of warfarin if gemfibrozil is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
ginseng Additive anticoagulant effects increase the risk of bleeding. Concomitant therapy should be avoided. (source: Drug Bank)
glutethimide Glutethimide may decrease the serum concentration of warfarin by increasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of warfarin if glutethimide is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
ibuprofen Ibuprofen, a strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism of warfarin. The antiplatelet effect of ibuprofen may also increase the bleed risk associated with warfarin. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of warfarin if ibuprofen is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
imatinib Imatinib may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin increasing the risk of bleeding. Monitor for changes in prothrombin time and therapeutic and adverse effects of warfarin if imatinib is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
indomethacin Indomethacin, a strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism of warfarin. The antiplatelet effect of indomethacin may also increase the bleed risk associated with warfarin. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of warfarin if indomethacin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
ketoconazole Ketoconazole, a strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism of warfarin. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of warfarin if ketoconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
ketoprofen The antiplatelet effects of ketoprofen may increase the bleed risk associated with warfarin. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding during concomitant therapy. (source: Drug Bank)
ketorolac The antiplatelet effects of ketorolac may increase the bleed risk associated with warfarin. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding during concomitant therapy. (source: Drug Bank)
levonorgestrel Levonorgestrel may alter the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. Concomitant therapy should be avoided. Monitor for changes in coagulation status if levonorgestrel is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
levothyroxine Levothyroxine may contribute to the anticoagulant effect of warfarin by increasing the metabolism of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors. Monitor for changes in prothrombin time and anticoagulant effects if levothyroxine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
liothyronine Liothyronine may contribute to the anticoagulant effect of warfarin by increasing the metabolism of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors. Monitor for changes in prothrombin time and anticoagulant effects if liothyronine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
liotrix Liotrix may contribute to the anticoagulant effect of warfarin by increasing the metabolism of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors. Monitor for changes in prothrombin time and anticoagulant effects if liotrix is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
medroxyprogesterone Medroxyprogesterone may alter the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. Concomitant therapy should be avoided. Monitor for changes in coagulation status if medroxyprogesterone is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
meloxicam The antiplatelet effects of meloxicam may increase the bleed risk associated with warfarin. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding during concomitant therapy. (source: Drug Bank)
mestranol Mestranol may alter the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. Concomitant therapy should be avoided. Monitor for changes in coagulation status if mestranol is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
methimazole Methimazole may decrease the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of warfarin if methimazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
methohexital Methohexital may decrease the serum concentration of warfarin by increasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of warfarin if methohexital is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
metronidazole Metronidazole may increase the serum concentration of warfarin by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or a dose reduction in warfarin. Monitor for changes in prothrombin time and therapeutic and adverse effects of warfarin if metronidazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
miconazole Miconazole, a strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism of warfarin. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of warfarin if miconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
nabumetone The antiplatelet effects of nabumetone may increase the bleed risk associated with warfarin. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding during concomitant therapy. (source: Drug Bank)
nafcillin Nafcillin may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin increasing the risk of bleeding. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of warfarin if nafcillin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
nandrolone Nandrolone may increase the serum concentration and anticoagulant effect of warfarin. Monitor for changes in prothrombin time and therapeutic effects of warfarin if nandrolone is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
naproxen The antiplatelet effects of naproxen may increase the bleed risk associated with warfarin. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding during concomitant therapy. (source: Drug Bank)
nicardipine Nicardipine, a strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism of warfarin. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of warfarin if nicardipine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
norethindrone Norethindrone may alter the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. Concomitant therapy should be avoided. Monitor for changes in coagulation status if norethindrone is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
norgestimate Norgestimate may alter the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. Concomitant therapy should be avoided. Monitor for changes in coagulation status if norgestimate is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
norgestrel Norgestrel may alter the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. Concomitant therapy should be avoided. Monitor for changes in coagulation status if norgestrel is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
oxandrolone Oxandrolone may increase the serum concentration and anticoagulant effect of warfarin. Monitor for changes in prothrombin time and therapeutic effects of warfarin if oxandrolone is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
oxaprozin The antiplatelet effects of oxaprozin may increase the bleed risk associated with warfarin. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding during concomitant therapy. (source: Drug Bank)
pentobarbital Pentobarbital may decrease the serum concentration of warfarin by increasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of warfarin if pentobarbital is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital Phenobarbital may decrease the serum concentration of warfarin by increasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of warfarin if phenobarbital is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
phenytoin Warfarin may increase the serum concentration of phenytoin possibly by competing for CYP2C9 metabolism. Phenytoin may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. Monitor phenytoin levels, prothrombin time, and therapeutic and adverse effects of both agents during concomitant therapy. (source: Drug Bank)
phytonadione Phytonadione (vitamin K) may antagonize the anticoagulant effects of warfarin. Monitor for changes in prothrombin time if phytonadione intake (either via supplements or vitamin K-rich foods) is increased or decreased. (source: Drug Bank)
piroxicam Piroxicam, a strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism of warfarin. The antiplatelet effect of piroxicam may also increase the bleed risk associated with warfarin. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of warfarin if piroxicam is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
propylthiouracil Propylthiouracil may decrease the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of warfarin if propylthiouracil is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
s-adenosylmethionine Additive anticoagulant effects increase the risk of bleeding. Concomitant therapy should be avoided. (source: Drug Bank)
salicylate-sodium The antiplatelet effects of sodium salicylate may increase the bleed risk associated with warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
secobarbital Secobarbital may decrease the serum concentration of warfarin by increasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of warfarin if secobarbital is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
sucralfate Sucralfate may reduce the absorption of warfarin. Warfarin should be administered at least 2 hours before or 6 hours after sucralfate administration. Monitor for changes in prothrombin time if sucralfate is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
sulfadiazine Sulfadiazine, a strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism of warfarin. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of warfarin if sulfadiazine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
sulfamethoxazole Sulfamethoxazole may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in prothrombin time if sulfamethoxazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
sulfinpyrazone Sulfinpyrazone may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin by decreasing its metabolism and protein binding. (source: Drug Bank)
sulfisoxazole Sulfisoxazole, a strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism of warfarin. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of warfarin if sulfisoxazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
sulindac The antiplatelet effects of sulindac may increase the bleed risk associated with warfarin. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding during concomitant therapy. (source: Drug Bank)
tamoxifen Tamoxifen, a CYP2C9 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of warfarin by decreasing its metabolism. Concomitant therapy is contraindicated due to significant increase in bleed risk. (source: Drug Bank)
testolactone Testolactone may increase the serum concentration and anticoagulant effect of warfarin. Monitor for changes in prothrombin time and therapeutic effects of warfarin if testolactone is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
testosterone Testosterone may increase the serum concentration and anticoagulant effect of warfarin. Monitor for changes in prothrombin time and therapeutic effects of warfarin if testosterone is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
thiopental Thiopental may decrease the serum concentration of warfarin by increasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of warfarin if thiopental is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
tolbutamide Tolbutamide, a strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism of warfarin. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of warfarin if tolbutamide is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
tolmetin The antiplatelet effects of tolmetin may increase the bleed risk associated with warfarin. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding during concomitant therapy. (source: Drug Bank)
trisalicylate-choline The antiplatelet effects of trisalicylate-choline may increase the bleed risk associated with warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)

Curated Information ?

Relationships from National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT)

May Treat
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Contraindicated With

Publications related to warfarin: 333

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Warfarin pharmacogenetics: it matters if you're black or white. Blood. 2014. Wadelius Mia. PubMed
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Warfarin pharmacogenetics. Trends in cardiovascular medicine. 2014. Johnson Julie A, et al. PubMed
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Genetic variant in folate homeostasis associated with lower warfarin dose in African Americans. Blood. 2014. Daneshjou Roxana, et al. PubMed
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Characterizing variability in warfarin dose requirements in children using modelling and simulation. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Hamberg Anna-Karin, et al. PubMed
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Impact of GATA4 variants on stable warfarin doses in patients with prosthetic heart valves. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2014. Jeong E, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of warfarin in a paediatric population: time in therapeutic range, initial and stable dosing and adverse effects. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2014. Hawcutt D B, et al. PubMed
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Genetic determinants of acenocoumarol and warfarin maintenance dose requirements in Slavic population: A potential role of CYP4F2 and GGCX polymorphisms. Thrombosis research. 2014. Wypasek Ewa, et al. PubMed
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VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genotypes are predictors of warfarin-related outcomes in children. Pediatric blood & cancer. 2014. Shaw Kaitlyn, et al. PubMed
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Methodological issues in the development of a pharmacogenomic algorithm for warfarin dosing: comparison of two regression approaches. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Pavani Addepalli, et al. PubMed
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Warfarin dose requirements in a patient with the CYP2C9*14 allele. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Lee Yee Ming, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic-guided dosing of coumarin anticoagulants: algorithms for warfarin, acenocoumarol and phenprocoumon. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Verhoef Talitha I, et al. PubMed
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Warfarin pharmacogenetics: an illustration of the importance of studies in minority populations. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2014. Perera M A, et al. PubMed
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Genetic Risk Factors for Major Bleeding in Warfarin Patients in a Community Setting. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2014. Roth Joshua A, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics-based warfarin dosing in children. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Hamberg Anna-Karin, et al. PubMed
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Effect of CYP2C9, VKORC1, CYP4F2 and GGCX genetic variants on warfarin maintenance dose and explicating a new pharmacogenetic algorithm in South Indian population. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Krishna Kumar Dhakchinamoorthi, et al. PubMed
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Prediction of optimal warfarin maintenance dose using advanced artificial neural networks. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Grossi Enzo, et al. PubMed
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Association of genetic polymorphisms with warfarin dose requirements in Chinese patients. Genetic testing and molecular biomarkers. 2013. Liang Yundan, et al. PubMed
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Characterization of a Novel CYP2C9 Mutation (1009C>A) Detected in a Warfarin-Sensitive Patient. Journal of pharmacological sciences. 2014. Luo Shun-Bin, et al. PubMed
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A pharmacogenetics-based warfarin maintenance dosing algorithm from northern chinese patients. PloS one. 2014. Chen Jinxing, et al. PubMed
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Verification of pharmacogenetics-based warfarin dosing algorithms in han-chinese patients undertaking mechanic heart valve replacement. PloS one. 2014. Zhao Li, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450-dependent catabolism of vitamin K: ω-hydroxylation catalyzed by human CYP4F2 and CYP4F11. Biochemistry. 2013. Edson Katheryne Z, et al. PubMed
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Clinically actionable genotypes among 10,000 patients with preemptive pharmacogenomic testing. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2013. Van Driest Sara L, et al. PubMed
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A Pharmacogenetic versus a Clinical Algorithm for Warfarin Dosing. The New England journal of medicine. 2013. Kimmel Stephen E, et al. PubMed
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A Randomized Trial of Genotype-Guided Dosing of Warfarin. The New England journal of medicine. 2013. Pirmohamed Munir, et al. PubMed
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Applied Pharmacogenomics in Cardiovascular Medicine. Annual review of medicine. 2013. Weeke Peter, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase genetic polymorphisms A503V and rs2868177 do not significantly affect warfarin stable dosage in Han-Chinese patients with mechanical heart valve replacement. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Tan Sheng-Lan, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes on the risk of hemorrhagic complications in warfarin-treated patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. International journal of cardiology. 2013. Yang Jie, et al. PubMed
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Impact of genotype-guided dosing on anticoagulation visits for adults starting warfarin: a randomized controlled trial. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Jonas Daniel E, et al. PubMed
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Warfarin pharmacogenetics: a controlled dose-response study in healthy subjects. Vascular medicine (London, England). 2013. Kadian-Dodov Daniella L, et al. PubMed
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First report of warfarin dose requirements in patients possessing the CYP2C9*12 allele. Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry. 2013. O'Brien Travis J, et al. PubMed
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PS3-4: Genetic Risk Factors for Major Bleeding in Warfarin Patients in a Community Setting. Clinical medicine & research. 2013. Roth Joshua, et al. PubMed
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Ethnicity-specific pharmacogenetics: the case of warfarin in African Americans. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2013. Hernandez W, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics of anti-platelet and anti-coagulation therapy. Current cardiology reports. 2013. Fisch Adam S, et al. PubMed
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Does CALU SNP rs1043550 contribute variability to therapeutic warfarin dosing requirements?. Clinical medicine & research. 2013. Glurich Ingrid, et al. PubMed
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Genetic variants associated with warfarin dose in African-American individuals: a genome-wide association study. Lancet. 2013. Perera Minoli A, et al. PubMed
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Implication of novel CYP2C9*57 (p.Asn204His) variant in coumarin hypersensitivity. Thrombosis research. 2013. Nahar Risha, et al. PubMed
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Challenges in pharmacogenetics. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Cascorbi Ingolf, et al. PubMed
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Influence of ORM1 polymorphisms on the maintenance stable warfarin dosage. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Wang Lian Sheng, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C9 and VKORC1 polymorphisms influence warfarin dose variability in patients on long-term anticoagulation. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Santos Paulo Caleb Junior Lima, et al. PubMed
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Influence of the VKORC1 3730 G > A polymorphism on warfarin dose. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Skov Jane, et al. PubMed
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The influence of VKORC1 3730 G > A polymorphism on warfarin dose: reply. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Cini Michela, et al. PubMed
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Genetic and clinical determinants influencing warfarin dosing in children with heart disease. Pediatric cardiology. 2013. Nguyen Nguyenvu, et al. PubMed
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Impact of Genetic Factors (CYP2C9, VKORC1 and CYP4F2) on Warfarin Dose Requirement in the Turkish Population. Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology. 2013. Ozer Mahmut, et al. PubMed
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Clopidogrel and warfarin pharmacogenetic tests: what is the evidence for use in clinical practice?. Current opinion in cardiology. 2013. Shahin Mohamed H A, et al. PubMed
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Responsiveness to low-dose warfarin associated with genetic variants of VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP4F2 in an Indonesian population. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Rusdiana T, et al. PubMed
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VKORC1 Asp36Tyr geographic distribution and its impact on warfarin dose requirements in Egyptians. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2013. Shahin M H A, et al. PubMed
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Delayed warfarin induced skin necrosis in a patient with poor warfarin metabolizing activity due to interrupted warfarin therapy. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Gaikwad Tejasvita, et al. PubMed
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Gene-gene-environment interactions between drugs, transporters, receptors, and metabolizing enzymes: Statins, SLCO1B1, and CYP3A4 as an example. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences. 2013. Sadee Wolfgang. PubMed
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The influence of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 gene sequence variants on the stability of maintenance phase warfarin treatment. Thrombosis research. 2013. Skov Jane, et al. PubMed
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The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of single dose (R)- and (S)-warfarin administered separately and together: relationship to VKORC1 genotype. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Maddison John, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C9 promoter region single-nucleotide polymorphisms linked to the R150H polymorphism are functional suggesting their role in CYP2C9*8-mediated effects. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. Cavallari Larisa H, et al. PubMed
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Adherence and variability in warfarin dose requirements: assessment in a prospective cohort. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Jorgensen Andrea L, et al. PubMed
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Pathway analysis of genome-wide data improves warfarin dose prediction. BMC genomics. 2013. Daneshjou Roxana, et al. PubMed
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The bleeding risk during warfarin therapy is associated with the number of variant alleles of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genes. Cardiology. 2013. Tomek Aleš, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP4F2 polymorphisms and plasma vitamin K levels on warfarin sensitivity in Japanese pediatric patients. Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics. 2013. Hirai Keita, et al. PubMed
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Influence of warfarin dose-associated genotypes on the risk of hemorrhagic complications in Chinese patients on warfarin. International journal of hematology. 2012. Ma Cong, et al. PubMed
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VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genotype is associated with over-anticoagulation during initiation of warfarin therapy in children. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2012. Biss T T, et al. PubMed
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Association of GGCX gene polymorphism with warfarin dose in atrial fibrillation population in Xinjiang. Lipids in health and disease. 2013. Kamali Xiayizha, et al. PubMed
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Development of a pharmacogenetic-guided warfarin dosing algorithm for Puerto Rican patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Ramos Alga S, et al. PubMed
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Effect of NQO1 and CYP4F2 genotypes on warfarin dose requirements in Hispanic-Americans and African-Americans. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Bress Adam, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics and cardiovascular disease--implications for personalized medicine. Pharmacological reviews. 2013. Johnson Julie A, et al. PubMed
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Warfarin anticoagulant therapy: a southern Italy pharmacogenetics-based dosing model. PloS one. 2013. Mazzaccara Cristina, et al. PubMed
Impact of the CYP4F2 p.V433M Polymorphism on Coumarin Dose Requirement: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2012. Danese E, et al. PubMed
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Oral anticoagulation and VKORC1 polymorphism in patients with a mechanical heart prosthesis: a 6-year follow-up. Journal of thrombosis and thrombolysis. 2012. Giansante Carlo, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics in clinical practice and drug development. Nature biotechnology. 2012. Harper Andrew R, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of P450 oxidoreductase: implications in drug metabolism and therapy. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. Hu Lei, et al. PubMed
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Cardiovascular Pharmacogenomics: The Future of Cardiovascular Therapeutics?. The Canadian journal of cardiology. 2012. Roden Dan M. PubMed
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Warfarin pharmacogenetics: development of a dosing algorithm for Omani patients. Journal of human genetics. 2012. Pathare Anil, et al. PubMed
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A new warfarin dosing algorithm including VKORC1 3730 G > A polymorphism: comparison with results obtained by other published algorithms. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2012. Cini Michela, et al. PubMed
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CYP4F2 gene polymorphism as a contributor to warfarin maintenance dose in Japanese subjects. Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. 2012. Nakamura K, et al. PubMed
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The population attributable fraction as a measure of the impact of warfarin pharmacogenetic testing. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Chan Sze Ling, et al. PubMed
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Effect of the VKORC1 D36Y variant on warfarin dose requirement and pharmacogenetic dose prediction. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2012. Kurnik D, et al. PubMed
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Polymorphisms in VKORC1 have more impact than CYP2C9 polymorphisms on early warfarin International Normalized Ratio control and bleeding rates. British journal of haematology. 2012. Lund Kirstin, et al. PubMed
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Impact of CYP2C9*3, VKORC1-1639, CYP4F2rs2108622 genetic polymorphism and clinical factors on warfarin maintenance dose in Han-Chinese patients. Journal of thrombosis and thrombolysis. 2012. Liang Ruijuan, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP4F2 genotype on warfarin dose requirement-a systematic review and meta-analysis. Thrombosis research. 2012. Liang Ruijuan, et al. PubMed
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Retrospective evidence for clinical validity of expanded genetic model in warfarin dose optimization in a South Indian population. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Pavani Addepalli, et al. PubMed
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Effects of CYP4F2 gene polymorphisms on warfarin clearance and sensitivity in Korean patients with mechanical cardiac valves. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2012. Lee Kyung-Eun, et al. PubMed
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Factor VII R353Q genetic polymorphism is associated with altered warfarin sensitivity among CYP2C9 *1/*1 carriers. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2012. Mlynarsky Liat, et al. PubMed
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A clinically significant interaction between warfarin and simvastatin is unique to carriers of the CYP2C9*3 allele. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Andersson Marine L, et al. PubMed
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Evaluation of the warfarin-resistance polymorphism, VKORC1 Asp36Tyr, and its effect on dosage algorithms in a genetically heterogeneous anticoagulant clinic. Clinical biochemistry. 2012. Shuen Andrew Y, et al. PubMed
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Decreased warfarin clearance associated with the CYP2C9 R150H (*8) polymorphism. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2012. Liu Y, et al. PubMed
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Effects of CYP4F2 polymorphism on response to warfarin during induction phase: a prospective, open-label, observational cohort study. Clinical therapeutics. 2012. Bejarano-Achache Idit, et al. PubMed
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Cardiovascular pharmacogenomics: current status and future directions-report of a national heart, lung, and blood institute working group. Journal of the American Heart Association. 2012. Musunuru Kiran, et al. PubMed
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Randomized and Clinical Effectiveness Trial Comparing Two Pharmacogenetic Algorithms and Standard Care for Individualizing Warfarin Dosing: CoumaGen-II. Circulation. 2012. Anderson Jeffrey L, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphisms are associated with variations in warfarin maintenance dose in Han Chinese patients with venous thromboembolism. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Zhang Wei, et al. PubMed
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Predicting warfarin dosage in European-Americans and African-Americans using DNA samples linked to an electronic health record. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Ramirez Andrea H, et al. PubMed
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Prediction of warfarin dose reductions in Puerto Rican patients, based on combinatorial CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes. The Annals of pharmacotherapy. 2012. Valentin Isa Ivette, et al. PubMed
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VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genotype and patient characteristics explain a large proportion of the variability in warfarin dose requirement among children. Blood. 2012. Biss Tina T, et al. PubMed
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Vitamin K antagonists in children with heart disease: height and VKORC1 genotype are the main determinants of the warfarin dose requirement. Blood. 2012. Moreau Caroline, et al. PubMed
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The population pharmacokinetics of R- and S-warfarin: effect of genetic and clinical factors. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2012. Lane Steven, et al. PubMed
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Validation of warfarin pharmacogenetic algorithms in clinical practice. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Marin-Leblanc Mélina, et al. PubMed
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Association of the GGCX (CAA)16/17 repeat polymorphism with higher warfarin dose requirements in African Americans. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Cavallari Larisa H, et al. PubMed
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Copy number variation and warfarin dosing: evaluation of CYP2C9, VKORC1, CYP4F2, GGCX and CALU. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Scott Stuart A, et al. PubMed
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Low dose requirement for warfarin treatment in a patient with CYP2C9*3/*13 genotype. Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry. 2011. Kwon Min-Jung, et al. PubMed
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Evaluation of the effects of VKORC1 polymorphisms and haplotypes, CYP2C9 genotypes, and clinical factors on warfarin response in Sudanese patients. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2011. Shrif Nassr Eldin M A, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of Coumarin Dosing: Prevalence of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 Polymorphisms in the Lebanese Population. Genetic testing and molecular biomarkers. 2011. Djaffar-Jureidini Isabelle, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 polymorphisms on warfarin and acenocoumarol in a sample of Lebanese people. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2011. Esmerian Maria O, et al. PubMed
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PharmGKB summary: very important pharmacogene information for CYP1A2. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Thorn Caroline F, et al. PubMed
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PharmGKB summary: very important pharmacogene information for cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily C, polypeptide 19. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Scott Stuart A, et al. PubMed
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Influence of genetic, biological and pharmacological factors on warfarin dose in a Southern Brazilian population of European ancestry. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2011. Botton Mariana Rodrigues, et al. PubMed
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Extremely low warfarin dose in patients with genotypes of CYP2C9*3/*3 and VKORC1-1639A/A. Chinese medical journal. 2011. Gao Lei, et al. PubMed
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Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium Guidelines for CYP2C9 and VKORC1 Genotypes and Warfarin Dosing. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Johnson J A, et al. PubMed
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Novel VKORC1 mutations associated with warfarin sensitivity. Cardiovascular therapeutics. 2011. Baniasadi Shadi, et al. PubMed
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Prospective evaluation of a pharmacogenetics-guided warfarin loading and maintenance dose regimen for initiation of therapy. Blood. 2011. Gong Inna Y, et al. PubMed
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Facilitating pharmacogenetic studies using electronic health records and natural-language processing: a case study of warfarin. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA. 2011. Xu Hua, et al. PubMed
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Prospective-retrospective biomarker analysis for regulatory consideration: white paper from the industry pharmacogenomics working group. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Patterson Scott D, et al. PubMed
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Contribution of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 polymorphisms in the interethnic variability of warfarin dose in Malaysian populations. Annals of hematology. 2011. Gan Gin Gin, et al. PubMed
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EPHX1 Polymorphisms Are Not Associated With Warfarin Response in an Italian Population. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Ciccacci C, et al. PubMed
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Effect of the VKORC1 genotype on warfarin dose requirements in Japanese pediatric patients. Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics. 2011. Kato Yuya, et al. PubMed
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Novel CYP2C9 and VKORC1 gene variants associated with warfarin dosage variability in the South African black population. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Mitchell Cathrine, et al. PubMed
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The impact of VKORC1-1639 G>A polymorphism on the maintenance dose of oral anticoagulants for thromboembolic prophylaxis in North India: A pilot study. Indian journal of human genetics. 2011. Rathore S S, et al. PubMed
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Genetics informatics trial (GIFT) of warfarin to prevent deep vein thrombosis (DVT): rationale and study design. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2011. Do E J, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics: the genetics of variable drug responses. Circulation. 2011. Roden Dan M, et al. PubMed
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The missing association: sequencing-based discovery of NOVEL SNPs in VKORC1 and CYP2C9 that affect warfarin dose in African Americans. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Perera M A, et al. PubMed
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Genomics and drug response. The New England journal of medicine. 2011. Wang Liewei, et al. PubMed
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Optimization of warfarin dose by population-specific pharmacogenomic algorithm. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2011. Pavani A, et al. PubMed
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Translational aspects of genetic factors in the prediction of drug response variability: a case study of warfarin pharmacogenomics in a multi-ethnic cohort from Asia. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2011. Chan S L, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics of warfarin dose requirements in Hispanics. Blood cells, molecules & diseases. 2011. Cavallari Larisa H, et al. PubMed
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From evidence based medicine to mechanism based medicine. Reviewing the role of pharmacogenetics. International journal of clinical pharmacy. 2011. Wilffert Bob, et al. PubMed
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Genetic warfarin dosing tables versus algorithms. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2011. Finkelman Brian S, et al. PubMed
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Influence of GGCX genotype on warfarin dose requirements in Chinese patients. Thrombosis research. 2011. Huang Sheng-Wen, et al. PubMed
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Contribution of 1173C > T polymorphism in the VKORC1 gene to warfarin dose requirements in Han Chinese patients receiving anticoagulation. International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Yang J, et al. PubMed
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Exon sequencing and association analysis of EPHX1 genetic variants with maintenance warfarin dose in a multiethnic Asian population. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Chan Sze Ling, et al. PubMed
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Genetic and nongenetic factors associated with warfarin doserequirements in Egyptian patients. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Shahin Mohamed Hossam A, et al. PubMed
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Comparison of warfarin pharmacogenetic dosing algorithms in a racially diverse large cohort. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Shin Jaekyu, et al. PubMed
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Practical recommendations for pharmacogenomics-based prescription: 2010 ESF-UB Conference on Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Becquemont Laurent, et al. PubMed
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The effect of CYP2C9, VKORC1 genotypes and old age on warfarin pharmacologic sensitivity in korean patients with thromboembolic disease. Annals of clinical and laboratory science. 2011. Moon Hee-Won, et al. PubMed
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In pediatric patients, age has more impact on dosing of vitamin K antagonists than VKORC1 or CYP2C9 genotypes. Blood. 2010. Nowak-Göttl Ulrike, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP4F2 rs2108622 (V433M) on warfarin dose requirement in Asian patients. Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics. 2011. Singh Onkar, et al. PubMed
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Genome-wide association study identifies genetic determinants of warfarin responsiveness for Japanese. Human molecular genetics. 2010. Cha Pei-Chieng, et al. PubMed
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Genetic variation of VKORC1 and CYP4F2 genes related to warfarin maintenance dose in patients with myocardial infarction. Journal of biomedicine & biotechnology. 2011. Kringen Marianne K, et al. PubMed
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Clinical and Genetic Determinants of Warfarin Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics during Treatment Initiation. PloS one. 2011. Gong Inna Y, et al. PubMed
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National estimates of emergency department visits for hemorrhage-related adverse events from clopidogrel plus aspirin and from warfarin. Archives of internal medicine. 2010. Shehab Nadine, et al. PubMed
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Systematic review of pharmacoeconomic studies of pharmacogenomic tests. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Beaulieu Mathieu, et al. PubMed
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Statistical design of personalized medicine interventions: The Clarification of Optimal Anticoagulation through Genetics (COAG) trial. Trials. 2010. French Benjamin, et al. PubMed
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Effect of single-dose rifampin on the pharmacokinetics of warfarin in healthy volunteers. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Frymoyer A, et al. PubMed
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The utility of general purpose versus specialty clinical databases for research: warfarin dose estimation from extracted clinical variables. Journal of biomedical informatics. 2010. Sagreiya Hersh, et al. PubMed
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VKORC1 pharmacogenomics summary. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Owen Ryan P, et al. PubMed
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Gamma-glutamyl carboxylase and its influence on warfarin dose. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2010. King Cristi R, et al. PubMed
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New genetic variant that might improve warfarin dose prediction in African Americans. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2010. Schelleman Hedi, et al. PubMed
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Clinically significant CYP2C inhibition by noscapine but not by glucosamine. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Rosenborg S, et al. PubMed
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Expectations, validity, and reality in pharmacogenetics. Journal of clinical epidemiology. 2010. Limdi Nita A, et al. PubMed
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Worldwide allele frequency distribution of four polymorphisms associated with warfarin dose requirements. Journal of human genetics. 2010. Ross Kendra A, et al. PubMed
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VKORC1 polymorphisms in Brazilians: comparison with the Portuguese and Portuguese-speaking Africans and pharmacogenetic implications. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Suarez-Kurtz Guilherme, et al. PubMed
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A haplotype of CYP2C9 associated with warfarin sensitivity in mechanical heart valve replacement patients. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2010. Lee Su-Jun, et al. PubMed
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CYP4F2 rs2108622: a minor significant genetic factor of warfarin dose in Han Chinese patients with mechanical heart valve replacement. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2010. Cen Han-Jing, et al. PubMed
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Extending and evaluating a warfarin dosing algorithm that includes CYP4F2 and pooled rare variants of CYP2C9. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Sagreiya Hersh, et al. PubMed
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A pharmacometric model describing the relationship between warfarin dose and INR response with respect to variations in CYP2C9, VKORC1, and age. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Hamberg A-K, et al. PubMed
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Warfarin genotyping reduces hospitalization rates results from the MM-WES (Medco-Mayo Warfarin Effectiveness study). Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2010. Epstein Robert S, et al. PubMed
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Combined CYP2C9, VKORC1 and CYP4F2 frequencies among racial and ethnic groups. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Scott Stuart A, et al. PubMed
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A regression model to predict warfarin dose from clinical variables and polymorphisms in CYP2C9, CYP4F2, and VKORC1: Derivation in a sample with predominantly a history of venous thromboembolism. Thrombosis research. 2010. Wells P S, et al. PubMed
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Warfarin pharmacogenetics: a single VKORC1 polymorphism is predictive of dose across 3 racial groups. Blood. 2010. Limdi Nita A, et al. PubMed
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A Phenotype-Genotype Approach to Predicting CYP450 and P-Glycoprotein Drug Interactions With the Mixed Inhibitor/Inducer Tipranavir/Ritonavir. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Dumond J B, et al. PubMed
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Integration of genetic, clinical, and INR data to refine warfarin dosing. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Lenzini P, et al. PubMed
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Comparative performance of gene-based warfarin dosing algorithms in a multiethnic population. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2010. Lubitz S A, et al. PubMed
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A polymorphism in the VKORC1 regulator calumenin predicts higher warfarin dose requirements in African Americans. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Voora D, et al. PubMed
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Genetic and clinical predictors of warfarin dose requirements in African Americans. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Cavallari L H, et al. PubMed
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Genetic and clinical predictors of warfarin dose requirements in African Americans. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Cavallari L H, et al. PubMed
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Impact of CYP4F2 rs2108622 on the stable warfarin dose in an admixed patient cohort. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Perini J A, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 2C9-CYP2C9. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Van Booven Derek, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C9*1B promoter polymorphisms, in linkage with CYP2C19*2, affect phenytoin autoinduction of clearance and maintenance dose. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 2010. Chaudhry Amarjit S, et al. PubMed
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Genetic factors (VKORC1, CYP2C9, EPHX1, and CYP4F2) are predictor variables for warfarin response in very elderly, frail inpatients. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Pautas E, et al. PubMed
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Ability of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 to predict therapeutic warfarin dose during the initial weeks of therapy. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2010. Ferder N S, et al. PubMed
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VKORC1, CYP2C9 and CYP4F2 genetic-based algorithm for warfarin dosing: an Italian retrospective study. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Zambon Carlo-Federico, et al. PubMed
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Genetic determinants of warfarin dosing in the Han-Chinese population. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Lee M T Michael, et al. PubMed
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VKORC1 pharmacogenetics and pharmacoproteomics in patients on warfarin anticoagulant therapy: transthyretin precursor as a potential biomarker. PloS one. 2010. Saminathan Ramasamy, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics: role in medicines approval and clinical use. Public health genomics. 2010. Novelli G, et al. PubMed
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Influence of clinical and genetic factors on warfarin dose requirements among Japanese patients. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2009. Ohno Masako, et al. PubMed
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Interactive modeling for ongoing utility of pharmacogenetic diagnostic testing: application for warfarin therapy. Clinical chemistry. 2009. Linder Mark W, et al. PubMed
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Warfarin interactions with substances listed in drug information compendia and in the FDA-approved label for warfarin sodium. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Anthony M, et al. PubMed
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Effects of CYP4F2 genetic polymorphisms and haplotypes on clinical outcomes in patients initiated on warfarin therapy. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2009. Zhang Jieying Eunice, et al. PubMed
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Genetic and environmental factors determining clinical outcomes and cost of warfarin therapy: a prospective study. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2009. Jorgensen Andrea L, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomic trial design: use of a PK/PD model to explore warfarin dosing interventions through clinical trial simulation. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2009. Salinger David H, et al. PubMed
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Genotype-guided dosing of coumarin derivatives: the European pharmacogenetics of anticoagulant therapy (EU-PACT) trial design. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. van Schie Rianne M F, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics in cardiovascular antithrombotic therapy. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2009. Marín Francisco, et al. PubMed
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Dabigatran versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation. The New England journal of medicine. 2009. Connolly Stuart J, et al. PubMed
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Generating genome-scale candidate gene lists for pharmacogenomics. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Hansen N T, et al. PubMed
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Exploring warfarin pharmacogenomics with the extreme-discordant-phenotype methodology: impact of FVII polymorphisms on stable anticoagulation with warfarin. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2009. Fuchshuber-Moraes Mateus, et al. PubMed
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A highly annotated whole-genome sequence of a Korean individual. Nature. 2009. Kim Jong-Il, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C9*8 is prevalent among African-Americans: implications for pharmacogenetic dosing. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Scott Stuart A, et al. PubMed
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Clinically available pharmacogenomics tests. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Flockhart D A, et al. PubMed
CYP4F2 is a vitamin K1 oxidase: An explanation for altered warfarin dose in carriers of the V433M variant. Molecular pharmacology. 2009. McDonald Matthew G, et al. PubMed
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Effect of VKORC1-1639 G>A polymorphism, body weight, age, and serum albumin alterations on warfarin response in Japanese patients. Thrombosis research. 2009. Yoshizawa Misa, et al. PubMed
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Genetic Polymorphism of the Human Cytochrome P450 2C9 Gene and Its Clinical Significance. Current drug metabolism. 2009. Wang B, et al. PubMed
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Prediction of the effects of genetic polymorphism on the pharmacokinetics of CYP2C9 substrates from in vitro data. Pharmaceutical research. 2009. Kusama Makiko, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics and stroke. Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation. 2009. Meschia James F. PubMed
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Influence of CYP2C9 genotype on warfarin dose requirements--a systematic review and meta-analysis. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2009. Lindh Jonatan D, et al. PubMed
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Data-driven methods to discover molecular determinants of serious adverse drug events. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Chiang A P, et al. PubMed
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A genome-wide association study confirms VKORC1, CYP2C9, and CYP4F2 as principal genetic determinants of warfarin dose. PLoS genetics. 2009. Takeuchi Fumihiko, et al. PubMed
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Validation of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genotypes on interindividual warfarin maintenance dose: a prospective study in Chinese patients. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2009. Huang Sheng-Wen, et al. PubMed
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Effect of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes on early-phase and steady-state warfarin dosing in Korean patients with mechanical heart valve replacement. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2009. Kim Ho-Sook, et al. PubMed
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CYP4F2 genetic variant (rs2108622) significantly contributes to warfarin dosing variability in the Italian population. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Borgiani Paola, et al. PubMed
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Warfarin-antiretroviral interactions. The Annals of pharmacotherapy. 2009. Liedtke Michelle D, et al. PubMed
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Estimation of the warfarin dose with clinical and pharmacogenetic data. The New England journal of medicine. 2009. International Warfarin Pharmacogenetics Consortium, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics--tailoring treatment for the outliers. The New England journal of medicine. 2009. Woodcock Janet, et al. PubMed
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Cost-effectiveness of using pharmacogenetic information in warfarin dosing for patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Annals of internal medicine. 2009. Eckman Mark H, et al. PubMed
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The largest prospective warfarin-treated cohort supports genetic forecasting. Blood. 2009. Wadelius Mia, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 on warfarin response during initiation of therapy. Blood cells, molecules & diseases. 2009. Limdi N A, et al. PubMed
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Arrhythmia pharmacogenomics: methodological considerations. Current pharmaceutical design. 2009. Roden Dan M, et al. PubMed
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VKORC1 diplotype-derived dosing model to explain variability in warfarin dose requirements in Asian patients. Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics. 2009. Sandanaraj Edwin, et al. PubMed
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A vitamin K epoxide reductase-oxidase complex gene polymorphism (-1639G>A) and interindividual variability in the dose-effect of vitamin K antagonists. Journal of applied genetics. 2009. Stepien E, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic differences between warfarin, acenocoumarol and phenprocoumon. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2008. Beinema Maarten, et al. PubMed
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Functional pharmacogenetics/genomics of human cytochromes P450 involved in drug biotransformation. Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry. 2008. Zanger Ulrich M, et al. PubMed
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Familial deficiency of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors. Haemophilia : the official journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia. 2008. Weston B W, et al. PubMed
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VKORC1 polymorphisms in Amerindian populations of Brazil. Pharmacogenomics. 2008. Perini Jamila A, et al. PubMed
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Evidence for a pharmacogenetic adapted dose of oral anticoagulant in routine medical practice. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2008. Becquemont Laurent. PubMed
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Pharmacodynamic resistance to warfarin is associated with nucleotide substitutions in VKORC1. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2008. Harrington D J, et al. PubMed
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VKORC1 polymorphisms, haplotypes and haplotype groups on warfarin dose among African-Americans and European-Americans. Pharmacogenomics. 2008. Limdi Nita A, et al. PubMed
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Dosing algorithms to predict warfarin maintenance dose in Caucasians and African Americans. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Schelleman H, et al. PubMed
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Genetic variation in drug transporters in ethnic populations. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Cropp C D, et al. PubMed
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The critical path of warfarin dosing: finding an optimal dosing strategy using pharmacogenetics. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Lesko L J. PubMed
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Use of pharmacogenetic and clinical factors to predict the therapeutic dose of warfarin. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Gage B F, et al. PubMed
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VKORC1 and CYP2C9 polymorphisms are associated with warfarin dose requirements in Turkish patients. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2008. Oner Ozgon G, et al. PubMed
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Effects of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 on INR variations and dose requirements during initial phase of anticoagulant therapy. Pharmacogenomics. 2008. Spreafico Marta, et al. PubMed
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A genome-wide scan for common genetic variants with a large influence on warfarin maintenance dose. Blood. 2008. Cooper Gregory M, et al. PubMed
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Regulatory polymorphism in vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) affects gene expression and warfarin dose requirement. Blood. 2008. Wang Danxin, et al. PubMed
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Integrating genomic based information into clinical warfarin (Coumadin) management: an illustrative case report. Connecticut medicine. 2008. LaSala Anthony, et al. PubMed
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Prospective study of warfarin dosage requirements based on CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Wen M-S, et al. PubMed
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Capecitabine: an overview of the side effects and their management. Anti-cancer drugs. 2008. Saif Muhammad Wasif, et al. PubMed
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Association of CYP2C9 gene polymorphism with bleeding as a complication of warfarin therapy. Collegium antropologicum. 2008. Samardzija Marina, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphism analysis of CYP2C19 in Chinese Han populations from different geographic areas of mainland China. Pharmacogenomics. 2008. Chen Lingling, et al. PubMed
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Oral anticoagulants: Pharmacogenetics Relationship between genetic and non-genetic factors. Blood reviews. 2008. D'Andrea Giovanna, et al. PubMed
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Combination of phenotype assessments and CYP2C9-VKORC1 polymorphisms in the determination of warfarin dose requirements in heavily medicated patients. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Michaud V, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of warfarin: development of a dosing algorithm for brazilian patients. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Perini J A, et al. PubMed
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CYP4F2 genetic variant alters required warfarin dose. Blood. 2008. Caldwell Michael D, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C9 genotype-guided warfarin prescribing enhances the efficacy and safety of anticoagulation: a prospective randomized controlled study. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Caraco Y, et al. PubMed
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Genetic determinants of response to warfarin during initial anticoagulation. The New England journal of medicine. 2008. Schwarz Ute I, et al. PubMed
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Warfarin pharmacogenetics: CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes predict different sensitivity and resistance frequencies in the Ashkenazi and Sephardi Jewish populations. American journal of human genetics. 2008. Scott Stuart A, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 1173C/T genotype on the risk of hemorrhagic complications in African-American and European-American patients on warfarin. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Limdi N A, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of warfarin: regulatory, scientific, and clinical issues. Journal of thrombosis and thrombolysis. 2008. Gage Brian F, et al. PubMed
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Dosing algorithm for warfarin using CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotyping from a multi-ethnic population: comparison with other equations. Pharmacogenomics. 2008. Wu Alan H B, et al. PubMed
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Apolipoprotein E genotype and warfarin dosing among Caucasians and African Americans. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2008. Kimmel S E, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C9 genotypes and the quality of anticoagulation control with warfarin therapy among Brazilian patients. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2008. Lima M V, et al. PubMed
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The role of CYP2C9 gene polymorphisms on anticoagulant therapy after heart valve replacement. Medical principles and practice : international journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre. 2008. Yildirim Hatice, et al. PubMed
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Influence of cytochrome P450 polymorphisms on drug therapies: pharmacogenetic, pharmacoepigenetic and clinical aspects. Pharmacology & therapeutics. 2007. Ingelman-Sundberg Magnus, et al. PubMed
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Randomized trial of genotype-guided versus standard warfarin dosing in patients initiating oral anticoagulation. Circulation. 2007. Anderson Jeffrey L, et al. PubMed
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Gamma-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX) tagSNPs have limited utility for predicting warfarin maintenance dose. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2007. Rieder M J, et al. PubMed
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Factors influencing warfarin dose requirements in African-Americans. Pharmacogenomics. 2007. Momary Kathryn M, et al. PubMed
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Genetic-based dosing in orthopedic patients beginning warfarin therapy. Blood. 2007. Millican Eric A, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genetic polymorphism analysis might be necessary in patients with Factor V Leiden and prothrombin gene G2021A mutation(s). Diagnostic molecular pathology : the American journal of surgical pathology, part B. 2007. Leung Allen, et al. PubMed
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Extended prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism with idraparinux. The New England journal of medicine. 2007. van Gogh Investigators, et al. PubMed
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Idraparinux versus standard therapy for venous thromboembolic disease. The New England journal of medicine. 2007. van Gogh Investigators, et al. PubMed
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Estimation of warfarin maintenance dose based on VKORC1 (-1639 G>A) and CYP2C9 genotypes. Clinical chemistry. 2007. Zhu Yusheng, et al. PubMed
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Ethnic differences in the VKORC1 gene polymorphism and an association with warfarin dosage requirements in cardiovascular surgery patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2007. Nakai Kenji, et al. PubMed
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Effects of daily ingestion of cranberry juice on the pharmacokinetics of warfarin, tizanidine, and midazolam--probes of CYP2C9, CYP1A2, and CYP3A4. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Lilja J J, et al. PubMed
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Functional polymorphism in human CYP4F2 decreases 20-HETE production. Physiological genomics. 2007. Stec David E, et al. PubMed
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Warfarin response and vitamin K epoxide reductase complex 1 in African Americans and Caucasians. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Schelleman H, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP2C9 Genotype on warfarin dose among African American and European Americans. Personalized medicine. 2007. Limdi Na, et al. PubMed
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Identifying the genotype behind the phenotype: a role model found in VKORC1 and its association with warfarin dosing. Pharmacogenomics. 2007. Crawford Dana C, et al. PubMed
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Tolerability of statins is not linked to CYP450 polymorphisms, but reduced CYP2D6 metabolism improves cholesteraemic response to simvastatin and fluvastatin. Pharmacological research : the official journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society. 2007. Zuccaro Piergiorgio, et al. PubMed
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Oral anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy and peripheral arterial disease. The New England journal of medicine. 2007. Warfarin Antiplatelet Vascular Evaluation Trial Investigators, et al. PubMed
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A PK-PD model for predicting the impact of age, CYP2C9, and VKORC1 genotype on individualization of warfarin therapy. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Hamberg A-K, et al. PubMed
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Factors affecting the interindividual variability of warfarin dose requirement in adult Korean patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2007. Cho Hyun-Jung, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of warfarin: current status and future challenges. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2007. Wadelius M, et al. PubMed
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A coding VKORC1 Asp36Tyr polymorphism predisposes to warfarin resistance. Blood. 2007. Loebstein Ronen, et al. PubMed
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Evaluation of genetic factors for warfarin dose prediction. Clinical medicine & research. 2007. Caldwell Michael D, et al. PubMed
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Association of warfarin dose with genes involved in its action and metabolism. Human genetics. 2007. Wadelius Mia, et al. PubMed
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Warfarin and cytochrome P450 2C9 genotype: possible ethnic variation in warfarin sensitivity. Pharmacogenomics. 2007. Kealey Carmel, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
High-resolution SNP and haplotype maps of the human gamma-glutamyl carboxylase gene (GGCX) and association study between polymorphisms in GGCX and the warfarin maintenance dose requirement of the Japanese population. Journal of human genetics. 2007. Cha Pei-Chieng, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genotypes of the cytochrome p450 isoform, CYP2C9, and the vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 conjointly determine stable warfarin dose: a prospective study. Journal of thrombosis and thrombolysis. 2006. Carlquist John F, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genotypes of vitamin K epoxide reductase, gamma-glutamyl carboxylase, and cytochrome P450 2C9 as determinants of daily warfarin dose in Japanese patients. Thrombosis research. 2007. Kimura Rina, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Enzyme source effects on CYP2C9 kinetics and inhibition. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2006. Kumar Vikas, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
A warfarin-dosing model in Asians that uses single-nucleotide polymorphisms in vitamin K epoxide reductase complex and cytochrome P450 2C9. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Tham Lai-San, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Multiple gene polymorphisms and warfarin sensitivity. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2006. Shikata Eriko, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Polymorphisms in the VKORC1 gene are strongly associated with warfarin dosage requirements in patients receiving anticoagulation. Journal of medical genetics. 2006. Li T, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
VKORC1 gene variations are the major contributors of variation in warfarin dose in Japanese patients. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Obayashi Kyoko, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Tamoxifen inhibits cytochrome P450 2C9 activity in breast cancer patients. Journal of chemotherapy (Florence, Italy). 2006. Boruban M C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Four novel defective alleles and comprehensive haplotype analysis of CYP2C9 in Japanese. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2006. Maekawa Keiko, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
In silico pharmacogenetics of warfarin metabolism. Nature biotechnology. 2006. Guo Yingying, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
The influence of sequence variations in factor VII, gamma-glutamyl carboxylase and vitamin K epoxide reductase complex genes on warfarin dose requirement. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2006. Herman Darja, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
The c.-1639G > A polymorphism of the VKORC1 gene is a major determinant of the response to acenocoumarol in anticoagulated patients. British journal of haematology. 2006. Montes Ramón, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Influence of coagulation factor, vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1, and cytochrome P450 2C9 gene polymorphisms on warfarin dose requirements. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Aquilante Christina L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Interethnic variability of warfarin maintenance requirement is explained by VKORC1 genotype in an Asian population. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Lee Soo-Chin, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Warfarin pharmacology, clinical management, and evaluation of hemorrhagic risk for the elderly. Clinics in geriatric medicine. 2006. Jacobs Laurie G. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Combined genetic profiles of components and regulators of the vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylation system affect individual sensitivity to warfarin. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2006. Vecsler Manuela, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 polymorphisms with warfarin dose requirements in Japanese patients. Journal of human genetics. 2006. Mushiroda Taisei, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
1173C>T polymorphism in VKORC1 modulates the required warfarin dose. Pediatric cardiology. 2006. Kosaki K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
The impact of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genetic polymorphism and patient characteristics upon warfarin dose requirements: proposal for a new dosing regimen. Blood. 2005. Sconce Elizabeth A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Site-directed mutagenesis of coumarin-type anticoagulant-sensitive VKORC1: evidence that highly conserved amino acids define structural requirements for enzymatic activity and inhibition by warfarin. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2005. Rost Simone, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
VKORC1 haplotypes and their impact on the inter-individual and inter-ethnical variability of oral anticoagulation. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2005. Geisen Christof, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Factor XIII Val34Leu polymorphism and gamma-chain cross-linking at the site of microvascular injury in healthy and coumadin-treated subjects. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2005. Undas A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
A prospective, randomized pilot trial of model-based warfarin dose initiation using CYP2C9 genotype and clinical data. Clinical medicine & research. 2005. Hillman Michael A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Kinetic study of cytochrome P450 3A4 activity on warfarin by capillary electrophoresis with fluorescence detection. Journal of chromatography. A. 2005. Zhang Jie, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
A novel functional VKORC1 promoter polymorphism is associated with inter-individual and inter-ethnic differences in warfarin sensitivity. Human molecular genetics. 2005. Yuan Hsiang-Yu, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
In-vitro and in-vivo effects of the CYP2C9*11 polymorphism on warfarin metabolism and dose. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2005. Tai Guoying, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Effect of VKORC1 haplotypes on transcriptional regulation and warfarin dose. The New England journal of medicine. 2005. Rieder Mark J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Clinical consequences of cytochrome P450 2C9 polymorphisms. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2005. Kirchheiner Julia, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Common genetic variants of microsomal epoxide hydrolase affect warfarin dose requirements beyond the effect of cytochrome P450 2C9. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2005. Loebstein Ronen, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Prospective dosing of warfarin based on cytochrome P-450 2C9 genotype. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2005. Voora Deepak, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
A polymorphism in the VKORC1 gene is associated with an interindividual variability in the dose-anticoagulant effect of warfarin. Blood. 2005. D'Andrea Giovanna, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Polymorphisms in factor II and factor VII genes modulate oral anticoagulation with warfarin. Haematologica. 2004. D'Ambrosio Rosa Lucia, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Upstream and coding region CYP2C9 polymorphisms: correlation with warfarin dose and metabolism. Pharmacogenetics. 2004. King Barry P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Common VKORC1 and GGCX polymorphisms associated with warfarin dose. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2005. Wadelius M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
A novel CYP2C9 variant that caused erroneous genotyping in a patient on warfarin therapy. Pharmacogenetics. 2004. Okuda Rika, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Relative impact of covariates in prescribing warfarin according to CYP2C9 genotype. Pharmacogenetics. 2004. Hillman Michael A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Effect of warfarin nonadherence on control of the International Normalized Ratio. American journal of health-system pharmacy : AJHP : official journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. 2004. Waterman Amy D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The inhibitory effect of calumenin on the vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylation system. Characterization of the system in normal and warfarin-resistant rats. The Journal of biological chemistry. 2004. Wajih Nadeem, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association of pharmacokinetic (CYP2C9) and pharmacodynamic (factors II, VII, IX, and X; proteins S and C; and gamma-glutamyl carboxylase) gene variants with warfarin sensitivity. Blood. 2004. Shikata Eriko, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2C9 genetic polymorphisms and warfarin. Clinical and applied thrombosis/hemostasis : official journal of the International Academy of Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis. 2004. Redman Andrea R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2C9 genotypes and dose requirements during the induction phase of oral anticoagulant therapy. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2004. Peyvandi Flora, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Identification of the gene for vitamin K epoxide reductase. Nature. 2004. Li Tao, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Mutations in VKORC1 cause warfarin resistance and multiple coagulation factor deficiency type 2. Nature. 2004. Rost Simone, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Warfarin sensitivity related to CYP2C9, CYP3A5, ABCB1 (MDR1) and other factors. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2004. Wadelius M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Clinical relevance of genetic polymorphisms in the human CYP2C9 gene. European journal of clinical investigation. 2003. Schwarz U I. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
No major difference in inhibitory susceptibility between CYP2C9.1 and CYP2C9.3. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2003. Hanatani Tadaaki, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Population differences in S-warfarin metabolism between CYP2C9 genotype-matched Caucasian and Japanese patients. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2003. Takahashi Harumi, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic and environmental risk factors for oral anticoagulant overdose. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2003. Verstuyft C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Influence of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms on warfarin maintenance dose and metabolic clearance. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2002. Scordo Maria Gabriella, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Warfarin dose adjustments based on CYP2C9 genetic polymorphisms. Journal of thrombosis and thrombolysis. 2002. Linder Mark W, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Oral anticoagulation and risk of death: a medical record linkage study. BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 2002. Odén Anders, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Analysis of CYP2C9*5 in Caucasian, Oriental and black-African populations. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2002. Yasar Umit, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2C9 polymorphism and warfarin dose requirements. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2002. Daly Ann K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association between CYP2C9 genetic variants and anticoagulation-related outcomes during warfarin therapy. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. 2002. Higashi Mitchell K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Cytochrome P450 2C9 polymorphisms: a comprehensive review of the in-vitro and human data. Pharmacogenetics. 2002. Lee Craig R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Identification and functional characterization of a new CYP2C9 variant (CYP2C9*5) expressed among African Americans. Molecular pharmacology. 2001. Dickmann L J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
In vitro stimulation of warfarin metabolism by quinidine: increases in the formation of 4'- and 10-hydroxywarfarin. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2001. Ngui J S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics of warfarin elimination and its clinical implications. Clinical pharmacokinetics. 2001. Takahashi H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic modulation of oral anticoagulation with warfarin. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2000. Margaglione M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Influence of cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9 polymorphisms on warfarin sensitivity and risk of over-anticoagulation in patients on long-term treatment. Blood. 2000. Taube J, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C9*3 allelic variant and bleeding complications. Lancet. 1999. Ogg M S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association of polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 CYP2C9 with warfarin dose requirement and risk of bleeding complications. Lancet. 1999. Aithal G P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Comparisons between in-vitro and in-vivo metabolism of (S)-warfarin: catalytic activities of cDNA-expressed CYP2C9, its Leu359 variant and their mixture versus unbound clearance in patients with the corresponding CYP2C9 genotypes. Pharmacogenetics. 1998. Takahashi H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Comparative studies on the catalytic roles of cytochrome P450 2C9 and its Cys- and Leu-variants in the oxidation of warfarin, flurbiprofen, and diclofenac by human liver microsomes. Biochemical pharmacology. 1998. Yamazaki H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Metabolism of warfarin enantiomers in Japanese patients with heart disease having different CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 genotypes. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 1998. Takahashi H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic association between sensitivity to warfarin and expression of CYP2C9*3. Pharmacogenetics. 1997. Steward D J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The R144C change in the CYP2C9*2 allele alters interaction of the cytochrome P450 with NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase. Pharmacogenetics. 1997. Crespi C L, et al. PubMed
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Allelic variants of human cytochrome P450 2C9: baculovirus-mediated expression, purification, structural characterization, substrate stereoselectivity, and prochiral selectivity of the wild-type and I359L mutant forms. Archives of biochemistry and biophysics. 1996. Haining R L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The role of the CYP2C9-Leu359 allelic variant in the tolbutamide polymorphism. Pharmacogenetics. 1996. Sullivan-Klose T H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Formation of (R)-8-hydroxywarfarin in human liver microsomes. A new metabolic marker for the (S)-mephenytoin hydroxylase, P4502C19. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 1996. Wienkers L C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Human cytochromes P4501A1 and P4501A2: R-warfarin metabolism as a probe. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 1995. Zhang Z, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
A cluster of sulfatase genes on Xp22.3: mutations in chondrodysplasia punctata (CDPX) and implications for warfarin embryopathy. Cell. 1995. Franco B, et al. PubMed
Impaired (S)-warfarin metabolism catalysed by the R144C allelic variant of CYP2C9. Pharmacogenetics. 1994. Rettie A E, et al. PubMed
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Hydroxylation of warfarin by human cDNA-expressed cytochrome P-450: a role for P-4502C9 in the etiology of (S)-warfarin-drug interactions. Chemical research in toxicology. 1992. Rettie A E, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

Web Resource:
Wikipedia
National Drug Code Directory:
0056-0169-70
DrugBank:
DB00682
ChEBI:
10033
KEGG Compound:
C01541
PubChem Compound:
6691
PubChem Substance:
4702
Drugs Product Database (DPD):
2244463
BindingDB:
50088240
Therapeutic Targets Database:
DAP000770
FDA Drug Label at DailyMed:
d91934a0-902e-c26c-23ca-d5accc4151b6

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention warfarin and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

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Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, Open Eye Scientific Software.