Drug/Small Molecule:
verapamil

PharmGKB contains no dosing guidelines for this drug/small molecule. To report known genotype-based dosing guidelines, or if you are interested in developing guidelines, click here.

PharmGKB has no annotated drug labels with pharmacogenomic information for this drug/small molecule. If you know of a drug label with PGx, send us a message.

Links to Unannotated Labels

These links are to labels associated with verapamil that have not been annotated by PharmGKB.

  1. DailyMed - DrugLabel PA166105277

PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the page.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

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This is a non-comprehensive list of genetic tests with pharmacogenetics relevance, typically submitted by the manufacturer and manually curated by PharmGKB. The information listed is provided for educational purposes only and does not constitute an endorsement of any listed test or manufacturer.

A more complete listing of genetic tests is found at the Genetic Testing Registry (GTR).

PGx Test Variants Assayed Gene?

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page.

Links in the "Gene" column lead to PharmGKB Gene Pages.

Gene ? Variant?
(138)
Alternate Names / Tag SNPs ? Drugs ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP3A5 *3A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP3A5 *6 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1024323 1527397C>T, 3006043C>T, 329C>T, 425C>T, 45701C>T, Ala110Val, Ala142Val
C > T
Missense
Ala142Val
No VIP available CA VA
rs1045642 208920T>A, 208920T>C, 25171488A>G, 25171488A>T, 3435T>A, 3435T>C, 87138645A>G, 87138645A>T, ABCB1*6, ABCB1: 3435C>T, ABCB1: C3435T, ABCB1: c.3435C>T, ABCB1:3435C>T, Ile1145=, Ile1145Ile, MDR1 3435C>T, MDR1 C3435T, PGP C3435T, c.3435C>T, mRNA 3853C>T
A > T
A > G
Synonymous
Ile1145Ile
No VIP available CA VA
rs10494366 106-38510G>T, 13574327G>T, 162085685G>T, 51105G>T
G > T
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs1051375 2728879G>A, 2788879G>A, 334-1816C>T, 5328G>A, 5352G>A, 5361G>A, 5379G>A, 5385G>A, 5412G>A, 5418G>A, 5421G>A, 5445G>A, 5484G>A, 5505G>A, 713928G>A, Thr1776=, Thr1784=, Thr1787=, Thr1793=, Thr1795=, Thr1804=, Thr1806=, Thr1807=, Thr1815=, Thr1828=, Thr1835=
G > A
Synonymous
Thr1806Thr
No VIP available CA VA
rs10918594 13519330C>G, 162030688C>G
C > G
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs11014166 168+17826A>T, 171+17826A>T, 18648798A>T, 18708798A>T, 189+17826A>T, 249+17826A>T, 284193A>T, 333+17826A>T
A > T
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs11039149 -92-4667A>G, 11825A>G, 47216675A>G, 47276675A>G, 62-4667A>G
A > G
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs11739136 10843G>A, 14622069C>T, 169810796C>T, 193G>A, 34916C>T, 88+29828C>T, Glu65Lys
C > T
Intronic
Glu65Lys
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs12221497 -37-78G>A, -92-689G>A, 15803G>A, 47220653G>A, 47280653G>A, 62-689G>A
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1799752 16457_16458insATACAGTCACTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTGAGACGGAGTCTCGCTCTGTCGCCC, 2306-119_2306-118insATACAGTCACTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTGAGACGGAGTCTCGCTCTGTCGCCC, 26840042_26840043insATACAGTCACTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTGAGACGGAGTCTCGCTCTGTCGCCC, 584-119_584-118insATACAGTCACTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTGAGACGGAGTCTCGCTCTGTCGCCC, 61565890_61565891insATACAGTCACTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTGAGACGGAGTCTCGCTCTGTCGCCC, ACE D/I
- > ATACAGTCACTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTGAGACGGAGTCTCGCTCTGTCGCCC
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1801058 1361T>C, 1457T>C, 1560504T>C, 3039150T>C, 78808T>C, Val454Ala, Val486Ala
T > C
Missense
Val486Ala
No VIP available CA VA
rs1801252 115804036A>G, 145A>G, 5231A>G, 66608500A>G, ADRB1:49Ser>Gly, ADRB1:Ser49Gly, Ser49Gly
A > G
Missense
Ser49Gly
No VIP available CA VA
rs1801253 115805056G>C, 1165C>G, 1165G>C, 6251G>C, 66609520G>C, ADRB1:389Arg>Gly, ADRB1:Arg389Gly, Gly389Arg
G > C
Missense
Gly389Arg
No VIP available CA VA
rs2032582 186947T>A, 186947T>G, 25193461A>C, 25193461A>T, 2677A, 2677G, 2677T, 2677T>A, 2677T>G, 3095G>T/A, 87160618A>C, 87160618A>T, 893 Ala, 893 Ser, 893 Thr, ABCB1*7, ABCB1: 2677G>T/A, ABCB1: 2677T/A>G, ABCB1: A893S, ABCB1: G2677T/A, ABCB1: c.2677G>T/A, ABCB1:2677G>A/T, ABCB1:2677G>T/A, ABCB1:A893T, Ala893Ser/Thr, MDR1, MDR1 G2677T/A, Ser893Ala, Ser893Thr, mRNA 3095G>T/A, p.Ala893Ser/Thr
A > T
A > C
Missense
Ser893Ala
Ser893Thr
No VIP available CA VA
rs2229109 1199G>A, 1199G>T, 167756G>A, 167756G>T, 25212652C>A, 25212652C>T, 87179809C>A, 87179809C>T, ABCB1: c.1199G>A, Ser400Asn, Ser400Ile, mRNA 1617G>A, p.Ser400Asn
C > T
C > A
Missense
Ser400Ile
Ser400Asn
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2230345 121086097A>T, 122A>T, 71890561A>T, Gln41Leu
A > T
Missense
Gln41Leu
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2279238 162C>T, 17174C>T, 297C>T, 315C>T, 47222024C>T, 47282024C>T, Ser105=, Ser54=, Ser99=
C > T
Synonymous
Ser105Ser
No VIP available CA VA
rs2301149 14617229C>G, 15683G>C, 169805956C>G, 30076C>G, 328G>C, 88+24988C>G, Val110Leu
C > G
Intronic
Val110Leu
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2357928 -558G>A, 125036G>A, 129+109737G>A, 18489641G>A, 18549641G>A, 213+109737G>A
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2960306 1511853G>T, 194G>T, 2990499G>T, 30157G>T, 98G>T, Arg33Leu, Arg65Leu
G > T
Missense
Arg65Leu
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4961 1378G>T, 1428061G>T, 2906707G>T, 66124G>T, ADD1:Gly460Trp, Gly460Trp, alpha-adducin Gly460Trp, rs4961 G>T
G > T
Missense
Gly460Trp
No VIP available CA VA
rs72552784 201651G>A, 25178757C>T, 2995G>A, 87145914C>T, ABCB1: c.2995G>A, Ala999Thr, mRNA 3413G>A, p.Ala999Thr
C > T
Missense
Ala999Thr
VIP No Clinical Annotations available No Variant Annotations available
rs776746 12083G>A, 219-237G>A, 321-1G>A, 37303382C>T, 581-237G>A, 689-1G>A, 99270539C>T, CYP3A5*1, CYP3A5*3, CYP3A5*3C, CYP3A5:6986A>G, g.6986A>G, intron 3 splicing defect, rs776746 A>G
C > T
Acceptor
No VIP available CA VA
rs9282564 118125A>G, 25262283T>C, 61A>G, 87229440T>C, ABCB1: c.61A>G, Asn21Asp, mRNA 479A>G, p.Asn21Asp
T > C
Missense
Asn21Asp
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 138
2D structure from PubChem
provided by PubChem

Overview

Generic Names
  • Verapamil HCl
  • Verapamil [Usan:Ban:Inn]
  • Verapamilo [INN-Spanish]
  • Verapamilum [INN-Latin]
Trade Names
  • Apo-Verap
  • Arpamyl
  • Berkatens
  • Calan
  • Calan SR
  • Cardiagutt
  • Cardibeltin
  • Cordilox
  • Covera-HS
  • Dignover
  • Dilacoran
  • Drosteakard
  • Geangin
  • Iproveratril
  • Isoptimo
  • Isoptin
  • Isoptin SR
  • NU-Verap
  • Novo-Veramil
  • Quasar
  • Securon
  • Univer
  • Vasolan
  • Veracim
  • Veramex
  • Veraptin
  • Verelan
  • Verelan PM
  • Verexamil
Brand Mixture Names
  • Tarka (trandolapril + verapamil hydrochloride)

PharmGKB Accession Id:
PA451868

Description

A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.

Source: Drug Bank

Indication

For the treatment of hypertension, angina, and cluster headache prophylaxis.

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

Verapamil inhibits voltage-dependent calcium channels. Specifically, its effect on L-type calcium channels in the heart causes a reduction in ionotropy and chronotropy, thuis reducing heart rate and blood pressure. Verapamil's mechanism of effect in cluster headache is thought to be linked to its calcium-channel blocker effect, but which channel subtypes are involved is presently not known.

Source: Drug Bank

Pharmacology

Verapamil is an L-type calcium channel blocker that also has antiarrythmic activity. The R-enantiomer is more effective at reducing blood pressure compared to the S-enantiomer. However, the S-enantiomer is 20 times more potent than the R-enantiomer at prolonging the PR interval in treating arrhythmias.

Source: Drug Bank

Food Interaction

Avoid alcohol.|Avoid taking with grapefruit juice.|Avoid excessive quantities of coffee or tea (Caffeine).|Avoid natural licorice.|Take with food.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity

Protein Binding

90%

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption

90%

Source: Drug Bank

Half-Life

2.8-7.4 hours

Source: Drug Bank

Toxicity

LD 50=8 mg/kg (i.v. in mice)

Source: Drug Bank

Route of Elimination

Approximately 70% of an administered dose is excreted as metabolites in the urine and 16% or more in the feces within 5 days. About 3% to 4% is excreted in the urine as unchanged drug.

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula

C27H38N2O4

Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES

CC(C)C(CCCN(C)CCc1ccc(c(c1)OC)OC)(C#N)c2ccc(c(c2)O[CH2])OC

Source: Drug Bank

CC(C)C(CCCN(C)CCc1ccc(c(c1)OC)OC)(C#N)c2ccc(c(c2)OC)OC

Source: OpenEye

Canonical SMILES

COC1=C(OC)C=C(CCN(C)CCCC(C#N)(C(C)C)C2=CC(OC)=C(OC)C=C2)C=C1

Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight

454.6016

Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight

454.283157714

Source: Drug Bank

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Curated Information ?

Drug Targets

Gene Description
CA1 (source: Drug Bank)
CACNA1A (source: Drug Bank)
CACNA1B (source: Drug Bank)
CACNA1C (source: Drug Bank)
CACNA1D (source: Drug Bank)
CACNA1F (source: Drug Bank)
CACNA1G (source: Drug Bank)
CACNA1I (source: Drug Bank)
CACNA1S (source: Drug Bank)
CACNB1 (source: Drug Bank)
CACNB2 (source: Drug Bank)
CACNB3 (source: Drug Bank)
CACNB4 (source: Drug Bank)
CACNG1 (source: Drug Bank)
KCNH2 (source: Drug Bank)
KCNJ11 (source: Drug Bank)
SCN5A (source: Drug Bank)
SLC6A4 (source: Drug Bank)

Drug Interactions

Drug Description
verapamil Increased effect of both drugs (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Increased effect of both drugs (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Verapamil increases the effect of theophylline (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Increased effect of both drugs (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Increased effect of both drugs (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Verapamil increases the effect and toxicity of the statin (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Verapamil increases the effect and toxicity of the statin (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Increased effect of both drugs (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Increased effect of both drugs (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Verapamil may increase the serum concentration of bromazepam by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or a reductin in the bromazepam dose. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of bromazepam if verapamil is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil The calcium channel blocker increases the effect and toxicity of buspirone (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil The calcium channel blocker, verapamil, increases the effect and toxicity of buspirone (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Verapamil increases the effect of carbamazepine (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Verapamil increases the effect of carbamazepine (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Increased effect of both drugs (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Increased effect of both drugs (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Verapamil increases colchicine's effect and toxicity (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Verapamil increases colchicine's effect and toxicity (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Verapamil increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Verapamil increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Verapamil increases the effect of digoxin (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Verapamil increases the effect of digoxin (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil This CYP3A4 inhibitor increases the effect and toxicity of eplerenone (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Increased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Increased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Increased effect of both drugs (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Increased effect of both drugs (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Increased effect of both drugs (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Signs of lithium toxicity (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Signs of lithium toxicity (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Verapamil increases the effect and toxicity of statin (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Verapamil increases the effect and toxicity of statin (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Increased effect of both drugs (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Increased effect of both drugs (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil The calcium channel blocker increases the effect and toxicity of benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil The calcium channel blocker increases the effect and toxicity of benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Increased effect of both drugs (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Increased effect of both drugs (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Increased effect of both drugs (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Increased effect of both drugs (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Verapamil increases the effect of theophylline (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil The barbiturate decreases the effect of the calcium channel blocker (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil The barbiturate, phenobarbital, decreases the effect of the calcium channel blocker, verapamil. (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Increased effect of both drugs (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Increased effect of both drugs (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Risk of hypotension at the beginning of therapy (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Risk of hypotension at the beginning of therapy (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil The barbiturate decreases the effect of the calcium channel blocker (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil The barbiturate, primidone, decreases the effect of the calcium channel blocker, verapamil. (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Increased effect of both drugs (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Increased effect of both drugs (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Verapamil increases the effect of quinidine (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Verapamil increases the effect of quinidine (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil This combination presents an increased risk of toxicity (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Increased levels of ranolazine - risk of toxicity (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Rifampin decreases the effect of the calcium channel blocker (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Rifampin decreases the effect of the calcium channel blocker, verapamil. (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil The calcium channel blocker, Verapamil, may increase the blood concentration of Tacrolimus. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/toxic effects of Tacrolimus if Verapamil therapy is initiated, discontinued or altered. (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Verapamil, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Tamsulosin, a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for changes in therapeutic/adverse effects of Tamsulosin if Verapamil is initiated, discontinued, or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Verapamil, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Tamsulosin, a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for changes in therapeutic/adverse effects of Tamsulosin if Verapamil is initiated, discontinued, or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Telithromycin may possibly increase verapamil effect/toxicity (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Telithromycin may reduce clearance of Verapamil. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Verapamil if Telithromycin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Increased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Increased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Verapamil increases the effect of theophylline (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Verapamil increases the effect of theophylline (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil The CYP3A4 inducer, Thiopental, may increase the metabolism and clearance of Verapamil, a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Verapamil if Thiopental is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil The CYP3A4 inducer, Thiopental, may increase the metabolism and clearance of Verapamil, a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Verapamil if Thiopental is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Additive effects of decreased heart rate and contractility may occur. Increased risk of heart block. (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Additive effects of decreased heart rate and contractility may occur. Increased risk of heart block. (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Tipranavir, co-administered with Ritonavir, may alter the concentration of Verapamil. Monitor for efficacy and adverse/toxic effects of Verapamil. (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Verapamil may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Tolterodine. Adjust Tolterodine dose and monitor for efficacy and toxicity. (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Verapamil may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Tolterodine. Adjust Tolterodine dose and monitor for efficacy and toxicity. (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil The p-glycoprotein inhibitor, Verapamil, may increase the bioavailability of oral Topotecan. A clinically significant effect is also expected with IV Topotecan. Concomitant therapy should be avoided. (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Verapamil may increase Tramadol toxicity by decreasing Tramadol metabolism and clearance. (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil The CYP3A4 inhibitor, Verapamil, may increase Trazodone efficacy/toxicity by decreasing Trazodone metabolism and clearance. Monitor for changes in Trazodone efficacy/toxicity if Verapamil is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil The CYP3A4 inhibitor, Verapamil, may increase Trazodone efficacy/toxicity by decreasing Trazodone metabolism and clearance. Monitor for changes in Trazodone efficacy/toxicity if Verapamil is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Additive hypotensive effect. Monitor antihypertensive therapy during concomitant use. (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil The calcium channel blocker increases the effect and toxicity of the benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil The calcium channel blocker increases the effect and toxicity of the benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
amifostine Verapamil may enhance the hypotensive effect of Amifostine. At chemotherapeutic doses of Amifostine, Verapamil should be withheld for 24 hours prior to Amifostine administration. Caution should be used at lower Amifostine doses used during radiotherapy, but routine interruption of Verapamil therapy is not recommended. (source: Drug Bank)
amiodarone Additive bradycardic effects may occur. One case report of sinus arrest has been reported. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic effect and signs of Verapamil toxicity if Amiodarone is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
amobarbital Amobarbital, a CYP3A4 inducer, may increase the serum concentration of Verapamil, a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Verapamil if Amobarbital is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
amprenavir Amprenavir, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of Veramapil, a CYP3A4 substrate, by decreasing its metabolism and clearance. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Verapamil if Amprenavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
atazanavir Atazanavir, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of Veramapil, a CYP3A4 substrate, by decreasing its metabolism and clearance. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Verapamil if Atazanavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin Verapamil, a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of Atorvastatin by decreasing its metabolism. Avoid concurrent use if possible or reduce lovastatin dose during concomitant therapy. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Atorvastatin if Verapamil is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
buspirone Verapamil may increase the serum concentration of Buspirone. The likely occurs via Verapamil-mediated CYP3A4 inhibition resulting in decreased Buspirone metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Buspirone if Verpamil is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
butabarbital Butabarbital, a CYP3A4 inducer, may increase the serum concentration of Verapamil, a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Verapamil if Butabarbital is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
butalbital Butalbital, a CYP3A4 inducer, may increase the serum concentration of Verapamil, a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Verapamil if Butalbital is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
carbamazepine Verapamil may increase the serum concentration of Carbamazepine by decreasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Carbamazepine if Verapamil is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
clarithromycin Clarithromycin, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of Veramapil, a CYP3A4 substrate, by decreasing its metabolism and clearance. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Verapamil if Clarithromycin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
colchicine Verapamil may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine. This likely occurs via Verapamil-mediated inhibition of CYP3A4 and p-glycoprotein-mediated transport. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Colchicine if Verapamil is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
conivaptan Conivaptan, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of Veramapil, a CYP3A4 substrate, by decreasing its metabolism and clearance. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Verapamil if Conivaptan is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine Verapamil may increase the serum concentration of Cyclosporine by inhibiting CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of Cyclosporine. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Cyclosporine if Verapamil is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
darunavir Darunavir, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of Veramapil, a CYP3A4 substrate, by decreasing its metabolism and clearance. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Verapamil if Darunavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
delavirdine Delavirdine, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of Veramapil, a CYP3A4 substrate, by decreasing its metabolism and clearance. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Verapamil if Delavirdine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
digitoxin Verapamil may increase the serum concentration of Digitoxin by decreasing its metabolism and clearance. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Digitoxin if Verpamail is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
digoxin Verapamil may increase the serum concentration of Digoxin by decreasing its metabolism and clearance. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Digoxin if Verpamail is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
dofetilide Verapamil may increase the plamsa levels of Dofetilide. Increased risk of torsade de pointes. Concomitant therapy is contraindicated. (source: Drug Bank)
erythromycin Erythromycin, a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of Veramapil, a CYP3A4 substrate, by decreasing its metabolism and clearance. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Verapamil if Erythromycin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
everolimus Concomitant administration may increase the serum concentrations of both agents. Concurrent use should be avoided. (source: Drug Bank)
fluconazole Fluconazole may increase the serum concentration of Verapamil by decreasing Verapamil metabolism. This likely occurs via Fluconazole-mediated CYP3A4 inhibition. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Verapamil if Fluconazole is initiated, discontinued, or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
fosamprenavir Fosamprenavir, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of Veramapil, a CYP3A4 substrate, by decreasing its metabolism and clearance. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Verapamil if Fosamprenavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
halofantrine Verapamil, a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of Halofantrine by decreasing its metabolism. Extreme caution with increased cardiac status monitoring should be used during concomitant therapy. (source: Drug Bank)
imatinib Imatinib, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of Veramapil, a CYP3A4 substrate, by decreasing its metabolism and clearance. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Verapamil if Imatinib is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
indinavir Indinavir, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of Veramapil, a CYP3A4 substrate, by decreasing its metabolism and clearance. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Verapamil if Indinavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
isoniazid Isoniazid, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of Veramapil, a CYP3A4 substrate, by decreasing its metabolism and clearance. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Verapamil if Isoniazid is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
itraconazole Itraconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of Veramapil, a CYP3A4 substrate, by decreasing its metabolism and clearance. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Verapamil if Itraconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
ketoconazole Ketoconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of Veramapil, a CYP3A4 substrate, by decreasing its metabolism and clearance. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Verapamil if Ketoconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
lopinavir Lopinavir, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of Veramapil, a CYP3A4 substrate, by decreasing its metabolism and clearance. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Verapamil if Lopinavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
lovastatin Verapamil, a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of Lovastatin by decreasing its metabolism. Avoid concurrent use if possible or reduce lovastatin dose during concomitant therapy. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Lovastatin if Verapamil is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
methohexital Methohexital, a CYP3A4 inducer, may increase the serum concentration of Verapamil, a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Verapamil if Methohexital is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
methylphenobarbital Methylphenobarbital, a CYP3A4 inducer, may increase the serum concentration of Verapamil, a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Verapamil if Methylphenobarbital is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
miconazole Miconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of Veramapil, a CYP3A4 substrate, by decreasing its metabolism and clearance. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Verapamil if Miconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
midazolam Verapamil may increase the serum concentration of Midazolam by decreasing its metabolism. Avoid concomitant therapy if possible or consider a dose reduction in the initial dose of Midazolam. (source: Drug Bank)
nafcillin Nafcillin may decrease the serum concentration of Verapamil by increasing its metabolism via CYP3A4. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Verapamil if Nafcillin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
nefazodone Nefazodone, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of Veramapil, a CYP3A4 substrate, by decreasing its metabolism and clearance. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Verapamil if Nefazodone is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
nelfinavir Nelfinavir, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of Veramapil, a CYP3A4 substrate, by decreasing its metabolism and clearance. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Verapamil if Nelfinavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
nicardipine Nicardipine, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of Veramapil, a CYP3A4 substrate, by decreasing its metabolism and clearance. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Verapamil if Nicardipine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
pentobarbital Pentobarbital, a CYP3A4 inducer, may increase the serum concentration of Verapamil, a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Verapamil if Pentobarbital is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital Phenobarbital, a CYP3A4 inducer, may increase the serum concentration of Verapamil, a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Verapamil if Phenobarbital is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
phenytoin Verapamil may increase the serum concentration of Phenytoin by decreasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Phenytoin if Verapamil is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
posaconazole Posaconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of Veramapil, a CYP3A4 substrate, by decreasing its metabolism and clearance. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Verapamil if Posaconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
quinidine Concurrent therapy may result in increased serum levels of both agents. Both agents are CYP3A4 inhibitors and substrates. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of the agent if the other is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
ranolazine Verapamil, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of Ranolazine. Concomitant therapy is contraindicated. (source: Drug Bank)
rifabutin Rifabutin, a CYP3A4 inducer, may decrease the serum concentration of Verapamil by increasing its metabolism (particularly in the intestinal mucosa) and decreasing its absorption. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Verapamil if Rifabutin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
rifampin Rifampin, a CYP3A4 inducer, may decrease the serum concentration of Verapamil by increasing its metabolism (particularly in the intestinal mucosa) and decreasing its absorption. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Verapamil if Rifampin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
rifapentine Rifapentine, a CYP3A4 inducer, may decrease the serum concentration of Verapamil by increasing its metabolism (particularly in the intestinal mucosa) and decreasing its absorption. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Verapamil if Rifapentine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
ritonavir Ritonavir, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of Veramapil, a CYP3A4 substrate, by decreasing its metabolism and clearance. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Verapamil if Ritonavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
rituximab Verapamil may increase the hypotensive effects of Rituximab. Consider withholding Verapamil therapy for 12 hours prior to Rituximab infusion. (source: Drug Bank)
saquinavir Saquinavir, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of Veramapil, a CYP3A4 substrate, by decreasing its metabolism and clearance. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Verapamil if Saquinavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
secobarbital Secobarbital, a CYP3A4 inducer, may increase the serum concentration of Verapamil, a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Verapamil if Secobarbital is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
simvastatin Verapamil, a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of Simvastatin by decreasing its metabolism. Avoid concurrent use if possible or reduce Simvastatin dose during concomitant therapy. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Simvastatin if Verapamil is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
telithromycin Telithromycin, a CYP3A4 and p-glycoprotein inhibitor, may increase the Vinblastine serum concentration and distribution in certain cells. Consider alternate therapy to avoid Vinblastine toxicity. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Vinblastine if Telithromycin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
thiopental Thiopental, a CYP3A4 inducer, may increase the serum concentration of Verapamil, a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Verapamil if Thiopental is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
topotecan Verapamil, a p-glycoprotein inhibitor, may increase the concentration of Topotecan. Concomitant therapy should be avoided. (source: Drug Bank)
triazolam Verapamil may increase the serum concentration of Triazolam by decreasing its metabolism. Avoid concomitant therapy if possible or consider a dose reduction in the initial dose of Triazolam. (source: Drug Bank)
voriconazole Voriconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of Veramapil, a CYP3A4 substrate, by decreasing its metabolism and clearance. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Verapamil if Voriconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Voriconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of verapamil by decreasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of verapamil if voriconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)

Curated Information ?

Relationships from National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT)

May Treat
Contraindicated With

Publications related to verapamil: 70

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Mechanisms and assessment of statin-related muscular adverse effects. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Moßhammer Dirk, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomic Association of Nonsynonymous SNPs in SIGLEC12, A1BG, and the Selectin Region and Cardiovascular Outcomes. Hypertension. 2013. McDonough Caitrin W, et al. PubMed
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G protein receptor kinase 4 polymorphisms: beta-Blocker Pharmacogenetics and treatment-related outcomes in Hypertension. Hypertension. 2012. Vandell Alexander G, et al. PubMed
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PharmGKB summary: very important pharmacogene information for CYP3A5. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. Lamba Jatinder, et al. PubMed
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A Common beta1-Adrenergic Receptor Polymorphism Predicts Favorable Response to Rate-Control Therapy in Atrial Fibrillation. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2012. Parvez Babar, et al. PubMed
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In vitro transport profile of carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, eslicarbazepine acetate, and their active metabolites by human P-glycoprotein. Epilepsia. 2011. Zhang Chunbo, et al. PubMed
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Profiling of a prescription drug library for potential renal drug-drug interactions mediated by the organic cation transporter 2. Journal of medicinal chemistry. 2011. Kido Yasuto, et al. PubMed
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Liver X receptor alpha gene polymorphisms and variable cardiovascular outcomes in patients treated with antihypertensive therapy: results from the INVEST-GENES study. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Price Elvin Tyrone, et al. PubMed
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Very important pharmacogene summary: ABCB1 (MDR1, P-glycoprotein). Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Hodges Laura M, et al. PubMed
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Cardiovascular Pharmacogenomics of Adrenergic Receptor Signaling: Clinical Implications and Future Directions. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Johnson J A, et al. PubMed
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Genetic variation in the beta2 subunit of the voltage-gated calcium channel and pharmacogenetic association with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in the INternational VErapamil SR-Trandolapril STudy GENEtic Substudy (INVEST-GENES). Circulation. Cardiovascular genetics. 2010. Niu Yuxin, et al. PubMed
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Modulation of drug block of the cardiac potassium channel KCNA5 by the drug transporters OCTN1 and MDR1. British journal of pharmacology. 2010. Yang Tao, et al. PubMed
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Polymorphisms in genes coding for GRK2 and GRK5 and response differences in antihypertensive-treated patients. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Lobmeyer Maximilian T, et al. PubMed
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Drug- and non-drug-associated QT interval prolongation. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2010. van Noord Charlotte, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between the immunosuppressant sirolimus and the lipid-lowering drug ezetimibe in healthy volunteers. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Oswald S, et al. PubMed
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Coprescription of tamoxifen and medications that inhibit CYP2D6. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2010. Sideras Kostandinos, et al. PubMed
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Genotype-dependent effects of inhibitors of the organic cation transporter, OCT1: predictions of metformin interactions. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Ahlin G, et al. PubMed
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Common genetic variation of beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptor and response to four classes of antihypertensive treatment. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Suonsyrjä Timo, et al. PubMed
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Haplotypes of the adrenergic system predict the blood pressure response to beta-blockers in women with essential hypertension. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Filigheddu Fabiana, et al. PubMed
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Human CYP2C8: structure, substrate specificity, inhibitor selectivity, inducers and polymorphisms. Current drug metabolism. 2009. Lai Xin-Sheng, et al. PubMed
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Influence of ABCB1 gene polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of verapamil among healthy Chinese Han ethnic subjects. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2009. Zhao Li-Mei, et al. PubMed
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CACNA1C gene polymorphisms, cardiovascular disease outcomes, and treatment response. Circulation. Cardiovascular genetics. 2009. Beitelshees Amber L, et al. PubMed
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Histone deacetylase inhibitors induce a very broad, pleiotropic anticancer drug resistance phenotype in acute myeloid leukemia cells by modulation of multiple ABC transporter genes. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2009. Hauswald Stefanie, et al. PubMed
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Medicinal Chemistry of Drugs used in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy. Current medicinal chemistry. 2009. Adeghate E, et al. PubMed
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Genetic determinants of response to clopidogrel and cardiovascular events. The New England journal of medicine. 2009. Simon Tabassome, et al. PubMed
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Calcium channel blockers, NOS1AP, and heart-rate-corrected QT prolongation. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2009. van Noord Charlotte, et al. PubMed
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Redox regulation of multidrug resistance in cancer chemotherapy: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic opportunities. Antioxidants & redox signaling. 2009. Kuo Macus Tien. PubMed
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beta-adrenergic receptor gene polymorphisms and beta-blocker treatment outcomes in hypertension. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Pacanowski M A, et al. PubMed
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Several major antiepileptic drugs are substrates for human P-glycoprotein. Neuropharmacology. 2008. Luna-Tortós Carlos, et al. PubMed
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Functional pharmacogenetics/genomics of human cytochromes P450 involved in drug biotransformation. Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry. 2008. Zanger Ulrich M, et al. PubMed
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The KCNMB1 Glu65Lys polymorphism associates with reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the Inter99 study of 5729 Danes. Journal of hypertension. 2008. Nielsen Trine, et al. PubMed
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Beta-1-adrenoceptor genetic variants and ethnicity independently affect response to beta-blockade. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2008. Kurnik Daniel, et al. PubMed
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Alpha-adducin polymorphism associated with increased risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes: results from GENEtic Substudy of the INternational VErapamil SR-trandolapril STudy (INVEST-GENES). American heart journal. 2008. Gerhard Tobias, et al. PubMed
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Structure, function and regulation of P-glycoprotein and its clinical relevance in drug disposition. Xenobiotica; the fate of foreign compounds in biological systems. 2008. Zhou S-F. PubMed
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Interactions among genetic variants from contractile pathway of vascular smooth muscle cell in essential hypertension susceptibility of Chinese Han population. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2008. Zhao Qi, et al. PubMed
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Functional evaluation of polymorphisms in the human ABCB1 gene and the impact on clinical responses of antiepileptic drugs. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2008. Hung Chin-Chuan, et al. PubMed
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Polymorphisms in the drug transporter gene ABCB1 predict antidepressant treatment response in depression. Neuron. 2008. Uhr Manfred, et al. PubMed
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Citalopram enantiomers in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of ABCB1 genotyped depressive patients and clinical response: a pilot study. Pharmacological research : the official journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society. 2008. Nikisch Georg, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 3A5 genotype is associated with verapamil response in healthy subjects. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Jin Y, et al. PubMed
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KCNMB1 genotype influences response to verapamil SR and adverse outcomes in the INternational VErapamil SR/Trandolapril STudy (INVEST). Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2007. Beitelshees Amber L, et al. PubMed
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Sex-dependent genetic markers of CYP3A4 expression and activity in human liver microsomes. Pharmacogenomics. 2007. Schirmer Markus, et al. PubMed
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Association of CYP3A5 polymorphisms with hypertension and antihypertensive response to verapamil. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Langaee T Y, et al. PubMed
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A "silent" polymorphism in the MDR1 gene changes substrate specificity. Science (New York, N.Y.). 2007. Kimchi-Sarfaty Chava, et al. PubMed
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Cobalamin potentiates vinblastine cytotoxicity through downregulation of mdr-1 gene expression in HepG2 cells. Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology. 2007. Marguerite Véronique, et al. PubMed
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Mechanism of inhibition of P-glycoprotein mediated efflux by vitamin E TPGS: influence on ATPase activity and membrane fluidity. Molecular pharmaceutics. 2007. Collnot Eva-Maria, et al. PubMed
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Gefitinib modulates the function of multiple ATP-binding cassette transporters in vivo. Cancer research. 2006. Leggas Markos, et al. PubMed
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Drug interactions with lipid-lowering drugs: mechanisms and clinical relevance. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Neuvonen Pertti J, et al. PubMed
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Impact of P-glycoprotein on clopidogrel absorption. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Taubert Dirk, et al. PubMed
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Uptake of cardiovascular drugs into the human heart: expression, regulation, and function of the carnitine transporter OCTN2 (SLC22A5). Circulation. 2006. Grube Markus, et al. PubMed
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Single nucleotide polymorphisms in human P-glycoprotein: its impact on drug delivery and disposition. Expert opinion on drug delivery. 2006. Dey Surajit. PubMed
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The influence of P-glycoprotein on cerebral and hepatic concentrations of nortriptyline and its metabolites. Drug metabolism and drug interactions. 2006. Ejsing Thomas Broeng, et al. PubMed
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beta-Adrenergic receptor polymorphisms and responses during titration of metoprolol controlled release/extended release in heart failure. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2005. Terra Steven G, et al. PubMed
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Association between beta-1 and beta-2 adrenergic receptor gene polymorphisms and the response to beta-blockade in patients with stable congestive heart failure. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2005. de Groote Pascal, et al. PubMed
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Influence of lipid lowering fibrates on P-glycoprotein activity in vitro. Biochemical pharmacology. 2004. Ehrhardt Manuela, et al. PubMed
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Interactions of human P-glycoprotein with simvastatin, simvastatin acid, and atorvastatin. Pharmaceutical research. 2004. Hochman Jerome H, et al. PubMed
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Polymorphisms in human MDR1 (P-glycoprotein): recent advances and clinical relevance. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2004. Marzolini Catia, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphisms of the human MDR1 drug transporter. Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology. 2003. Schwab Matthias, et al. PubMed
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Human extrahepatic cytochromes P450: function in xenobiotic metabolism and tissue-selective chemical toxicity in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology. 2003. Ding Xinxin, et al. PubMed
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Functional characterization of coding polymorphisms in the human MDR1 gene using a vaccinia virus expression system. Molecular pharmacology. 2002. Kimchi-Sarfaty Chava, et al. PubMed
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Med-psych drug-drug interactions update. Psychosomatics. 2002. Armstrong Scott C, et al. PubMed
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Interaction of omeprazole, lansoprazole and pantoprazole with P-glycoprotein. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's archives of pharmacology. 2001. Pauli-Magnus C, et al. PubMed
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The role of intestinal P-glycoprotein in the interaction of digoxin and rifampin. The Journal of clinical investigation. 1999. Greiner B, et al. PubMed
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DD angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphism is associated with endothelial dysfunction in normal humans. Hypertension. 1999. Butler R, et al. PubMed
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Biochemical, cellular, and pharmacological aspects of the multidrug transporter. Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology. 1999. Ambudkar S V, et al. PubMed
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Competitive, non-competitive and cooperative interactions between substrates of P-glycoprotein as measured by its ATPase activity. Biochimica et biophysica acta. 1997. Litman T, et al. PubMed
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P-glycoprotein structure and evolutionary homologies. Cytotechnology. 1993. Croop J M. PubMed
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Efficient inhibition of P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance with a monoclonal antibody. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1992. Mechetner E B, et al. PubMed
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The effect of three different oral doses of verapamil on the disposition of theophylline. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 1992. Stringer K A, et al. PubMed
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Verapamil reversal of doxorubicin resistance in multidrug-resistant human myeloma cells and association with drug accumulation and DNA damage. Cancer research. 1988. Bellamy W T, et al. PubMed
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Overcoming of vincristine resistance in P388 leukemia in vivo and in vitro through enhanced cytotoxicity of vincristine and vinblastine by verapamil. Cancer research. 1981. Tsuruo T, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

Web Resource:
Wikipedia
National Drug Code Directory:
0091-4085-01
DrugBank:
DB00661
ChEBI:
9948
KEGG Compound:
C07188
KEGG Drug:
D02356
PubChem Compound:
2520
PubChem Substance:
46508158
7849415
Drugs Product Database (DPD):
2239769
BindingDB:
50005628
ChemSpider:
2425
Therapeutic Targets Database:
DAP000040
FDA Drug Label at DailyMed:
7c822705-827f-43c7-8c27-35bc31cf6484

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention verapamil and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

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Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, Open Eye Scientific Software.