Drug/Small Molecule:
sulfadoxine

PharmGKB contains no dosing guidelines for this drug/small molecule. To report known genotype-based dosing guidelines, or if you are interested in developing guidelines, click here.

PharmGKB contains no drug labels with pharmacogenomic information for this drug/small molecule. To report a drug label with PGx, click here.

PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the page.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

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This is a non-comprehensive list of genetic tests with pharmacogenetics relevance, typically submitted by the manufacturer and manually curated by PharmGKB. The information listed is provided for educational purposes only and does not constitute an endorsement of any listed test or manufacturer.

A more complete listing of genetic tests is found at the Genetic Testing Registry (GTR).

PGx Test Variants Assayed Gene?

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page.

Links in the "Gene" column lead to PharmGKB Gene Pages.

Gene ? Variant?
(138)
Alternate Names / Tag SNPs ? Drugs ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available No VIP available VA G6PD Mediterranean Haplotype N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA
rs1050828 153764217C>T, 16571G>A, 202G>A, 292G>A, 4682155C>T, Asahi, G6PD:202G>A, Val68Met, Val98Met
C > T
Not Available
Val68Met
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 138
2D structure from PubChem
provided by PubChem

Overview

Generic Names
Trade Names
Brand Mixture Names

PharmGKB Accession Id:
PA451540

Description

A long acting sulfonamide that is used, usually in combination with other drugs, for respiratory, urinary tract, and malarial infections.

Source: Drug Bank

Indication

Sulfadoxine is used in combination with pyrimethamine for the treatment or prevention of malaria. It can also be used to treat various infections in livestock as well.
Sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine is indicated for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in those patients in whom chloroquine resistance is suspected.

Source: Drug Bank

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

Sulfadoxine is a sulfa drug, often used in combination with pyrimethamine to treat malaria. This medicine may also be used to prevent malaria in people who are living in, or will be traveling to, an area where there is a chance of getting malaria. Sulfadoxine targets Plasmodium dihydropteroate synthase and dihydrofolate reductase. Sulfa drugs or Sulfonamides are antimetabolites. They compete with para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) for incorporation into folic acid. The action of sulfonamides exploits the difference between mammal cells and other kinds of cells in their folic acid metabolism. All cells require folic acid for growth. Folic acid (as a vitamin) diffuses or is transported into human cells. However, folic acid cannot cross bacterial (and certain protozoan) cell walls by diffusion or active transport. For this reason bacteria must synthesize folic acid from p-aminobenzoic acid.

Source: Drug Bank

Pharmacology

Sulfadoxine helps inhibit the enzyme dihydropteroate synthetase which is an enzyme necessary in the conversion of PABA to folic acid. As folic acid is vital to the synthesis, repair, and methylation of DNA which is vital to cell growth in Plasmodium falciparum. With this vital nutrient lacking, the parasite has difficulty in reproducing.

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula

C12H14N4O4S

Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES

COC1=C(N=CN=C1OC)NS(=O)(=O)C2=CC=C(C=C2)N

Source: Drug Bank

COC1=C(OC)C(NS(=O)(=O)C2=CC=C(N)C=C2)=NC=N1

Source: Drug Bank

Canonical SMILES

COC1=NC=NC(NS(=O)(=O)C2=CC=C(N)C=C2)=C1OC

Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight

310.329

Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight

310.073575646

Source: Drug Bank

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Curated Information ?

EvidenceGene
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
G6PD
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
IKBKG

Drug Targets

Gene Description
DHPS (source: Drug Bank)

Drug Interactions

Drug Description
sulfadoxine Sulfonamide/sulfonylurea: possible hypoglycemia (source: Drug Bank)
sulfadoxine Sulfonamide/sulfonylurea: possible hypoglycemia (source: Drug Bank)
sulfadoxine The sulfamide increases the toxicity of methotrexate (source: Drug Bank)
sulfadoxine The sulfamide increases the toxicity of methotrexate (source: Drug Bank)

Curated Information ?

EvidenceDisease
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Malaria
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Malaria, Falciparum

Relationships from National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT)

May Treat
Contraindicated With

Publications related to sulfadoxine: 8

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PharmGKB summary: very important pharmacogene information for G6PD. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. McDonagh Ellen M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
In Tanzania, hemolysis after a single dose of primaquine coadministered with an artemisinin is not restricted to glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient (G6PD A-) individuals. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 2010. Shekalaghe Seif A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
High risk of severe anaemia after chlorproguanil-dapsone+artesunate antimalarial treatment in patients with G6PD (A-) deficiency. PloS one. 2008. Fanello Caterina I, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine pharmacokinetics in malaria: pediatric dosing implications. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Barnes Karen I, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Comparison of chlorproguanil-dapsone with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in young African children: double-blind randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2004. Alloueche A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Antimalarial drug toxicity: a review. Drug safety : an international journal of medical toxicology and drug experience. 2004. Taylor W Robert J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Chlorproguanil-dapsone versus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for sequential episodes of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Kenya and Malawi: a randomised clinical trial. Lancet. 2002. Sulo J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Haemolytic effect of two sulphonamides evaluated by a new method. British journal of haematology. 1976. Gaetani G D, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

DrugBank:
DB01299
ChEBI:
9329
KEGG Compound:
C07630
KEGG Drug:
D00580
PubChem Compound:
17134
PubChem Substance:
10462311
46507915
ChemSpider:
16218
Therapeutic Targets Database:
DAP000638

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention sulfadoxine and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

Common Searches

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Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, Open Eye Scientific Software.