Drug/Small Molecule:
spironolactone

PharmGKB contains no dosing guidelines for this drug/small molecule. To report known genotype-based dosing guidelines, or if you are interested in developing guidelines, click here.

PharmGKB gathers information regarding PGx on FDA drug labels from the FDA's "Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labels", and from FDA-approved FDA and EMA-approved (European Medicines Agency) EMA labels brought to our attention. Excerpts from the label and downloadable highlighted label PDFs are manually curated by PharmGKB.

Please note that some drugs may have been removed from or added to the FDA's "Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labels" without our knowledge. We periodically check the table for additions to this table and update PharmGKB accordingly.

There is currently no such list for European drug labels - we are working with the EMA to establish a list of European Public Assessment Reports (EPAR)s that contain PGx information. We are constructing this list by initially searching for drugs for which we have PGx-containing FDA drug labels - of these 44 EMA EPARs were identified and are being curated for pgx information.

We welcome any information regarding drug labels containing PGx information approved by the FDA, EMA or other Medicine Agencies around the world - please contact feedback.



PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the page.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

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This is a non-comprehensive list of genetic tests with pharmacogenetics relevance, typically submitted by the manufacturer and manually curated by PharmGKB. The information listed is provided for educational purposes only and does not constitute an endorsement of any listed test or manufacturer.

A more complete listing of genetic tests is found at the Genetic Testing Registry (GTR).

PGx Test Variants Assayed Gene?

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page.

Links in the "Gene" column lead to PharmGKB Gene Pages.

Gene ? Variant?
(138)
Alternate Names / Tag SNPs ? Drugs ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1042713 148206440G>A, 148206440G>G, 46A>A, 46A>G, 46G>A, 5285A>A, 5285A>G, 9369367G>A, 9369367G>G, ADRB2:16Arg>Gly, ADRB2:Arg16Gly, ADRB2:Gly16Arg, Arg16, Arg16=
G > A
Missense
Arg16Gly
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1042714 148206473G>C, 148206473G>G, 318C>G, 5318C>G, 79C>G, 9369400G>C, 9369400G>G, ADRB2:27Glu>Gln, ADRB2:79C>G, ADRB2:Gln27Glu, Gln27
G > C
Missense
Gln27Glu
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1126742 1301T>C, 13661T>C, 17370414A>G, 47398496A>G, 8610T>C, CYP4A11:T8590C, F434S, Phe434Ser
A > G
Missense
Phe434Ser
No VIP available CA VA
rs1799752 16457_16458insATACAGTCACTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTGAGACGGAGTCTCGCTCTGTCGCCC, 2306-119_2306-118insATACAGTCACTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTGAGACGGAGTCTCGCTCTGTCGCCC, 26840042_26840043insATACAGTCACTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTGAGACGGAGTCTCGCTCTGTCGCCC, 584-119_584-118insATACAGTCACTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTGAGACGGAGTCTCGCTCTGTCGCCC, 61565890_61565891insATACAGTCACTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTGAGACGGAGTCTCGCTCTGTCGCCC, ACE D/I
- > ATACAGTCACTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTGAGACGGAGTCTCGCTCTGTCGCCC
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1799983 11291734T>G, 12965T>G, 150696111T>G, 894T>G, Asp298Glu, NOS3:894G>T
T > G
Missense
Asp298Glu
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1799998 -344T>C, 143999600A>G, 4660T>C, 57273149A>G, CYP11B2 ¿344T/C
A > G
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1801252 115804036A>G, 145A>G, 5231A>G, 66608500A>G, ADRB1:49Ser>Gly, ADRB1:Ser49Gly, Ser49Gly
A > G
Missense
Ser49Gly
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1801253 115805056G>C, 1165C>G, 1165G>C, 6251G>C, 66609520G>C, ADRB1:389Arg>Gly, ADRB1:Arg389Gly, Gly389Arg
G > C
Missense
Gly389Arg
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4341 16557G>C, 2306-19G>C, 26840142G>C, 584-19G>C, 61565990G>C
G > C
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs4343 16598G>A, 2328G>A, 26840183G>A, 606G>A, 61566031G>A, ACE:2350A>G in exon 17, ACE:Thr202Thr, Thr202=, Thr776=, tag SNP for ACE:I/D
G > A
Synonymous
Thr202Thr
No VIP available CA VA
rs4961 1378G>T, 1428061G>T, 2906707G>T, 66124G>T, ADD1:Gly460Trp, Gly460Trp, alpha-adducin Gly460Trp, rs4961 G>T
G > T
Missense
Gly460Trp
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs61767072 2290651_2290662delGGGGCGGGGCCG, 3769297_3769308delGGGGCGGGGCCG, 6002_6013delGGGGCGGGGCCG, 964_975delGGGGCGGGGCCG, Gly322_Pro325del
GGGGCGGGGCCG > -
Non-synonymous
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 138
2D structure from PubChem
provided by PubChem

Overview

Generic Names
Trade Names
  • Abbolactone
  • Acelat
  • Aldace
  • Aldactazide
  • Aldactide
  • Aldactone
  • Aldactone A
  • Alderon
  • Aldopur
  • Almatol
  • Altex
  • Aquareduct
  • Deverol
  • Diatensec
  • Dira
  • Duraspiron
  • Espironolactona [INN-Spanish]
  • Euteberol
  • Lacalmin
  • Lacdene
  • Laractone
  • Melarcon
  • Nefurofan
  • Osyrol
  • SNL
  • Sagisal
  • Sincomen
  • Spiresis
  • Spiretic
  • Spiridon
  • Spiro-Tablinen
  • Spiroctan
  • Spiroctanie
  • Spiroderm
  • Spirolactone
  • Spirolakton
  • Spirolang
  • Spirolone
  • Spirone
  • Spironocompren
  • Spironolactone A
  • Spironolactone [BAN:INN:JAN]
  • Spironolactonum [INN-Latin]
  • Spironolattone [DCIT]
  • Sprioderm
  • Supra-puren
  • Suracton
  • Uractone
  • Urusonin
  • Verospiron
  • Verospirone
  • Verospirone Opianin
  • Xenalon
Brand Mixture Names
  • Aldactazide 25 (Hydrochlorothiazide + Spironolactone)
  • Aldactazide 50 (Hydrochlorothiazide + Spironolactone)
  • Apo-Spirozide Tab (Hydrochlorothiazide + Spironolactone)
  • Novo-Spirozine Tab 25mg (Hydrochlorothiazide + Spironolactone)
  • Novo-Spirozine-50 Tab (Hydrochlorothiazide + Spironolactone)

PharmGKB Accession Id:
PA451483

Description

A potassium sparing diuretic that acts by antagonism of aldosterone in the distal renal tubules. It is used mainly in the treatment of refractory edema in patients with congestive heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, or hepatic cirrhosis. Its effects on the endocrine system are utilized in the treatments of hirsutism and acne but they can lead to adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p827)

Source: Drug Bank

Indication

Used primarily to treat low-renin hypertension, hypokalemia, and Conn's syndrome.

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

Spironolactone is a specific pharmacologic antagonist of aldosterone, acting primarily through competitive binding of receptors at the aldosterone-dependent sodium-potassium exchange site in the distal convoluted renal tubule. Spironolactone causes increased amounts of sodium and water to be excreted, while potassium is retained. Spironolactone acts both as a diuretic and as an antihypertensive drug by this mechanism. It may be given alone or with other diuretic agents which act more proximally in the renal tubule. Aldosterone interacts with a cytoplasmic mineralocorticoid receptor to enhance the expression of the Na+, K+-ATPase and the Na+ channel involved in a Na+ K+ transport in the distal tubule . Spironolactone bind to this mineralcorticoid receptor, blocking the actions of aldosterone on gene expression. Aldosterone is a hormone; its primary function is to retain sodium and excrete potassium in the kidneys.

Source: Drug Bank

Pharmacology

Spironolactone is a synthetic 17-lactone steroid which is a renal competitive aldosterone antagonist in a class of pharmaceuticals called potassium-sparing diuretics. On its own, spironolactone is only a weak diuretic, but it can be combined with other diuretics. Due to its anti-androgen effect, it can also be used to treat hirsutism, and is a common component in hormone therapy for male-to-female transgendered people. Spironolactone inhibits the effect of aldosterone by competing for intracellular aldosterone receptor in the distal tubule cells. This increases the secretion of water and sodium, while decreasing the excretion of potassium. Spironolactone has a fairly slow onset of action, taking several days to develop and similarly the effect diminishes slowly.

Source: Drug Bank

Food Interaction

Avoid alcohol.|Spironolactone may decrease the excretion of potassium. Salt substitutes containing potassium increase the risk of hyperkalemia.|Food increases the bioavailability of spironolactone by almost 100%.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity

Biotransformation

Rapidly and extensively metabolized. The metabolic pathway of spironolactone is complex and can be divided into two main routes: those in which the sulfur moiety is retained and those in which the sulfur moiety is removed by dethioacetylation. Spironolactone is transformed to a reactive metabolite that can inactivate adrenal and testicular cytochrome P450 enzymes. It also has anti-androgenic activity.

Source: Drug Bank

Protein Binding

Spironolactone and its metabolites are more than 90% bound to plasma proteins.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption

Fairly rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Food increases the bioavailability of unmetabolized spironolactone by almost 100%.

Source: Drug Bank

Half-Life

10 minutes

Source: Drug Bank

Toxicity

The oral LD 50 of spironolactone is greater than 1,000 mg/kg in mice, rats, and rabbits. Acute overdosage of spironolactone may be manifested by drowsiness, mental confusion, maculopapular or erythematous rash, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, or diarrhea. Spironolactone has been shown to be a tumorigen in chronic toxicity studies in rats.

Source: Drug Bank

Route of Elimination

The metabolites are excreted primarily in the urine and secondarily in bile.

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula

C24H32O4S

Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES

CC(=O)S[C@@H]1CC2=CC(=O)CC[C@@]2([C@@H]3[C@@H]1[C@@H]4CC[C@]5([C@]4(CC3)C)CCC(=O)O5)C

Source: Drug Bank

[H][C@@]12CC[C@@]3(CCC(=O)O3)[C@@]1(C)CC[C@@]1([H])[C@@]2([H])[C@@]([H])(CC2=CC(=O)CC[C@]12C)SC(C)=O

Source: Drug Bank

Canonical SMILES

CC(=O)S[C@@H]1CC2=CC(=O)CC[C@]

Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight

416.573

Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight

416.202130202

Source: Drug Bank

PharmGKB Curated Pathways

Pathways created internally by PharmGKB based primarily on literature evidence.

  1. Agents Acting on the Renin-Angiotensin System Pathway, Pharmacodynamics
    Genes involved in the pharmacodynamics of the drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.

External Pathways

Links to non-PharmGKB pathways.

PharmGKB contains no links to external pathways for this drug. To report a pathway, click here.

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Curated Information ?

Drug Targets

Gene Description
AGTR1 (source: Drug Bank)
AR (source: Drug Bank)
NR3C2 (source: Drug Bank)

Drug Interactions

Drug Description
spironolactone Increased risk of hyperkaliemia (source: Drug Bank)
spironolactone Increased risk of hyperkaliemia (source: Drug Bank)
spironolactone Increased risk of hyperkaliemia (source: Drug Bank)
spironolactone Increased risk of hyperkaliemia (source: Drug Bank)
spironolactone Increased risk of hyperkaliemia (source: Drug Bank)
spironolactone Increased risk of hyperkaliemia (source: Drug Bank)
spironolactone Increased risk of acidosis and hyperkaliemia (source: Drug Bank)
spironolactone Increased risk of acidosis and hyperkaliemia (source: Drug Bank)
spironolactone Increased risk of hyperkaliemia (source: Drug Bank)
spironolactone Increased digoxin levels and decreased effect in presence of spironolactone (source: Drug Bank)
spironolactone Increased digoxin levels and decreased effect in presence of spironolactone (source: Drug Bank)
spironolactone Increased risk of hyperkaliemia (source: Drug Bank)
spironolactone Increased risk of hyperkaliemia (source: Drug Bank)
spironolactone This association presents an increased risk of hyperkaliemia (source: Drug Bank)
spironolactone Increased risk of hyperkaliemia (source: Drug Bank)
spironolactone Increased risk of hyperkaliemia (source: Drug Bank)
spironolactone Increased risk of hyperkaliemia (source: Drug Bank)
spironolactone Increased risk of hyperkaliemia (source: Drug Bank)
spironolactone Increased risk of hyperkaliemia (source: Drug Bank)
spironolactone Increased risk of hyperkaliemia (source: Drug Bank)
spironolactone Increased risk of hyperkaliemia (source: Drug Bank)
spironolactone Increased risk of hyperkaliemia (source: Drug Bank)
spironolactone Increased risk of hyperkaliemia (source: Drug Bank)
spironolactone Increased risk of hyperkaliemia (source: Drug Bank)
spironolactone Spironolactone antagonizes the effect of mitotane (source: Drug Bank)
spironolactone Increased risk of hyperkaliemia (source: Drug Bank)
spironolactone Increased risk of hyperkaliemia (source: Drug Bank)
spironolactone Risk of alkalosis in renal impairment (source: Drug Bank)
spironolactone Increased risk of hyperkaliemia (source: Drug Bank)
spironolactone Increased risk of hyperkaliemia (source: Drug Bank)
spironolactone Increased risk of hyperkaliemia (source: Drug Bank)
spironolactone Increased risk of hyperkaliemia (source: Drug Bank)
spironolactone Increased risk of hyperkaliemia (source: Drug Bank)
spironolactone Increased risk of hyperkaliemia (source: Drug Bank)
spironolactone Telmisartan may increase the hyperkalemic effect of Spironolactone. Monitor for increased serum potassium concentrations during concomitant therapy. (source: Drug Bank)
spironolactone Telmisartan may increase the hyperkalemic effect of Spironolactone. Monitor for increased serum potassium concentrations during concomitant therapy. (source: Drug Bank)
spironolactone Increased risk of nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
spironolactone Increased risk of hyperkalemia. Monitor serum potassium levels. (source: Drug Bank)
spironolactone Additive hypotensive effect. Monitor antihypertensive therapy during concomitant use. (source: Drug Bank)

Curated Information ?

Relationships from National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT)

May Treat
Contraindicated With

Publications related to spironolactone: 27

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics and healthcare outcomes in patients with chronic heart failure. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2012. Kim Kye-Min, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Identification of diuretic non-responders with poor long-term clinical outcomes: a 1-year follow-up of 176 non-azotaemic cirrhotic patients with moderate ascites. Clinical science (London, England : 1979). 2011. Yang Ying-Ying, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Very important pharmacogene summary: ABCB1 (MDR1, P-glycoprotein). Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Hodges Laura M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Histone deacetylase inhibitors induce a very broad, pleiotropic anticancer drug resistance phenotype in acute myeloid leukemia cells by modulation of multiple ABC transporter genes. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2009. Hauswald Stefanie, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Genetic determinants of response to clopidogrel and cardiovascular events. The New England journal of medicine. 2009. Simon Tabassome, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Redox regulation of multidrug resistance in cancer chemotherapy: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic opportunities. Antioxidants & redox signaling. 2009. Kuo Macus Tien. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Several major antiepileptic drugs are substrates for human P-glycoprotein. Neuropharmacology. 2008. Luna-Tortós Carlos, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and endothelial function. Current opinion in investigational drugs (London, England : 2000). 2008. Maron Bradley A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Structure, function and regulation of P-glycoprotein and its clinical relevance in drug disposition. Xenobiotica; the fate of foreign compounds in biological systems. 2008. Zhou S-F. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Polymorphisms in the drug transporter gene ABCB1 predict antidepressant treatment response in depression. Neuron. 2008. Uhr Manfred, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Citalopram enantiomers in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of ABCB1 genotyped depressive patients and clinical response: a pilot study. Pharmacological research : the official journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society. 2008. Nikisch Georg, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Cobalamin potentiates vinblastine cytotoxicity through downregulation of mdr-1 gene expression in HepG2 cells. Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology. 2007. Marguerite Véronique, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Mechanism of inhibition of P-glycoprotein mediated efflux by vitamin E TPGS: influence on ATPase activity and membrane fluidity. Molecular pharmaceutics. 2007. Collnot Eva-Maria, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Gefitinib modulates the function of multiple ATP-binding cassette transporters in vivo. Cancer research. 2006. Leggas Markos, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Impact of P-glycoprotein on clopidogrel absorption. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Taubert Dirk, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Single nucleotide polymorphisms in human P-glycoprotein: its impact on drug delivery and disposition. Expert opinion on drug delivery. 2006. Dey Surajit. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Influence of lipid lowering fibrates on P-glycoprotein activity in vitro. Biochemical pharmacology. 2004. Ehrhardt Manuela, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Interactions of human P-glycoprotein with simvastatin, simvastatin acid, and atorvastatin. Pharmaceutical research. 2004. Hochman Jerome H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Effects of ACE gene insertion/deletion polymorphism on response to spironolactone in patients with chronic heart failure. The American journal of medicine. 2004. Cicoira Mariantonietta, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Polymorphisms in human MDR1 (P-glycoprotein): recent advances and clinical relevance. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2004. Marzolini Catia, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Genetic polymorphisms of the human MDR1 drug transporter. Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology. 2003. Schwab Matthias, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Interaction of omeprazole, lansoprazole and pantoprazole with P-glycoprotein. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's archives of pharmacology. 2001. Pauli-Magnus C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
The role of intestinal P-glycoprotein in the interaction of digoxin and rifampin. The Journal of clinical investigation. 1999. Greiner B, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Biochemical, cellular, and pharmacological aspects of the multidrug transporter. Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology. 1999. Ambudkar S V, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
The human orphan nuclear receptor PXR is activated by compounds that regulate CYP3A4 gene expression and cause drug interactions. The Journal of clinical investigation. 1998. Lehmann J M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Competitive, non-competitive and cooperative interactions between substrates of P-glycoprotein as measured by its ATPase activity. Biochimica et biophysica acta. 1997. Litman T, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
P-glycoprotein structure and evolutionary homologies. Cytotechnology. 1993. Croop J M. PubMed

LinkOuts

Web Resource:
Wikipedia
National Drug Code Directory:
0781-1599-01
DrugBank:
DB00421
PDB:
SNL
ChEBI:
9241
KEGG Compound:
C07310
KEGG Drug:
D00443
PubChem Compound:
5833
PubChem Substance:
46508525
9518
Drugs Product Database (DPD):
613223
BindingDB:
50228080
ChemSpider:
5628
HET:
SNL
Therapeutic Targets Database:
DAP000297
FDA Drug Label at DailyMed:
2d98eab1-6713-4b8c-a17c-f136e9972bce

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention spironolactone and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

Common Searches

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Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, Open Eye Scientific Software.