Drug/Small Molecule:
nicotine

PharmGKB contains no dosing guidelines for this drug/small molecule. To report known genotype-based dosing guidelines, or if you are interested in developing guidelines, click here.

PharmGKB gathers information regarding PGx on FDA drug labels from the FDA's "Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labels", and from FDA-approved FDA and EMA-approved (European Medicines Agency) EMA labels brought to our attention. Excerpts from the label and downloadable highlighted label PDFs are manually curated by PharmGKB.

Please note that some drugs may have been removed from or added to the FDA's "Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labels" without our knowledge. We periodically check the table for additions to this table and update PharmGKB accordingly.

There is currently no such list for European drug labels - we are working with the EMA to establish a list of European Public Assessment Reports (EPAR)s that contain PGx information. We are constructing this list by initially searching for drugs for which we have PGx-containing FDA drug labels - of these 44 EMA EPARs were identified and are being curated for pgx information.

We welcome any information regarding drug labels containing PGx information approved by the FDA, EMA or other Medicine Agencies around the world - please contact feedback.



PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the page.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

? = Mouse-over for quick help

This is a non-comprehensive list of genetic tests with pharmacogenetics relevance, typically submitted by the manufacturer and manually curated by PharmGKB. The information listed is provided for educational purposes only and does not constitute an endorsement of any listed test or manufacturer.

A more complete listing of genetic tests is found at the Genetic Testing Registry (GTR).

PGx Test Variants Assayed Gene?

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page.

Links in the "Gene" column lead to PharmGKB Gene Pages.

Gene ? Variant?
(138)
Alternate Names / Tag SNPs ? Drugs ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available No VIP available VA APOE E4 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2A6 *1A N/A N/A N/A
VIP No VIP available VA CYP2A6 *2 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2A6 *4A N/A N/A N/A
VIP No VIP available VA CYP2A6 *7 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2A6 *9 N/A N/A N/A
VIP No VIP available VA CYP2A6 *9A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2A6 *10 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2A6 *17 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2A6 *18A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2A6 *19 N/A N/A N/A
VIP No VIP available VA CYP2A6 *1B1 N/A N/A N/A
VIP No VIP available No VIP available CYP2A6 *1X2A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2A6 *1X2B N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2A6 *20 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2A6 *24A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2A6 *26 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2A6 *27 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2A6 *28A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP3A5 *1A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP3A5 *3A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
CYP2A6 poor metabolizer genotype N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs10121600 104378003C>T, 2615-2194G>A, 33542535C>T
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs1044396 1101C>T, 1629C>T, 16562C>T, 1885C>T, 61981134G>A, 717765G>A, Ser367=, Ser543=
G > A
Not Available
Ser367Ser
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1044397 1131G>A, 16592G>A, 1659G>A, 1915G>A, 61981104C>T, 717735C>T, Ala377=, Ala553=
C > T
Not Available
Ala377Ala
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs10515115 21606666T>A, 21606666T>C, 21606666T>G, 2318T>A, 2318T>C, 2318T>G, 71012307T>A, 71012307T>C, 71012307T>G
T > G
T > A
T > C
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1051730 1146C>T, 24299C>T, 49684896G>A, 645C>T, 78894339G>A, CHRNA3:Gly394Gly, Tyr215=
G > A
Not Available
Tyr215Tyr
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1057868 13647849C>T, 1508C>T, 3514924C>T, 75587C>T, 75615006C>T, Ala503Val, POR A503V, POR*28
C > T
Missense
Ala503Val
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs10912675 -6-5T>C, 171227216T>C, 22715858T>C
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs11101191 1112-1359T>C, 1657656T>C, 41052T>C, 50853192T>C, 758-1359T>C, 866-1359T>C
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs112561475 1189A>G, 1441A>G, 408702A>G, 69696451A>G, 9907118A>G, Asn397Asp, Asn481Asp
A > G
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs11575893 159+172C>T, 21609810C>T, 5462C>T, 71015451C>T
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs11746641 10073A>C, 174866091T>G, 19677364T>G
T > G
Not Available
No VIP available CA VA
rs11749035 174883052C>T, 19694325C>T
C > T
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs11788456 104348150G>A, 2767-6508C>T, 33512682G>A
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs12718541 139513A>G, 50550144A>G, 666-2583T>C, 711-2583T>C, 801-2583T>C, 831-2583T>C, 88011T>C, 945-2583T>C
A > G
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs13280604 30417732G>A, 42559586G>A, 53-4274G>A
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs140471703 13621035C>T, 41352817C>T, 794G>A, 8536G>A, Arg265Gln
C > T
Missense
Arg265Gln
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs143690364 13624082C>T, 202G>A, 41355864C>T, 5489G>A, Val68Met
C > T
Missense
Val68Met
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1451371 142420T>C, 50553051T>C, 666-5490A>G, 711-5490A>G, 801-5490A>G, 831-5490A>G, 85104A>G, 945-5490A>G
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1541333 1025-1583C>G, 136511385C>G, 14901C>G, 3288325C>G
C > G
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs16871471 21612916A>T, 71018557A>T, 8568A>T
A > T
Not Available
No VIP available CA VA
rs16969968 1192G>A, 30064G>A, 49673482G>A, 78882925G>A, CHRNA5:Asp398Asn
G > A
Missense
Asp398Asn
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs17189632 104368002T>A, 2766+7656A>T, 33532534T>A
T > A
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs17602038 113364691T>C, 16927107T>C
T > C
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1799732 -487_-486insC, 113346252_113346253insG, 16908668_16908669insG, 4749_4750insC, DRD2: -141C Ins/Del
- > G
5' Flanking
No VIP available CA VA
rs1799971 -11+28644A>G, 118A>G, 154360797A>G, 34162A>G, 397A>G, 47+29103A>G, 58530254A>G, Asn133Asp, Asn40Asp, OPRM1: A118G
A > G
Missense
Asn40Asp
No VIP available CA VA
rs1800497 113270828G>A, 16833244G>A, 17316G>A, 2137G>A, 32806C>T, DRD2 Taq1A, DRD2:32806C>T, DRD2:Taq1A, DRD2:Taq1A A1, DRD2:TaqIA allele, Glu713Lys, Taq1A
G > A
Missense
Glu713Lys
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1801272 13622751A>T, 41354533A>T, 479T>A, 6820T>A, CYP2A6:50707A>T, Leu160His
A > T
Missense
Leu160His
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1824024 -124-33240C>A, -125+7867C>A, -46-55873C>A, 136643694C>A, 342-56946G>T, 74676537C>A, 95296C>A
C > A
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2056527 152707929T>C, 59203075T>C
T > C
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2060761 *18+1591G>A, 108835G>A, 118689C>T, 50529320C>T
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2061174 -124-15534G>A, -46-38167G>A, 113002G>A, 136661400G>A, 341+56141C>T, 74694243G>A
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2072658 -296G>A, 154540225G>A, 4969G>A, 6028867G>A
G > A
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2072660 *313T>C, 13465T>C, 154548721T>C, 6037363T>C
T > C
3' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2072661 *472G>A, 13624G>A, 154548880G>A, 6037522G>A
G > A
3' UTR
No VIP available CA VA
rs2168631 162C>T, 174876002G>A, 19687275G>A
G > A
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2193225 185193A>G, 29901369T>C, 51079482T>C, 832+69525A>G, 931+69525A>G
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2229959 1209G>T, 1465G>T, 16142G>T, 61981554C>A, 681G>T, 718185C>A, Pro227=, Pro403=
C > A
Not Available
Pro227Pro
No VIP available CA VA
rs2236196 *534C>T, 20140C>T, 2674C>T, 61977556G>A, 714187G>A
G > A
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2266782 171076966G>A, 21949G>A, 22565608G>A, 472G>A, Glu158Lys
G > A
Missense
Glu158Lys
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2273504 -318-294C>T, 229-294C>T, 460-294C>T, 61988061G>A, 724692G>A, 9635C>T
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2279343 13783481A>G, 23060A>G, 41515263A>G, 785A>G, CYP2B6*4, CYP2B6:18053A>G, CYP2B6:785A>G, CYP2B6:K262R, CYP2B6:Lys262Arg, Lys262Arg, part of CYP2B6*6
A > G
Missense
Lys262Arg
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs27072 *328G>A, 1384522C>T, 1394522C>T, 56022G>A
C > T
3' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2717162 11320T>C, 22759191T>C, 732+148T>C, 74968327T>C
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs28399433 -48T>G, 13624597A>C, 41356379A>C, 4974T>G, CYP2A6:52553A>G
A > C
5' Flanking
VIP No Clinical Annotations available No Variant Annotations available
rs28399444 13622408delT, 13622408delTinsTT, 41354190delT, 41354190delTinsTT, 588delA, 588delAinsAA, 7163delA, 7163delAinsAA, CYP2A6:50364-50365delTT, Lys196=fs, Lys196delinsLysArgfs
A > -
A > TT
Frameshift
Glu197Ser
Glu197Arg
No VIP available CA VA
rs28399468 11621G>T, 13617950C>A, 1454G>T, 41349732C>A, Arg485Leu, CYP2A6:45906C>A
C > A
Missense
Arg485Leu
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2869950 1008-16561G>A, 14290485C>T, 29+1363G>A, 89742764C>T
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs324650 -46-5906T>A, 136693661T>A, 145263T>A, 341+23880A>T, 74726504T>A
T > A
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3735273 186233C>T, 336+42G>A, 41291G>A, 435+8694G>A, 456+42G>A, 50596864C>T, 570+42G>A
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3743078 23879G>C, 378-153G>C, 49685316C>G, 78894759C>G, 879-153G>C
C > G
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3757472 100172T>G, 1042-114T>G, 127352A>C, 50537983A>C, 763-114T>G, 808-114T>G, 898-114T>G, 928-114T>G
A > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3763153 -1474T>A, -1474T>C, -1474T>G, 21608006T>A, 21608006T>C, 21608006T>G, 3658T>A, 3658T>C, 3658T>G, 71013647T>A, 71013647T>C, 71013647T>G
T > G
T > A
T > C
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs376817657
C > T
Missense
Glu390Lys
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3793790 1111+4905G>A, 1645200G>A, 28596G>A, 50840736G>A, 757+4905G>A, 865+4905G>A
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3813567 -1076C>T, 49725108G>A, 78934551G>A
G > A
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3857384 -1157C>T, 21608323C>T, 3975C>T, 71013964C>T
C > T
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4245150 113364647G>T, 16927063G>T
G > T
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4532 -48G>A, 174870150C>T, 19681423C>T, 6014G>A
C > T
5' UTR
No VIP available CA VA
rs4680 1-5G>A, 19951271G>A, 27009G>A, 3103421G>A, 322G>A, 472G>A, COMP: Val158Met, COMT:Val108Met, Val108Met, Val158Met
G > A
5' Flanking
Val158Met
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4790694 4229728A>C, 4626354A>C
A > C
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4838547 1281-737T>C, 1389-737T>C, 1635-737T>C, 1666868T>C, 50264T>C, 50862404T>C
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4950 -57G>A, 30410779G>A, 42552633G>A
G > A
5' UTR
No VIP available CA VA
rs5031016 11579T>C, 13617992A>G, 1412T>C, 41349774A>G, CYP2A6:45948A>G, Ile471Thr
A > G
Not Available
Ile471Thr
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs5031017 11603G>T, 13617968C>A, 1436G>T, 41349750C>A, Gly479Val
C > A
Not Available
Gly479Val
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs56256500 13622389G>A, 13622389G>T, 41354171G>A, 41354171G>T, 607C>A, 607C>T, 7182C>A, 7182C>T, Arg203Cys, Arg203Ser, CYP2A6*23, CYP2A6:2161C>T, CYP2A6:R203C
G > T
G > A
Missense
Arg203Cys
Arg203Ser
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs578776 *546C>T, 1390-2867C>T, 2083+482C>T, 30238C>T, 35539G>A, 49678957G>A, 78888400G>A
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs588765 106+7258T>C, 12564T>C, 49655982T>C, 78865425T>C
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs61750900 199G>T, 394187G>T, 69681936G>T, 9892603G>T, Asp67Tyr
G > T
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs6265 196G>A, 220G>A, 241G>A, 27619916C>T, 27679916C>T, 283G>A, 434C>T, 442G>A, 503C>T, 68690G>A, BDNF:Val66Met, Val148Met, Val66Met, Val74Met, Val81Met, Val95Met
C > T
Missense
Val66Met
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs637137 21115T>A, 258+672T>A, 49664533T>A, 78873976T>A
T > A
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs6702335 1396-13069A>G, 1459-13069A>G, 1516-13069A>G, 16091338A>G, 1918-13069A>G, 202648A>G, 2185-13069A>G, 29411250A>G
A > G
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs6721498 29534899G>A, 3070+10031C>T, 3190+10031C>T, 50713012G>A, 551663C>T
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs680244 107-1865T>C, 18427T>C, 49661845T>C, 78871288T>C
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs684513 106+233C>G, 49648957C>G, 5539C>G, 78858400C>G
C > G
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs686 *62C>T, 174868700G>A, 19679973G>A, 7464C>T
G > A
3' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs77905 136518097A>G, 1410A>G, 21613A>G, 3295037A>G, Thr470=
A > G
Synonymous
Thr470Thr
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs7877 *207C>T, 171254890C>T, 22743532C>T
C > T
3' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs867687 1681729A>G, 50877265A>G
A > G
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs921451 -29+5426A>G, -29+9697A>G, 14870A>G, 212654T>C, 50623285T>C
T > C
Intronic
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 138
2D structure from PubChem
provided by PubChem

Overview

Generic Names
  • L-Nicotine
  • Nicotine Alkaloid
Trade Names
  • Black Leaf
  • Black Leaf 40
  • Campbell's Nico-Soap
  • Commit
  • Destruxol Orchid Spray
  • Emo-Nik
  • Flux Maag
  • Fumetobac
  • Habitrol
  • Mach-Nic
  • Niagara P.A. Dust
  • Nic-Sal
  • Nico-Dust
  • Nico-Fume
  • Nicocide
  • Nicoderm
  • Nicoderm Cq
  • Nicorette
  • Nicorette Plus
  • Nicotin
  • Nicotina
  • Nicotine Polacrilex
  • Nicotrol
  • Nicotrol Inhaler
  • Nicotrol Ns
  • Nikotin
  • Nikotyna
  • Ortho N-4 Dust
  • Ortho N-5 Dust
  • Prostep
  • Tendust
Brand Mixture Names

PharmGKB Accession Id:
PA450626

Description

Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.

Source: Drug Bank

Indication

For the relief of nicotine withdrawal symptoms and as an aid to smoking cessation.

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

Nicotine is a stimulant drug that acts as an agonist at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. These are ionotropic receptors composed up of five homomeric or heteromeric subunits. In the brain, nicotine binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on dopaminergic neurons in the cortico-limbic pathways. This causes the channel to open and allow conductance of multiple cations including sodium, calcium, and potassium. This leads to depolarization, which activates voltage-gated calcium channels and allows more calcium to enter the axon terminal. Calcium stimulates vesicle trafficking towards the plasma membrane and the release of dopamine into the synapse. Dopamine binding to its receptors is responsible the euphoric and addictive properties of nicotine.
Nicotine also binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on the chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla. Binding opens the ion channel allowing influx of sodium, causing depolarization of the cell, which activates voltage-gated calcium channels. Calcium triggers the release of epinephrine from intracellular vesicles into the bloodstream, which causes vasoconstriction, increased blood pressure, increased heart rate, and increased blood sugar.

Source: Drug Bank

Pharmacology

Nicotine, the primary alkaloid in tobacco products binds stereo-selectively to nicotinic-cholinergic receptors on autonomic ganglia, the adrenal medulla, neuromuscular junctions and in the brain. Nicotine exerts two effects, a stimulant effect exerted at the locus ceruleus and a reward effect in the limbic system. Itranvenous administration of nicotine causes release of acetylcholine, norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonine, vasopressin, beta-endorphin and ACTH. Nicotine is a highly addictive substance. Nicotine also induces peripheral vasoconstriction, tachycardia and elevated blood pressure. Nicotine inhalers and patches are used to treat smoking withdrawl syndrome. Nicotine is classified as a stimulant of autonomic ganglia.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity

Biotransformation

Primarily hepatic, cotinine is the primary metabolite.

Source: Drug Bank

Protein Binding

Less than 5%

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption

Absorption of nicotine through the buccal mucosa is relatively slow and the high and rapid rise followed by the decline in nicotine arterial plasma concentrations seen with cigarette smoking are not achieved with the inhaler. About 10% of absorbed nicotine is excreted unchanged in urine.

Source: Drug Bank

Half-Life

Cotinine has a half life of 15-20 hours, while nicotine has a half life of 1-3 hours

Source: Drug Bank

Toxicity

Symptoms of overdose include nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, diaphoresis, flushing, dizziness, disturbed hearing and vision, confusion, weakness, palpitations, altered respiration and hypotension. LD 50= 24 mg/kg (orally in mice).

Source: Drug Bank

Clearance

Source: Drug Bank

Route of Elimination

About 10% of the nicotine absorbed is excreted unchanged in the urine.

Source: Drug Bank

Volume of Distribution

  • 2 to 3 L/kg

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula

C10H14N2

Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES

CN1CCC[C@H]1c2cccnc2

Source: OpenEye

Canonical SMILES

CN1CCCC1C1=CN=CC=C1

Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight

162.2316

Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight

162.115698458

Source: Drug Bank

PharmGKB Curated Pathways

Pathways created internally by PharmGKB based primarily on literature evidence.

  1. Nicotine Pathway (Chromaffin Cell), Pharmacodynamics
    Representation of genes involved in nicotine effects in chromaffin cells.
  1. Nicotine Pathway (Dopaminergic Neuron), Pharmacodynamics
    Representation of genes involved in nicotine effects in dopaminergic neurons.
  1. Nicotine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Summary of nicotine metabolism in human liver cell.

External Pathways

Links to non-PharmGKB pathways.

  1. Glucuronidation - (Reactome via Pathway Interaction Database)
  2. N-oxidation of nitrogen compounds - (Reactome via Pathway Interaction Database)

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Curated Information ?

Drug Targets

Gene Description
CHRNA10 (source: Drug Bank)
CHRNA2 (source: Drug Bank)
CHRNA3 (source: Drug Bank)
CHRNA4 (source: Drug Bank)
CHRNA5 (source: Drug Bank)
CHRNA6 (source: Drug Bank)
CHRNA7 (source: Drug Bank)
CHRNA9 (source: Drug Bank)
CHRNB2 (source: Drug Bank)
CHRNB3 (source: Drug Bank)
CHRNB4 (source: Drug Bank)
GRM2 (source: Drug Bank)
GRM3 (source: Drug Bank)
No related drugs are available.

Curated Information ?

Relationships from National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT)

May Treat
May Prevent
Contraindicated With

Publications related to nicotine: 224

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Effects of methoxsalen, a CYP2A5/6 inhibitor, on nicotine dependence behaviors in mice. Neuropharmacology. 2014. Bagdas Deniz, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association of CHRNA5-A3-B4 SNP rs2036527 with smoking cessation therapy response in African American smokers. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2014. Zhu Andy Z X, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Nicotine dependence as a moderator of genetic influences on smoking cessation treatment outcome. Drug and alcohol dependence. 2014. Leventhal Adam M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Large-Scale Brain Network Coupling Predicts Acute Nicotine Abstinence Effects on Craving and Cognitive Function. JAMA psychiatry. 2014. Lerman Caryn, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Familial Aggregation of Tobacco Use Behaviors in Amish Men. Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. 2014. Nugent Katie L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
CHRNA3 and CYP3A5*3 genotype, lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the general population. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2014. Kaur-Knudsen Diljit, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Variation in P450 oxidoreductase (POR) A503V and flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO)-3 E158K is associated with minor alterations in nicotine metabolism, but does not alter cigarette consumption. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2014. Chenoweth Meghan J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Novel CYP2A6 variants identified in African Americans are associated with slow nicotine metabolism in vitro and in vivo. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. Piliguian Mark, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
The contribution of common UGT2B10 and CYP2A6 alleles to variation in nicotine glucuronidation among European Americans. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. Bloom A Joseph, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
BDNF rs6265 polymorphism and drug addiction: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Haerian Batoul Sadat. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
An efficient early phase 2 procedure to screen medications for efficacy in smoking cessation. Psychopharmacology. 2013. Perkins Kenneth A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Effects of tolcapone on working memory and brain activity in abstinent smokers: A proof-of-concept study. Drug and alcohol dependence. 2013. Ashare Rebecca L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Evidence from mouse and man for a role of neuregulin 3 in nicotine dependence. Molecular psychiatry. 2013. Turner J R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Influence of a Dopamine Pathway Additive Genetic Efficacy Score on Smoking Cessation: Results from Two Randomized Clinical Trials of Bupropion. Addiction (Abingdon, England). 2013. David Sean P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic and Pharmacokinetic Determinants of Response to Transdermal Nicotine in White, Black and Asian Non- Smokers. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2013. Dempsey Delia A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
CHRNA5-A3-B4 genetic variants alter nicotine intake and interact with tobacco use to influence body weight in Alaska-Native tobacco users. Addiction (Abingdon, England). 2013. Zhu Andy Z X, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Cognitive Function During Nicotine Withdrawal: Implications for Nicotine Dependence Treatment. Neuropharmacology. 2013. Ashare Rebecca L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Ethanol self-administration and nicotine treatment induce brain levels of CYP2B6 and CYP2E1 in African green monkeys. Neuropharmacology. 2013. Ferguson Charmaine S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2A6 slow nicotine metabolism is associated with increased quitting by adolescent smokers. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. Chenoweth Meghan J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
COMT Val158Met modulates subjective responses to intravenous nicotine and cognitive performance in abstinent smokers. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2013. Herman A I, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor variation and response to smoking cessation therapies. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. Bergen Andrew W, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Effect of a Nicotine Vaccine on Nicotine Binding to beta2*-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors In Vivo in Human Tobacco Smokers. The American journal of psychiatry. 2013. Esterlis Irina, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
The ability of plasma cotinine to predict nicotine and carcinogen exposure is altered by differences in CYP2A6: the influence of genetics, race and sex. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology. 2013. Zhu Andy Z X, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Nicotine-motivated behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans requires the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits acr-5 and acr-15. The European journal of neuroscience. 2013. Sellings Laurie, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Variation in the alpha 5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit gene predicts cigarette smoking intensity as a function of nicotine content. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2013. Macqueen D A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Effects of smoking on the genetic risk of obesity: the population architecture using genomics and epidemiology study. BMC medical genetics. 2013. Fesinmeyer Megan D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Cotinine in Human Placenta Predicts Induction of Gene Expression in Fetal Tissues. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2012. Vyhlidal Carrie A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pilot Study of CYP2B6 Genetic Variation to Explore the Contribution of Nitrosamine Activation to Lung Carcinogenesis. International journal of molecular sciences. 2013. Wassenaar Catherine A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association of functional COMT Val108/Met polymorphism with smoking cessation in a nicotine replacement therapy. Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996). 2012. Sun Hongqiang, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism in the brain. Journal of psychiatry & neuroscience : JPN. 2012. Miksys Sharon, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The DRD4 Exon III VNTR, Bupropion, and Associations With Prospective Abstinence. Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. 2012. Bergen Andrew W, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Correlation of circulating MMP-9 with white blood cell count in humans: effect of smoking. PloS one. 2013. Snitker Soren, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Variation in trans-3'-hydroxycotinine glucuronidation does not alter the nicotine metabolite ratio or nicotine intake. PloS one. 2013. Zhu Andy Z X, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
APOE ɛ4, an Alzheimer's disease susceptibility allele, and smoking cessation. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2012. Ashare R L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Predictors of cessation in African American light smokers enrolled in a bupropion clinical trial. Addictive behaviors. 2012. Faseru Babalola, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Alaska Native smokers and smokeless tobacco users with slower CYP2A6 activity have lower tobacco consumption, lower tobacco specific nitrosamine exposure and lower tobacco specific nitrosamine bioactivation. Carcinogenesis. 2012. Zhu Andy Z X, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
A genetic basis for the variable effect of smoking/nicotine on Parkinson's disease. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2012. Hill-Burns E M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Might cigarettes be a "smoking gun" to reduce taxane myelotoxicity?. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2012. Lewis Lionel D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
μ-Opioid receptor availability in the amygdala is associated with smoking for negative affect relief. Psychopharmacology. 2012. Falcone Mary, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Differential Effects of Nicotine Treatment and Ethanol Self-administration on CYP2A6, CYP2B6 and Nicotine Pharmacokinetics in African Green Monkeys. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 2012. Ferguson Charmaine S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Reproducibility of the nicotine metabolite ratio in cigarette smokers. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology. 2012. St Helen Gideon, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Exposure to nicotine and carcinogens among Southwestern Alaskan Native cigarette smokers and smokeless tobacco users. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology. 2012. Benowitz Neal L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetic association of the galanin receptor (GALR1) SNP rs2717162 with smoking cessation. Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012. Gold Allison B, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2A6 and CYP2B6 genetic variation and its association with nicotine metabolism in South Western Alaska Native people. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. J Binnington Matthew, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Dose-Independent Kinetics with Low Level Exposure to Nicotine and Cotinine. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2012. Benowitz Neal L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic variation in CYP2A6 predicts neural reactivity to smoking cues as measured using fMRI. NeuroImage. 2012. Tang Deborah W, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
High Dose Transdermal Nicotine for Fast Metabolizers of Nicotine: A Proof of Concept Placebo-Controlled Trial. Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. 2012. Schnoll Robert A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Interplay of Genetic Risk Factors (CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4) and Cessation Treatments in Smoking Cessation Success. The American journal of psychiatry. 2012. Chen Li-Shiun, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
DRD1 associations with smoking abstinence across slow and normal nicotine metabolizers. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. Lee Wonho, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
PharmGKB summary: very important pharmacogene information for cytochrome P-450, family 2, subfamily A, polypeptide 6. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. McDonagh Ellen M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Smoking in Response to Negative Mood in Men Versus Women as a Function of Distress Tolerance. Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. 2012. Perkins Kenneth A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics of smoking cessation: role of nicotine target and metabolism genes. Human genetics. 2012. Gold Allison B, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Association between daily cigarette consumption and hypertension moderated by CYP2A6 genotypes in Chinese male current smokers. Journal of human hypertension. 2012. Liu T, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Bupropion for Smoking Cessation in African American Light Smokers: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2012. Cox Lisa Sanderson, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PharmGKB summary: caffeine pathway. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. Thorn Caroline F, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Extended duration therapy with transdermal nicotine may attenuate weight gain following smoking cessation. Addictive behaviors. 2011. Schnoll Robert A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Relationship Between Amounts of Daily Cigarette Consumption and Abdominal Obesity Moderated by CYP2A6 Genotypes in Chinese Male Current Smokers. Annals of behavioral medicine : a publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine. 2011. Liu Tao, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Independent and combined effects of ethanol self-administration and nicotine treatment on hepatic CYP2E1 in African green monkeys. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2011. Ferguson C S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Nicotine receptor subtype-specific effects on auditory evoked oscillations and potentials. PloS one. 2012. Featherstone Robert E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
alcohol, smoking, and caffeine in relation to fecundability, with effect modification by NAT2. Annals of epidemiology. 2011. Taylor Kira C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Interaction between heavy smoking and CYP2A6 genotypes on type 2 diabetes and its possible pathways. European journal of endocrinology / European Federation of Endocrine Societies. 2011. Liu Tao, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Relationship between CYP2A6 and CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 variation and smoking behaviors and lung cancer risk. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2011. Wassenaar Catherine A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Association of BDNF and COMT genotypes with cognitive processing of anti-smoking PSAs. Genes, brain, and behavior. 2011. Falcone Mary, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Dopamine-related genes and spontaneous smoking cessation in ever-heavy smokers. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Breitling Lutz P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Gender-stratified gene and gene-treatment interactions in smoking cessation. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2011. Lee W, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
RUNX Transcription Factors: Association with Pediatric Asthma and Modulated by Maternal Smoking. American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular physiology. 2011. Haley Kathleen J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association between CHRNA5 genetic variation at rs16969968 and brain reactivity to smoking images in nicotine dependent women. Drug and alcohol dependence. 2011. Janes Amy C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
A CHRNA5 allele related to nicotine addiction and schizophrenia. Genes, brain, and behavior. 2011. Hong L E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4 polymorphisms with smoking behaviors in Chinese male smokers. Chinese medical journal. 2011. Chu Cheng-Jing, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
A Novel Recruitment Message to Increase Enrollment Into a Smoking Cessation Treatment Program: Preliminary Results From a Randomized Trial. Health communication. 2011. Schnoll Robert A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
The galanin receptor 1 gene associates with tobacco craving in smokers seeking cessation treatment. Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011. Lori Adriana, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
THE DYNAMICS OF THE URGE-TO-SMOKE FOLLOWING SMOKING CESSATION VIA PHARMACOTHERAPY. Addiction (Abingdon, England). 2011. Javitz Harold S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The contribution of common CYP2A6 alleles to variation in nicotine metabolism among European-Americans. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Bloom Joseph, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Brain activity and emotional processing in smokers treated with varenicline. Addiction biology. 2011. Loughead James, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association between DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A genotypes, depression and smoking cessation with nicotine replacement therapy. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Stapleton John Andrew, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Common polymorphisms in FMO1 are associated with nicotine dependence. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Hinrichs Anthony L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Association analysis of CYP2A6 genotypes and haplotypes with 5-fluorouracil formation from tegafur in human liver microsomes. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Wang Huijuan, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
CHRNB2 promoter region: association with subjective effects to nicotine and gene expression differences. Genes, brain, and behavior. 2011. Hoft N R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Association of the Nicotine Metabolite Ratio and CHRNA5/CHRNA3 Polymorphisms With Smoking Rate Among Treatment-Seeking Smokers. Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. 2011. Falcone Mary, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Copy number variants in pharmacogenetic genes. Trends in molecular medicine. 2011. He Yijing, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Nicotine metabolite ratio predicts smoking topography and carcinogen biomarker level. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology. 2011. Strasser Andrew A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Drug Metabolism within the Brain Changes Drug Response: Selective Manipulation of Brain CYP2B Alters Propofol Effects. Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011. Khokhar Jibran Y, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Early Human Screening of Medications to Treat Drug Addiction: Novel Paradigms and the Relevance of Pharmacogenetics. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Perkins K A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Nicotinic alpha5 receptor subunit mRNA expression is associated with distant 5' upstream polymorphisms. European journal of human genetics : EJHG. 2011. Smith Ryan M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Associations of CYP2A6 genotype with smoking behaviors in southern China. Addiction (Abingdon, England). 2010. Liu Tao, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Risk gene variants for nicotine dependence in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 cluster are associated with cognitive performance. American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics. 2010. Winterer Georg, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Breaking Barriers in the Genomics and Pharmacogenetics of Drug Addiction. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Ho M K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Design, baseline characteristics, and retention of African American light smokers into a randomized trial involving biological data. Trials. 2011. Cox Lisa Sanderson, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Peer smoking and the nicotinic receptor genes: an examination of genetic and environmental risks for nicotine dependence. Addiction (Abingdon, England). 2010. Johnson Eric O, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Resequencing of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes and association of common and rare variants with the Fagerström test for nicotine dependence. Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 2010. Wessel Jennifer, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Variation in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes is associated with multiple substance dependence phenotypes. Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 2010. Sherva Richard, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Higher nicotine levels in schizophrenia compared with controls after smoking a single cigarette. Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. 2010. Williams Jill M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
PharmGKB summary: very important pharmacogene information for CYP2B6. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Thorn Caroline F, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic variation in three candidate genes and nicotine dependence, withdrawal and smoking cessation in hospitalized patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. De Ruyck Kim, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) gene in the comorbidity of schizophrenia with alcohol use disorders and nicotine dependence. Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry. 2010. Busto Amaya, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Nicotine deprivation and pilot performance during simulated flight. Aviation, space, and environmental medicine. 2010. Mumenthaler Martin S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Higher serum caffeine in smokers with schizophrenia compared to smoking controls. Drug and alcohol dependence. 2010. Gandhi Kunal K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
A genetically modulated, intrinsic cingulate circuit supports human nicotine addiction. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2010. Hong L Elliot, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Replication and extension of association of choline acetyltransferase with nicotine dependence in European and African American smokers. Human genetics. 2010. Wei Jinxue, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Nicotine addiction. The New England journal of medicine. 2010. Benowitz Neal L. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Estimation of nicotine dose after low-level exposure using plasma and urine nicotine metabolites. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology. 2010. Benowitz Neal L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Genetic variation in nicotine metabolism predicts the efficacy of extended-duration transdermal nicotine therapy. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Lerman C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Role of human UGT2B10 in N-glucuronidation of tricyclic antidepressants, amitriptyline, imipramine, clomipramine, and trimipramine. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2010. Zhou Diansong, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Sequence variants at CHRNB3-CHRNA6 and CYP2A6 affect smoking behavior. Nature genetics. 2010. Thorgeirsson Thorgeir E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Association and interaction analysis of variants in CHRNA5/CHRNA3/CHRNB4 gene cluster with nicotine dependence in African and European Americans. American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics. 2010. Li Ming D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association of a variant in the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor 2 gene (CHRM2) with nicotine addiction. American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics. 2010. Mobascher A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Significant association of glutamate receptor, ionotropic N-methyl-D-aspartate 3A (GRIN3A), with nicotine dependence in European- and African-American smokers. Human genetics. 2010. Ma Jennie Z, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genome-wide association for smoking cessation success: participants in the Patch in Practice trial of nicotine replacement. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Uhl George R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Effects of nicotine on cytochrome P450 2A6 and 2E1 activities. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2010. Hukkanen Janne, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
New CYP2A6 gene deletion and conversion variants in a population of Black African descent. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Mwenifumbo Jill C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
A genomewide association study of nicotine and alcohol dependence in Australian and Dutch populations. Twin research and human genetics : the official journal of the International Society for Twin Studies. 2010. Lind Penelope A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Variants in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors alpha5 and alpha3 increase risks to nicotine dependence. American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics. 2009. Chen Xiangning, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor beta2 subunit (CHRNB2) gene and short-term ability to quit smoking in response to nicotine patch. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology. 2009. Perkins Kenneth A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association of serum cotinine level with a cluster of three nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes (CHRNA3/CHRNA5/CHRNB4) on chromosome 15. Human molecular genetics. 2009. Keskitalo Kaisu, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic influences on individual differences in nicotine glucuronidation. Twin research and human genetics : the official journal of the International Society for Twin Studies. 2009. Lessov-Schlaggar Christina N, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association of genes coding for the alpha-4, alpha-5, beta-2 and beta-3 subunits of nicotinic receptors with cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence. Addictive behaviors. 2009. Etter Jean-François, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
The CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 nicotinic receptor subunit gene cluster affects risk for nicotine dependence in African-Americans and in European-Americans. Cancer research. 2009. Saccone Nancy L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Structure, function, regulation and polymorphism of human cytochrome P450 2A6. Current drug metabolism. 2009. Di Yuan Ming, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
A common genetic variant in the 15q24 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene cluster (CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4) is associated with a reduced ability of women to quit smoking in pregnancy. Human molecular genetics. 2009. Freathy Rachel M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
A novel CYP2A6 allele (CYP2A6*35) resulting in an amino-acid substitution (Asn438Tyr) is associated with lower CYP2A6 activity in vivo. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2009. Al Koudsi Nael, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha 4 polymorphisms with nicotine dependence in 5500 Germans. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2009. Breitling L P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
A systems biology network model for genetic association studies of nicotine addiction and treatment. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2009. Thomas Paul D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Association of nicotine metabolite ratio and CYP2A6 genotype with smoking cessation treatment in African-American light smokers. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Ho M K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic and environmental influences on the ratio of 3'hydroxycotinine to cotinine in plasma and urine. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2009. Swan Gary E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Lack of association of DRD2 rs1800497 (Taq1A) polymorphism with smoking cessation in a nicotine replacement therapy randomized trial. Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. 2009. Munafò Marcus R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Association of amyloid precursor protein-binding protein, family B, member 1 with nicotine dependence in African and European American smokers. Human genetics. 2008. Chen Guo-Bo, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Toward personalized therapy for smoking cessation: a randomized placebo-controlled trial of bupropion. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Patterson F, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor beta2 subunit gene implicated in a systems-based candidate gene study of smoking cessation. Human molecular genetics. 2008. Conti David V, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic influences in the variation in renal clearance of nicotine and cotinine. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Benowitz N L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
A candidate gene approach identifies the CHRNA5-A3-B4 region as a risk factor for age-dependent nicotine addiction. PLoS genetics. 2008. Weiss Robert B, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Significant association of the neurexin-1 gene (NRXN1) with nicotine dependence in European- and African-American smokers. Human molecular genetics. 2008. Nussbaum Justin, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Novel and established CYP2A6 alleles impair in vivo nicotine metabolism in a population of Black African descent. Human mutation. 2008. Mwenifumbo Jill C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Beta-arrestins 1 and 2 are associated with nicotine dependence in European American smokers. Molecular psychiatry. 2008. Sun D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
A variant associated with nicotine dependence, lung cancer and peripheral arterial disease. Nature. 2008. Thorgeirsson Thorgeir E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic variation in the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene and smoking cessation: follow-up of a randomised clinical trial of transdermal nicotine patch. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2008. David S P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Significant association of DRD1 with nicotine dependence. Human genetics. 2008. Huang Weihua, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
The neuronal nicotinic receptor subunit genes (CHRNA6 and CHRNB3) are associated with subjective responses to tobacco. Human molecular genetics. 2008. Zeiger Joanna S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Identification of a prevalent functional missense polymorphism in the UGT2B10 gene and its association with UGT2B10 inactivation against tobacco-specific nitrosamines. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2008. Chen Gang, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association of COMT Val108/158Met genotype with smoking cessation. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2008. Munafò Marcus R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Identification of novel CYP2A6*1B variants: the CYP2A6*1B allele is associated with faster in vivo nicotine metabolism. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Mwenifumbo J C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
A novel CYP2A6 allele, CYP2A6*23, impairs enzyme function in vitro and in vivo and decreases smoking in a population of Black-African descent. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2008. Ho Man Ki, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Gene-gene interactions between CYP2B6 and CYP2A6 in nicotine metabolism. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2007. Ring Huijun Z, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Functional characterization of CYP2A13 polymorphisms. Xenobiotica; the fate of foreign compounds in biological systems. 2007. Schlicht K E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Analysis of CYP2A contributions to metabolism of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone in human peripheral lung microsomes. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2007. Brown Pamela J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2A13: variable expression and role in human lung microsomal metabolic activation of the tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 2007. Zhang Xiuling, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Glucuronidation of nicotine and cotinine by UGT2B10: loss of function by the UGT2B10 Codon 67 (Asp>Tyr) polymorphism. Cancer research. 2007. Chen Gang, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association of the mu-opioid receptor gene with smoking cessation. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2007. Munafò M R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Nicotine glucuronidation and the human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase UGT2B10. Molecular pharmacology. 2007. Kaivosaari Sanna, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association of COMT Val108/158Met genotype with smoking cessation in a nicotine replacement therapy randomized trial. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology. 2007. Johnstone Elaine C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Structure of the human lung cytochrome P450 2A13. The Journal of biological chemistry. 2007. Smith Brian D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The DRD2 TaqI-B polymorphism and its relationship to smoking abstinence and withdrawal symptoms. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2007. Robinson J D, et al. PubMed
A novel duplication type of CYP2A6 gene in African-American population. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2007. Fukami Tatsuki, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Overview of the pharmacogenomics of cigarette smoking. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2007. Ho M K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Commentary: Reflections on G. M. Lower and colleagues' 1979 study associating slow acetylator phenotype with urinary bladder cancer: meta-analysis, historical refinements of the hypothesis, and lessons learned. International journal of epidemiology. 2007. Rothman Nathaniel, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Population pharmacokinetics of nicotine and its metabolites I. Model development. Journal of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. 2007. Levi Micha, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Influence of smoking and CYP2C19 genotypes on H. pylori eradication success. Epidemiology and infection. 2007. Suzuki T, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Novel genes identified in a high-density genome wide association study for nicotine dependence. Human molecular genetics. 2007. Bierut Laura Jean, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
The role of CYP2A6 in the emergence of nicotine dependence in adolescents. Pediatrics. 2007. Audrain-McGovern Janet, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
In vivo evaluation of coumarin and nicotine as probe drugs to predict the metabolic capacity of CYP2A6 due to genetic polymorphism in Thais. Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics. 2006. Peamkrasatam Sompop, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
DOPA decarboxylase gene is associated with nicotine dependence. Pharmacogenomics. 2006. Zhang Heping, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
CYP2A6 genotype and the metabolism and disposition kinetics of nicotine. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Benowitz Neal L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Effect of grapefruit juice on cytochrome P450 2A6 and nicotine renal clearance. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Hukkanen Janne, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The missense genetic polymorphisms of human CYP2A13: functional significance in carcinogen activation and identification of a null allelic variant. Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology. 2006. Wang Shou-Lin, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Determinants of the rate of nicotine metabolism and effects on smoking behavior. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Johnstone Elaine, et al. PubMed
Comprehensive evaluation of variability in nicotine metabolism and CYP2A6 polymorphic alleles in four ethnic populations. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Nakajima Miki, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Intronic variants in the dopa decarboxylase (DDC) gene are associated with smoking behavior in European-Americans and African-Americans. Human molecular genetics. 2006. Yu Yi, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Characterization of the novel CYP2A6*21 allele using in vivo nicotine kinetics. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2006. Al Koudsi Nael, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Impact of CYP2A6 genotype on pretreatment smoking behaviour and nicotine levels from and usage of nicotine replacement therapy. Molecular psychiatry. 2006. Malaiyandi V, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Significant association of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) haplotypes with nicotine dependence in male and female smokers of two ethnic populations. Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006. Beuten Joke, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Role of functional genetic variation in the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) in response to bupropion and nicotine replacement therapy for tobacco dependence: results of two randomized clinical trials. Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006. Lerman Caryn, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Inactivation of CYP2A6 and CYP2A13 during nicotine metabolism. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 2006. von Weymarn Linda B, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Identification of N-(hydroxymethyl) norcotinine as a major product of cytochrome P450 2A6, but not cytochrome P450 2A13-catalyzed cotinine metabolism. Chemical research in toxicology. 2005. Brown Kathryn M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2A6 AND CYP2B6 are involved in nornicotine formation from nicotine in humans: interindividual differences in these contributions. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2005. Yamanaka Hiroyuki, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2A6, MAOA, DBH, DRD4, and 5HT2A genotypes, smoking behaviour and cotinine levels in 1518 UK adolescents. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2005. Huang Shuwen, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2A6 polymorphisms are associated with nicotine dependence and influence withdrawal symptoms in smoking cessation. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2006. Kubota T, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2A7 polymorphic alleles confound the genotyping of CYP2A6*4A allele. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2006. Fukami T, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Interaction between variation in the D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2) and the neuronal calcium sensor-1 (FREQ) genes in predicting response to nicotine replacement therapy for tobacco dependence. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2006. Dahl J P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The serotonin transporter gene polymorphism is not associated with smoking behavior. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2006. Trummer O, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
A novel CYP2A6*20 allele found in African-American population produces a truncated protein lacking enzymatic activity. Biochemical pharmacology. 2005. Fukami Tatsuki, et al. PubMed
Characterization of novel CYP2A6 polymorphic alleles (CYP2A6*18 and CYP2A6*19) that affect enzymatic activity. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2005. Fukami Tatsuki, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Nicotine 5'-oxidation and methyl oxidation by P450 2A enzymes. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2005. Murphy Sharon E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Haplotype analysis indicates an association between the DOPA decarboxylase (DDC) gene and nicotine dependence. Human molecular genetics. 2005. Ma Jennie Z, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Ethnic- and gender-specific association of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha4 subunit gene (CHRNA4) with nicotine dependence. Human molecular genetics. 2005. Li Ming D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Implications of CYP2A6 genetic variation for smoking behaviors and nicotine dependence. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2005. Malaiyandi Viba, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Ethnic variation in CYP2A6*7, CYP2A6*8 and CYP2A6*10 as assessed with a novel haplotyping method. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2005. Mwenifumbo Jill C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Metabolism of nicotine and cotinine by human cytochrome P450 2A13. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2005. Bao Ziping, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
An increase in intracellular free calcium ions by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in a single cultured rat cortical astrocyte. Journal of neuroscience research. 2005. Oikawa Hirotaka, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Coupling of human nicotinic acetylcholine receptors alpha 7 to calcium channels in GH3 cells. Neuropharmacology. 2005. Feuerbach Dominik, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Nicotine metabolism: the impact of CYP2A6 on estimates of additive genetic influence. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2005. Swan Gary E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Trans-3'-hydroxycotinine O- and N-glucuronidations in human liver microsomes. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2005. Yamanaka Hiroyuki, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Evaluation of CYP2A6 genetic polymorphisms as determinants of smoking behavior and tobacco-related lung cancer risk in male Japanese smokers. Carcinogenesis. 2004. Fujieda Masaki, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
A novel polymorphism of human CYP2A6 gene CYP2A6*17 has an amino acid substitution (V365M) that decreases enzymatic activity in vitro and in vivo. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2004. Fukami Tatsuki, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Collecting saliva by mail for genetic and cotinine analyses in participants recruited through the Internet. European journal of epidemiology. 2005. Etter Jean-François, et al. PubMed
Association of CYP2A6*1B genetic variant with the amount of smoking in French adults from the Stanislas cohort. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2005. Gambier N, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Genetically decreased CYP2A6 and the risk of tobacco dependence: a prospective study of novice smokers. Tobacco control. 2004. O'Loughlin J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Ethnic variation in CYP2A6 and association of genetically slow nicotine metabolism and smoking in adult Caucasians. Pharmacogenetics. 2004. Schoedel Kerri A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Effectiveness of nicotine patches in relation to genotype in women versus men: randomised controlled trial. BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 2004. Yudkin Patricia, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic polymorphism of the human cytochrome CYP2A13 in a French population: implication in lung cancer susceptibility. Biochemical and biophysical research communications. 2004. Cauffiez Christelle, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic variation in dopaminergic pathways and short-term effectiveness of the nicotine patch. Pharmacogenetics. 2004. Johnstone Elaine C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Whole deletion of CYP2A6 gene (CYP2A6AST;4C) and smoking behavior. Neuropsychobiology. 2004. Iwahashi Kazuhiko, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
The functional mu opioid receptor (OPRM1) Asn40Asp variant predicts short-term response to nicotine replacement therapy in a clinical trial. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2004. Lerman C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Substantial reduction in risk of lung adenocarcinoma associated with genetic polymorphism in CYP2A13, the most active cytochrome P450 for the metabolic activation of tobacco-specific carcinogen NNK. Cancer research. 2003. Wang Haijian, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the human cyp2a13 gene: evidence for a null allele. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2003. Zhang Xiuling, et al. PubMed
Effects of polymorphism in promoter region of human CYP2A6 gene (CYP2A6*9) on expression level of messenger ribonucleic acid and enzymatic activity in vivo and in vitro. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2003. Yoshida Ryoko, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2E1*1D regulatory polymorphism: association with alcohol and nicotine dependence. Pharmacogenetics. 2003. Howard Lisa A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Rapid Akt activation by nicotine and a tobacco carcinogen modulates the phenotype of normal human airway epithelial cells. The Journal of clinical investigation. 2003. West Kip A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Characterization of nicotine and cotinine N-glucuronidations in human liver microsomes. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2002. Nakajima Miki, et al. PubMed
Genetic polymorphisms in human CYP2A6 gene causing impaired nicotine metabolism. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2002. Yoshida Ryoko, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic polymorphisms of the human CYP2A13 gene: identification of single-nucleotide polymorphisms and functional characterization of an Arg257Cys variant. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 2002. Zhang Xiuling, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in autonomic ganglia. Autonomic neuroscience : basic & clinical. 2002. Skok Vladimir I. PubMed
An in vivo pilot study characterizing the new CYP2A6*7, *8, and *10 alleles. Biochemical and biophysical research communications. 2002. Xu C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Extensive genetic polymorphism in the human CYP2B6 gene with impact on expression and function in human liver. Pharmacogenetics. 2001. Lang T, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Identification of a single nucleotide polymorphism in the TATA box of the CYP2A6 gene: impairment of its promoter activity. Biochemical and biophysical research communications. 2001. Pitarque M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
A novel single nucleotide polymorphism altering stability and activity of CYP2a6. Biochemical and biophysical research communications. 2001. Ariyoshi N, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 2A6 in a case-control study on lung cancer in a French population. Pharmacogenetics. 2001. Loriot M A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Relationship between interindividual differences in nicotine metabolism and CYP2A6 genetic polymorphism in humans. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2001. Nakajima M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Duplications and defects in the CYP2A6 gene: identification, genotyping, and in vivo effects on smoking. Molecular pharmacology. 2000. Rao Y, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Human cytochrome P450 CYP2A13: predominant expression in the respiratory tract and its high efficiency metabolic activation of a tobacco-specific carcinogen, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone. Cancer research. 2000. Su T, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Identification and characterisation of novel polymorphisms in the CYP2A locus: implications for nicotine metabolism. FEBS letters. 1999. Oscarson M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Roles of CYP2A6 and CYP2B6 in nicotine C-oxidation by human liver microsomes. Archives of toxicology. 1999. Yamazaki H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Gain of function mutation of the alpha7 nicotinic receptor: distinct pharmacology of the human alpha7V274T variant. European journal of pharmacology. 1999. Briggs C A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Role of human cytochrome P4502A6 in C-oxidation of nicotine. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 1996. Nakajima M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Characterization of CYP2A6 involved in 3'-hydroxylation of cotinine in human liver microsomes. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 1996. Nakajima M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Metabolism of nicotine by human liver microsomes: stereoselective formation of trans-nicotine N'-oxide. Chemical research in toxicology. 1992. Cashman J R, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

Web Resource:
Wikipedia
National Drug Code Directory:
0009-5400-01
DrugBank:
DB00184
PDB:
NCT
ChEBI:
17688
18723
KEGG Compound:
C00745
KEGG Drug:
D03365
PubChem Compound:
942
PubChem Substance:
148704
46506924
IUPHAR Ligand:
2585
Drugs Product Database (DPD):
2241228
ChemSpider:
917
HET:
NCT
Therapeutic Targets Database:
DAP000175
FDA Drug Label at DailyMed:
62245d7d-b50d-48d9-9f03-071c61620ccf

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention nicotine and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

Common Searches

Search PubMed
Search Medline Plus
Search PubChem
Search CTD

Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, Open Eye Scientific Software.