Drug/Small Molecule:
nedocromil

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PharmGKB contains no drug labels with pharmacogenomic information for this drug/small molecule. To report a drug label with PGx, click here.

PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the page.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

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This is a non-comprehensive list of genetic tests with pharmacogenetics relevance, typically submitted by the manufacturer and manually curated by PharmGKB. The information listed is provided for educational purposes only and does not constitute an endorsement of any listed test or manufacturer.

A more complete listing of genetic tests is found at the Genetic Testing Registry (GTR).

PGx Test Variants Assayed Gene?

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page.

Links in the "Gene" column lead to PharmGKB Gene Pages.

Gene ? Variant?
(138)
Alternate Names / Tag SNPs ? Drugs ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available CA No Variant Annotations available
rs37973 -1106G>A, 4503G>A, 7997876G>A, 8007876G>A
G > A
5' Flanking
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 138
2D structure from PubChem
provided by PubChem

Overview

Generic Names
Trade Names
  • Alocril
  • Nedocromil [USAN:BAN:INN]
  • Nedocromilo [Spanish]
  • Nedocromilum [Latin]
  • Tilade
Brand Mixture Names

PharmGKB Accession Id:
PA450601

Description

A pyranoquinolone derivative that inhibits activation of inflammatory cells which are associated with asthma, including eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, mast cells, monocytes, and platelets.

Source: Drug Bank

Indication

For the treatment of mild to moderate asthma

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

Nedocromil has been shown to inhibit the in vitro activation of, and mediator release from, a variety of inflammatory cell types associated with asthma, including eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, mast cells, monocytes, and platelets. Nedocromil inhibits activation and release of inflammatory mediators such as histamine, prostaglandin D2 and leukotrienes c4 from different types of cells in the lumen and mucosa of the bronchial tree. These mediators are derived from arachidonic acid metabolism through the lipoxygenase and cyclo-oxygenase pathways. The mechanism of action of nedocromil may be due partly to inhibition of axon reflexes and release of sensory neuropeptides, such as substance P, neurokinin A, and calcitonin-geneñrelated peptides. The result is inhibition of bradykinin-induced bronchoconstriction. Nedocromil does not posess any bronchodilator, antihistamine, or corticosteroid activity.

Source: Drug Bank

Pharmacology

Nedocromil is a anti-inflammatory agent and can be administered directly to the bronchial mucosa. It has significant inhibitory effect on allergen-induced early and late asthmatic reactions and on bronchial hyperresponsiveness.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity

Biotransformation

Nedocromil is not metabolized after IV administration and is excreted unchanged.

Source: Drug Bank

Protein Binding

approximately 89% protein bound in human plasma over a concentration range of 0.5 to 50 microg/mL

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption

Low

Source: Drug Bank

Half-Life

~3.3 hours

Source: Drug Bank

Toxicity

Side effects include headache, nasal congestion, ocular burning, irritation and stinging, unpleasant taste, cough, difficulty breathing, noisy breathing, shortness of breath, tightness in chest, wheezing, conjunctivitis, blurred vision, change in color vision, difficulty seeing at night, increased sensitivity of eyes to sunlight.

Source: Drug Bank

Route of Elimination

It is not metabolized and is eliminated primarily unchanged in urine (70%) and feces (30%).

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula

C19H17NO7

Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES

CCCc1c2c(cc3c1oc(cc3=O)C(=O)O)c(=O)cc(n2CC)C(=O)O

Source: OpenEye

Canonical SMILES

CCCC1=C2N(CC)C(=CC(=O)C2=CC2=C1OC(=CC2=O)C(O)=O)C(O)=O

Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight

371.3408

Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight

371.100501903

Source: Drug Bank

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Curated Information ?

EvidenceGene
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
GLCCI1

Drug Targets

Gene Description
CYSLTR1 (source: Drug Bank)
CYSLTR2 (source: Drug Bank)
FPR1 (source: Drug Bank)
HRH1 (source: Drug Bank)
HSP90AA1 (source: Drug Bank)
PTGDR (source: Drug Bank)
No related drugs are available.

Curated Information ?

EvidenceDisease
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Asthma

Relationships from National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT)

May Treat
May Prevent
Contraindicated With

Publications related to nedocromil: 2

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genomewide association between GLCCI1 and response to glucocorticoid therapy in asthma. The New England journal of medicine. 2011. Tantisira Kelan G, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
In utero smoke exposure and impaired response to inhaled corticosteroids in children with asthma. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 2010. Cohen Robyn T, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

Web Resource:
Wikipedia
National Drug Code Directory:
0023-8842-05
DrugBank:
DB00716
ChEBI:
7492
KEGG Compound:
C07255
KEGG Drug:
D05129
PubChem Compound:
50294
PubChem Substance:
46507587
9464
Drugs Product Database (DPD):
2241407
ChemSpider:
45608
FDA Drug Label at DailyMed:
2fe8d7ad-2158-4169-94b0-719ad20242b7

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention nedocromil and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

Common Searches

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Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, Open Eye Scientific Software.