Drug/Small Molecule:
mycophenolate mofetil

PharmGKB contains no dosing guidelines for this drug/small molecule. To report known genotype-based dosing guidelines, or if you are interested in developing guidelines, click here.

PharmGKB has no annotated drug labels with pharmacogenomic information for this drug/small molecule. If you know of a drug label with PGx, send us a message.

Links to Unannotated Labels

These links are to labels associated with mycophenolate mofetil that have not been annotated by PharmGKB.

  1. DailyMed - DrugLabel PA166105202

PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the page.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

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This is a non-comprehensive list of genetic tests with pharmacogenetics relevance, typically submitted by the manufacturer and manually curated by PharmGKB. The information listed is provided for educational purposes only and does not constitute an endorsement of any listed test or manufacturer.

A more complete listing of genetic tests is found at the Genetic Testing Registry (GTR).

PGx Test Variants Assayed Gene?

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page.

Links in the "Gene" column lead to PharmGKB Gene Pages.

List of all mycophenolate mofetil variant annotations

Gene ? Variant?
(142)
Alternate Names ? Drugs ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available CA VA
rs1042597 234526871C>G, 234526871C>T, 33482C>G, 33482C>T, 473130C>G, 473130C>T, 518C>G, 518C>T, Ala173Gly, Ala173Val, UGT1A8*2
C > G
C > T
Missense
Ala173Val
Ala173Gly
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1045642 208920T>A, 208920T>C, 25171488A>G, 25171488A>T, 3435T>A, 3435T>C, 87138645A>G, 87138645A>T, ABCB1*6, ABCB1: 3435C>T, ABCB1: C3435T, ABCB1: c.3435C>T, ABCB1:3435C>T, Ile1145=, Ile1145Ile, MDR1 3435C>T, MDR1 C3435T, PGP C3435T, c.3435C>T, mRNA 3853C>T
A > T
A > G
Synonymous
Ile1145Ile
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1056663 47994962C>T, 48004962C>T, 834G>A, 998G>A, Ala278=
C > T
Not Available
Ala278Ala
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1128503 1236T>C, 167964T>C, 25043506A>G, 87550285A>G, ABCB1 1236C>T, ABCB1*8, ABCB1: c.1236T>C, ABCB1:1236C>T, ABCB1:1236T>C, Gly412=, Gly412Gly, mRNA 1654T>C, p.Gly412Gly
A > G
Not Available
Gly412Gly
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs11572076 122-36G>A, 26-36G>A, 332-36G>A, 47631614C>T, 7105G>A, 96827150C>T
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs11572103 16149A>T, 47622570T>A, 499A>T, 595A>T, 805A>T, 96818106T>A, A805T, CYP2C8*2, CYP2C8: I269F, Ile167Phe, Ile199Phe, Ile269Phe
T > A
Missense
Ile199Phe
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs11692021 234591205T>C, 537464T>C, 622T>C, 855+45182T>C, 855+63997T>C, 855+9770T>C, 97816T>C, Trp208Arg
T > C
Intronic
Trp208Arg
No VIP available CA VA
rs11706052 49004110A>G, 49064110A>G, 7766T>C, 819+10T>C, IMPDH2:IVS7+10T>C
A > G
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs12233719 10173116G>T, 211G>T, 69962449G>T, Ala71Ser, UGT2B7*3, UGT2B7:211G>T, UGT2B7:A71S
G > A
G > T
Missense
Ala71Ser
Ala71Thr
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs17222723 101595996T>A, 3563T>A, 52400460T>A, 58534T>A, ABCC2 rs8187694, MRP2 Val1188Glu, Val1188Glu
T > A
Missense
Val1188Glu
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs17863762 234527183G>A, 33794G>A, 473442G>A, 830G>A, Cys277Tyr, UGT1A8: UGT1A8*3
G > A
Missense
Cys277Tyr
No VIP available CA VA
rs17868320 234578428C>T, 524687C>T, 85039C>T, 855+32405C>T, 855+51220C>T
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1800470 14127139G>A, 16158C>T, 29C>T, 41858921G>A, 5911C>T, Pro10Leu, TGFB1:Ex1-327T>C, TGFB1:Leu10Pro, TGFB1:T29C, TGFB1:T869C
G > A
Missense
Pro10Leu
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1800471 14127094C>G, 16203G>C, 41858876C>G, 5956G>C, 74G>C, Arg25Pro, TGFB1:914G>C, TGFB1:Arg25Pro, TGFB1:Ex1-282G>C, TGFB1:G915C, TGFB1:GC915
C > G
Missense
Arg25Pro
No VIP available CA VA
rs1800629 -308, -308G>A, -488G>A, 2828572G>A, 2836669G>A, 2873832G>A, 2885915G>A, 2922737G>A, 3052647A>A, 31483031G>A, 31543031G>A, 4682G>A, 8156G>A, TNF alpha -308G/A, TNF2, TNF:, TNF:-308 G/A, TNF:-308G/A
G > A
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1800871 -854T>C, 206946634A>G, 4206T>C, 464413A>G
A > G
5' Flanking
No VIP available CA VA
rs1800872 -627A>C, 206946407T>G, 4433A>C, 464186T>G
T > G
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1800894 -886G>A, 206946666C>T, 4174G>A, 464445C>T
C > T
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1800896 -1117A>G, 206946897T>C, 3943A>G, 464676T>C
T > C
5' Flanking
No VIP available CA VA
rs2032582 186947T>A, 186947T>G, 25193461A>C, 25193461A>T, 2677A, 2677G, 2677T, 2677T>A, 2677T>G, 3095G>T/A, 87160618A>C, 87160618A>T, 893 Ala, 893 Ser, 893 Thr, ABCB1*7, ABCB1: 2677G>T/A, ABCB1: 2677T/A>G, ABCB1: A893S, ABCB1: G2677T/A, ABCB1: c.2677G>T/A, ABCB1:2677G>A/T, ABCB1:2677G>T/A, ABCB1:A893T, Ala893Ser/Thr, MDR1, MDR1 G2677T/A, Ser893Ala, Ser893Thr, mRNA 3095G>T/A, p.Ala893Ser/Thr
A > T
A > C
Missense
Ser893Ala
Ser893Thr
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2037483 47995122G>A, 48005122G>A, 761-87C>T, 925-87C>T
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2069762 -385T>G, 123377980A>C, 4671T>G, 47925701A>C
A > C
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2069763 114G>T, 123377482C>A, 47925203C>A, 5169G>T, Leu38=
C > A
Synonymous
Leu38Leu
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2228075 1245G>A, 1245G>C, 128034629C>G, 128034629C>T, 1305G>A, 1305G>C, 1320G>A, 1320G>C, 1467G>A, 1467G>C, 1476G>A, 1476G>C, 1545G>A, 1545G>C, 1575G>A, 1575G>C, 20408G>A, 20408G>C, 66067472C>G, 66067472C>T, Ala415=, Ala435=, Ala440=, Ala489=, Ala492=, Ala515=, Ala525=
C > G
C > T
Synonymous
Ala492Ala
No VIP available CA VA
rs2273697 101563815G>A, 1249G>A, 26353G>A, 52368279G>A, ABCC2: c.1249G>A, ABCC2:1249G>A, ABCC2:V417I, ABCC2:c.1249G>A, Val417Ile, p.V417I
G > A
Missense
Val417Ile
No VIP available CA VA
rs2278293 128040752C>T, 14285G>A, 250-159G>A, 309+134G>A, 324+119G>A, 471+119G>A, 480+119G>A, 549+119G>A, 579+119G>A, 66073595C>T, IMPDH1:IVS7+125G4A
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs2278294 128040699C>T, 14338G>A, 250-106G>A, 310-106G>A, 325-106G>A, 472-106G>A, 481-106G>A, 550-106G>A, 580-106G>A, 66073542C>T, IMPDH1:IVS8-106G4A
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2306283 14089862A>G, 21329738A>G, 388A>G, 50611A>G, Asn130Asp, SLCO1B1*1B
A > G
Missense
Asn130Asp
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2804402 -1019A>G, 101541583A>G, 4121A>G, 52346047A>G, ABCC2: ¿1019a>G
A > G
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3740066 101604207C>T, 3972C>T, 52408671C>T, 66745C>T, ABCC2:3972C>T, I1324I, Ile1324=
C > T
Synonymous
Ile1324Ile
No VIP available CA VA
rs3832043 -127delT, 10, 234580454delT, 526713delT, 855+34431delT, 855+53246delT, 87065delT, 9/, T, UGT1A9*22, UGT1A9:
T > -
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4149015 -910G>A, 14043446G>A, 21283322G>A, 4195G>A, SLCO1B1:11187G>A, SLCO1B1:G-11187A
G > A
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4149056 14091673T>C, 21331549T>C, 521T>C, 52422T>C, SLCO1B1*5, Val174Ala
T > C
Missense
Val174Ala
No VIP available CA VA
rs4149117 13771604T>G, 21011480T>G, 334T>G, 52843T>G, SCLO1B3: exon 4 c.334T>G, Ser112Ala, mRNA 460T>G, p.Ser112Ala
T > G
Missense
Ser112Ala
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4974081 1377G>A, 1895+54G>A, 49010499C>T, 49070499C>T
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4986914 -529T>C, 37415076A>G, 4576T>C, 99382233A>G
A > G
5' Flanking
No VIP available CA VA
rs568408 *121G>A, 159713467G>A, 66208613G>A
G > A
3' UTR
No VIP available CA VA
rs6714486 -276T>A, 234580305T>A, 526564T>A, 855+34282T>A, 855+53097T>A, 86916T>A
T > A
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs717620 -24C>T, 101542578C>T, 5116C>T, 52347042C>T, ABCC2: 5'UTR, ABCC2:(-24)C>T, mRNA 118C>T
C > T
5' UTR
No VIP available CA VA
rs72551330 234580678T>C, 526937T>C, 855+34655T>C, 855+53470T>C, 87289T>C, 98T>C, Met33Thr
T > C
Missense
Met33Thr
No VIP available CA VA
rs7311358 13775884G>A, 21015760G>A, 57123G>A, 699G>A, Met233Ile, SCLO1B3: exon 7 c.699G>A, mRNA 825G>A, p.Met233Ile
G > A
Missense
Met233Ile
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs7438135 -900G>A, 10172006G>A, 69961339G>A
G > A
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs7439366 10175005T>C, 69964338T>C, 802T>C, Tyr268His, UGT2B7*2, UGT2B7:802C>T, UGT2B7:H268Y, UGT2B7Y
T > C
Missense
Tyr268His
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs776746 12083G>A, 219-237G>A, 321-1G>A, 37303382C>T, 581-237G>A, 689-1G>A, 99270539C>T, CYP3A5*1, CYP3A5*3, CYP3A5*3C, CYP3A5:6986A>G, g.6986A>G, intron 3 splicing defect, rs776746 A>G
C > T
Acceptor
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 142
2D structure from PubChem
provided by PubChem

Overview

Generic Names
  • Mycophenylate mofetil
Trade Names
  • CellCept
  • Munoloc
Brand Mixture Names

PharmGKB Accession Id:
PA450566

Description

Mycophenolate mofetil is the 2-morpholinoethyl ester of mycophenolic acid (MPA), an immunosuppressive agent, inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) inhibitor.

Source: Drug Bank

Indication

For the prophylaxis of organ rejection in patients receiving allogeneic renal, cardiac or hepatic transplants. Mycophenolate mofetil should be used concomitantly with cyclosporine and corticosteroids.

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

Mycophenolate mofetil is hydrolyzed to form mycophenolic acid (MPA), which is the active metabolite. MPA is a potent, selective, uncompetitive, and reversible inhibitor of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), and therefore inhibits the de novo pathway of guanosine nucleotide synthesis without incorporation into DNA. Because T- and B-lymphocytes are critically dependent for their proliferation on de novo synthesis of purines, whereas other cell types can utilize salvage pathways, MPA has potent cytostatic effects on lymphocytes. MPA inhibits proliferative responses of T- and B-lymphocytes to both mitogenic and allospecific stimulation. Addition of guanosine or deoxyguanosine reverses the cytostatic effects of MPA on lymphocytes. MPA also suppresses antibody formation by B-lymphocytes. MPA prevents the glycosylation of lymphocyte and monocyte glycoproteins that are involved in intercellular adhesion to endothelial cells and may inhibit recruitment of leukocytes into sites of inflammation and graft rejection. Mycophenolate mofetil did not inhibit early events in the activation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, such as the production of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and interleukin-2 (IL-2), but did block the coupling of these events to DNA synthesis and proliferation.

Source: Drug Bank

Pharmacology

Mycophenolate mofetil is a prodrug of mycophenolic acid, an antibiotic substance derived from Penicillium stoloniferum. It blocks de novo biosynthesis of purine nucleotides by inhibition of the enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase. Mycophenolic acid is important because of its selective effects on the immune system. It prevents the proliferation of T-cells, lymphocytes, and the formation of antibodies from B-cells. It also may inhibit recruitment of leukocytes to inflammatory sites.

Source: Drug Bank

Food Interaction

Do not take calcium, aluminium, magnesium or iron supplements within 2 hours of taking this medication.|Take on empty stomach: 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity

Biotransformation

Following oral and intravenous dosing, mycophenolate mofetil undergoes complete metabolism to MPA, the active metabolite. Metabolism to MPA occurs presystemically after oral dosing. MPA is metabolized principally by glucuronyl transferase to form the phenolic glucuronide of MPA (MPAG) which is not pharmacologically active. In vivo, MPAG is converted to MPA via enterohepatic recirculation. The following metabolites of the 2-hydroxyethyl-morpholino moiety are also recovered in the urine following oral administration of mycophenolate mofetil to healthy subjects: N-(2-carboxymethyl)morpholine, N(2-hydroxyethyl)-morpholine, and the N-oxide of N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-morpholine.

Source: Drug Bank

Protein Binding

MPA (the active metabolite), at clinically relevant concentrations, is over 98% bound to plasma albumin.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption

Rapidly absorbed following oral administration. In 12 healthy volunteers, the mean absolute bioavailability of oral mycophenolate mofetil relative to intravenous mycophenolate mofetil (based on MPA AUC) was 94%. Food (27 g fat, 650 calories) has no effect on the extent of absorption (MPA AUC) of mycophenolate mofetil.

Source: Drug Bank

Half-Life

The mean elimination half-life for mycophenolic acid (the active metabolite) ranges from 8-16 hours, while that of the MPAG metabolite ranges from 13-17 hours.

Source: Drug Bank

Toxicity

Oral (LD50): Acute: 352 mg/kg Rat, 1000 mg/kg Mouse, and >6000 mg/kg Rabbit. Possible signs and symptoms of acute overdose could include the following: hematological abnormalities such as leukopenia and neutropenia, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, and dyspepsia.

Source: Drug Bank

Clearance

Source: Drug Bank

Route of Elimination

Negligible amount of drug is excreted as MPA (< 1% of dose) in the urine. Most (about 87%) of the administered dose is excreted in the urine as MPAG.

Source: Drug Bank

Volume of Distribution

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula

C23H31NO7

Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES

CC1=C2COC(=O)C2=C(C(=C1OC)C/C=C(\C)/CCC(=O)OCCN3CCOCC3)O

Source: Drug Bank

COC1=C(C)C2=C(C(=O)OC2)C(O)=C1C\C=C(/C)CCC(=O)OCCN1CCOCC1

Source: Drug Bank

Canonical SMILES

COC1=C(C\C=C(/C)CCC(=O)OCCN2CCOCC2)C(O)=C2C(=O)OCC2=C1C

Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight

433.4947

Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight

433.210052351

Source: Drug Bank

PharmGKB Curated Pathways

Pathways created internally by PharmGKB based primarily on literature evidence.

  1. Mycophenolic acid Pathway, Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics
    Schematic representation of mycophenolic acid metabolism.

External Pathways

Links to non-PharmGKB pathways.

PharmGKB contains no links to external pathways for this drug. To report a pathway, click here.

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Curated Information ?

Drug Targets

Gene Description
IMPDH1 (source: Drug Bank)
IMPDH2 (source: Drug Bank)

Drug Interactions

Drug Description
mycophenolate mofetil Formation of non-absorbable complexes (source: Drug Bank)
iron Oral iron decreases the absorption of mycophenolate-mofetil (source: Drug Bank)
iron Oral iron decreases the absorption of mycophenolate-mofetil (source: Drug Bank)
rifampin Significant decreases in immunosuppressant levels (source: Drug Bank)
rifampin Significant decreases in immunosuppressant levels (source: Drug Bank)
tacrolimus Increased mycophenolic acid levels (source: Drug Bank)
tacrolimus Increased mycophenolic acid levels (source: Drug Bank)
mycophenolate mofetil Significant decrease in immunosuppressant levels (source: Drug Bank)
mycophenolate mofetil The excretion rates of Valganciclovir and/or Mycophenolate mofetil may decrease. Monitor for increased serum concentrations and toxicity of both agents. (source: Drug Bank)

Curated Information ?

Relationships from National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT)

May Treat
May Prevent
Contraindicated With

Publications related to mycophenolate mofetil: 36

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Population pharmacogenetic pharmacokinetic modeling for flip-flop phenomenon of enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium in kidney transplant recipients. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Han Nayoung, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Associations between polymorphisms in target, metabolism, or transport proteins of mycophenolate sodium and therapeutic or adverse effects in kidney transplant patients. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2014. Woillard Jean-Baptiste, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Challenges in pharmacogenetics. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Cascorbi Ingolf, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Population pharmacokinetics of unbound mycophenolic acid in adult allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation: effect of pharmacogenetic factors. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Frymoyer Adam, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase polymorphisms and renal allograft outcome. Transplantation. 2012. Shah Sapna, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Influence of NAT2 polymorphisms on sulfamethoxazole pharmacokinetics in renal transplant recipients. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 2012. Kagaya Hideaki, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Lymphocyte counts in kidney allograft recipients are associated with IMPDH2 3757T>C gene polymorphism. Transplantation proceedings. 2011. Pazik J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Mycophenolic acid-related diarrhea is not associated with polymorphisms in SLCO1B nor with ABCB1 in renal transplant recipients. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Bouamar Rachida, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics and individualized therapy in children: immunosuppressants, antidepressants, anticancer and anti-inflammatory drugs. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Elie Valery, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Transporter-Mediated Drug Uptake and Efflux: Important Determinants of Adverse Drug Reactions. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Zolk O, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic determinants of mycophenolate-related anemia and leukopenia after transplantation. Transplantation. 2011. Jacobson Pamala A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A9 (UGT1A9) gene polymorphism with kidney allograft function. Annals of transplantation : quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society. 2011. Pazik Joanna, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
SLCO1B1 genetic polymorphism influences mycophenolic acid tolerance in renal transplant recipients. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Michelon Hugues, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase 1 haplotypes and association with mycophenolate mofetil gastrointestinal intolerance in pediatric heart transplant patients. Pediatric transplantation. 2010. Ohmann Erin L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Polymorphisms in type I and II inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase genes and association with clinical outcome in patients on mycophenolate mofetil. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Gensburger Olivier, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Correlation of IMPDH1 gene polymorphisms with subclinical acute rejection and mycophenolic acid exposure parameters on day 28 after renal transplantation. Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology. 2010. Kagaya Hideaki, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Risk of diarrhoea in a long-term cohort of renal transplant patients given mycophenolate mofetil: the significant role of the UGT1A8 2 variant allele. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2010. Woillard Jean-Baptiste, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
An inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase 2 single-nucleotide polymorphism impairs the effect of mycophenolic acid. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Winnicki W, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
The role of organic anion-transporting polypeptides and their common genetic variants in mycophenolic acid pharmacokinetics. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Picard N, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Donor age and renal P-glycoprotein expression associate with chronic histological damage in renal allografts. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN. 2009. Naesens Maarten, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Increased mycophenolic acid exposure in stable kidney transplant recipients on tacrolimus as compared with those on sirolimus: implications for pharmacokinetics. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Braun F, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Interpatient variability in IMPDH activity in MMF-treated renal transplant patients is correlated with IMPDH type II 3757T > C polymorphism. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2009. Sombogaard Ferdi, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
UGT genotype may contribute to adverse events following medication with mycophenolate mofetil in pediatric kidney transplant recipients. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Prausa S E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Influence of uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucuronosyltransferases and ABCC2 genetic polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of mycophenolic acid and its metabolites in Chinese renal transplant recipients. Xenobiotica; the fate of foreign compounds in biological systems. 2008. Zhang W-X, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association of four DNA polymorphisms with acute rejection after kidney transplantation. Transplant international : official journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation. 2008. Grinyó Josep, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacokinetics of mycophenolate mofetil and its glucuronide metabolites in healthy volunteers. Pharmacogenomics. 2008. Lévesque Eric, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
IMPDH1 gene polymorphisms and association with acute rejection in renal transplant patients. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Wang J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP3A5 genotype is not associated with a higher risk of acute rejection in tacrolimus-treated renal transplant recipients. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2008. Hesselink Dennis A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Expression of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase type I and type II after mycophenolate mofetil treatment: a 2-year follow-up in kidney transplantation. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Sanquer S, et al. PubMed
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Influence of SLCO1B1, 1B3, 2B1 and ABCC2 genetic polymorphisms on mycophenolic acid pharmacokinetics in Japanese renal transplant recipients. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2007. Miura Masatomo, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics of mycophenolate mofetil: a promising different approach to tailoring immunosuppression?. Journal of nephrology. 2008. Betonico G N, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
C-440T/T-331C polymorphisms in the UGT1A9 gene affect the pharmacokinetics of mycophenolic acid in kidney transplantation. Pharmacogenomics. 2007. Baldelli Sara, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The impact of UGT1A8, UGT1A9, and UGT2B7 genetic polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetic profile of mycophenolic acid after a single oral dose in healthy volunteers. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Lévesque E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Rifampin induces alterations in mycophenolic acid glucuronidation and elimination: implications for drug exposure in renal allograft recipients. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Naesens Maarten, et al. PubMed
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The impact of uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 1A9 (UGT1A9) gene promoter region single-nucleotide polymorphisms T-275A and C-2152T on early mycophenolic acid dose-interval exposure in de novo renal allograft recipients. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2005. Kuypers Dirk R J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
An exploratory study on pharmacogenetics of inosine-monophosphate dehydrogenase II in peripheral mononuclear cells from liver-transplant recipients. Transplantation proceedings. 2004. Vannozzi F, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

Web Resource:
Wikipedia
National Drug Code Directory:
0781-2067-01
DrugBank:
DB00688
KEGG Compound:
C07908
KEGG Drug:
D00752
PubChem Compound:
5281078
PubChem Substance:
46505626
7847817
Drugs Product Database (DPD):
2240347
ChemSpider:
4444535
Therapeutic Targets Database:
DNC000397
FDA Drug Label at DailyMed:
99b2eb58-8d14-48fc-bbe1-aacb711a783e

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention mycophenolate mofetil and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

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Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, Open Eye Scientific Software.