Drug/Small Molecule:
methamphetamine

PharmGKB contains no dosing guidelines for this drug/small molecule. To report known genotype-based dosing guidelines, or if you are interested in developing guidelines, click here.

PharmGKB contains no drug labels with pharmacogenomic information for this drug/small molecule. To report a drug label with PGx, click here.

PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the page.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

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This is a non-comprehensive list of genetic tests with pharmacogenetics relevance, typically submitted by the manufacturer and manually curated by PharmGKB. The information listed is provided for educational purposes only and does not constitute an endorsement of any listed test or manufacturer.

A more complete listing of genetic tests is found at the Genetic Testing Registry (GTR).

PGx Test Variants Assayed Gene?

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page.

Links in the "Gene" column lead to PharmGKB Gene Pages.

Gene ? Variant?
(138)
Alternate Names / Tag SNPs ? Drugs ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1045280 1037C>T, 4226012C>T, 4622638C>T, 786+54C>T, 795C>T, 840C>T, 903C>T, Ser265=, Ser280=, Ser301=
C > T
Not Available
Ser265Ser
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs135745 18074206G>C, 38683637G>C
G > C
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1421292 106198235T>A, 19287911T>A
T > A
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2036657 *825G>A, *931G>A, 2252G>A, 4228533G>A, 4625159G>A
G > A
3' Flanking
No VIP available CA VA
rs2076369 17854221T>G, 283-59T>G, 38463652T>G, PICK1:IVS4-59T/G
T > G
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2234693 152163335T>C, 156705T>C, 453-397T>C, 56332792T>C, ESR1:PvuII, ESR1:c.454-397T>C, ESR1:rs2234693
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2248829 1026C>T, 1071C>T, 14440153G>A, 44468235G>A, 790C>T, 807C>T, 819C>T, 864C>T, Asp269=, Asp273=, Asp288=, Asp342=
G > A
Not Available
Asp273Asp
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2391191 -105G>A, -125G>A, 106119446G>A, 19209122G>A, 506-677C>T, 6231G>A, 89G>A, Arg30Lys
G > A
Intronic
Arg30Lys
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2486001 14447905T>C, 188-219A>G, 200-219A>G, 245-219A>G, 303-1692A>G, 407-219A>G, 44475987T>C, 452-219A>G
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs2619538 -1920T>A, -2109T>A, -2397T>A, 15605209A>T, 15665209A>T, 3063T>A
A > T
5' Flanking
No VIP available CA VA
rs3213207 -21-396A>G, 118-396A>G, 15568102T>C, 15628102T>C, 172-396A>G, 223-396A>G, 40170A>G, 551-396A>G
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs324420 15823C>A, 16842679C>A, 385C>A, 46870761C>A, C385A, FAAH:385C>A, FAAH:Pro129Thr, Pro129Thr
C > A
Missense
Pro129Thr
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3916965 106103360C>T, 19193036C>T
C > T
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3924999 113G>A, 20311504G>A, 32453358G>A, 50G>A, 758G>A, 961091G>A, Arg17Gln, Arg253Gln, Arg38Gln
G > A
Missense
Arg38Gln
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4790694 4229728A>C, 4626354A>C
A > C
Not Available
No VIP available CA VA
rs6265 196G>A, 220G>A, 241G>A, 27619916C>T, 27679916C>T, 283G>A, 434C>T, 442G>A, 503C>T, 68690G>A, BDNF:Val66Met, Val148Met, Val66Met, Val74Met, Val81Met, Val95Met
C > T
Missense
Val66Met
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs6280 113890815C>T, 12085G>A, 20385961C>T, 25G>A, DRD3 Ser9Gly, DRD3 rs6280, DRD3: 9 Ser>Gly, DRD3: Gly9Ser, DRD3: Ser9Gly, DRD3:Ser9Gly, Gly9Ser, c.25T>C, p.S9G
C > T
Missense
Gly9Ser
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs6295 1-1019C>G, 1-1019G>C, 13852924C>C, 13852924C>G, 4555G>C, 4555G>G, 63258565C>C, 63258565C>G, HTR1A: -1019C/G
C > G
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs713729 153+117T>A, 17846038T>A, 38455469T>A, PICK1:IVS3+117T/A
T > A
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs778293 106169199C>T, 19258875C>T
C > T
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs878567 *287T>C, 13850350A>G, 63255991A>G, 7129T>C
A > G
3' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs947267 106139662T>G, 19229338T>G, 26447T>G, 282-2588T>G, 505+2463A>C, 69-2588T>G, 89-2479T>G
T > G
Intronic
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 138
2D structure from PubChem
provided by PubChem

Overview

Generic Names
  • (+ )-methylamphetamine
  • (+)-(s)-deoxyephedrine
  • (+)-(s)-n-alpha-dimethylphenethylamine
  • (+)-2-(N-Methylamino)-1-phenylpropane
  • (+)-methamphetamine
  • (+)-methylamphetamine
  • (+)-n,alpha-dimethyl-beta-phenylethylamine
  • (+)-n,alpha-dimethylphenethylamine
  • (+)-n-methylamphetamine
  • (2S)-N-methyl-1-phenylpropan-2-amine
  • (s)-(+)-deoxyephedrine
  • (s)-(+)-methamphetamine
  • (s)-(+)-n,alpha,dimethylphenethylamine
  • (s)-methamphetamine
  • (s)-methylamphetamine
  • (s)-n,alpha-dimethylbenzeneethanamine
  • (s)-n,alpha-dimethylbenzeneethanoamine
  • 1-Phenyl-2-methylamino-propan [German]
  • 1-Phenyl-2-methylaminopropane
  • 2S-(+)-Methamphetamine
  • D-(s)-methamphetamine
  • D-1-Phenyl-2-methylaminopropane
  • D-deoxyephedrine
  • D-desoxyephedrine
  • D-methamphetamine
  • D-methylamphetamine
  • D-n,alpha-dimethylphenethylamine
  • D-n-methylamphetamine
  • D-phenylisopropylmethylamine
  • Desoxyephedrine hydrochloride
  • Ice
  • L-methamphetamine
  • Metamfetamina [inn-spanish]
  • Metamfetaminum [inn-latin]
  • Metamphetamine
  • Metanfetamina [inn-spanish]
  • Meth
  • Methamphetaminum [inn-latin]
  • Methyl-beta-phenylisopropylamine
  • Methylamphetamine
  • N-Methyl-1-phenyl-2-propanamine
  • N-methyl-beta-phenylisopropylamin [german]
  • N-methyl-beta-phenylisopropylamine
  • N-methylamphetamine
  • S-(+)-methamphetamine
  • d-1-Phenyl-2-methylaminopropan [German]
Trade Names
  • Desoxyn
  • Desyphed
  • Desyphed hydrochloride
  • Metamfetamine
  • Metamfetamine-m
  • Norodin
  • Speed
  • Stimulex
Brand Mixture Names

PharmGKB Accession Id:
PA450403

Description

Methamphetamine is a psychostimulant and sympathomimetic drug. It is a member of the amphetamine group of sympathomimetic amines. Methamphetamine can induce effects such as euphoria, increased alertness and energy, and enhanced self-esteem. It is a scheduled drug in most countries due to its high potential for addiction and abuse.

Source: Drug Bank

Indication

For the treatment of Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity (ADHD) and exogenous obesity.

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

Methamphetamine enters the brain and triggers a cascading release of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin. To a lesser extent methamphetamine acts as a dopaminergic and adrenergic reuptake inhibitor and in high concentrations as a monamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). The mechanism of action involved in producing the beneficial behavioral changes seen in hyperkinetic children receiving methamphetamine is unknown.

Source: Drug Bank

Pharmacology

Methamphetamine is a potent central nervous system stimulant which affects neurochemical mechanisms responsible for regulating heart rate, body temperature, blood pressure, appetite, attention, mood and responses associated with alertness or alarm conditions. The acute effects of the drug closely resemble the physiological and psychological effects of an epinephrine-provoked fight-or-flight response, including increased heart rate and blood pressure, vasoconstriction (constriction of the arterial walls), bronchodilation, and hyperglycemia (increased blood sugar). Users experience an increase in focus, increased mental alertness, and the elimination of fatigue, as well as a decrease in appetite.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity

Biotransformation

Hepatic. The primary site of metabolism is in the liver by aromatic hydroxylation, N-dealkylation and deamination. At least seven metabolites have been identified in the urine, with the main metabolites being amphetamine (active) and 4-hydroxymethamphetamine. Other minor metabolites include 4-hydroxyamphetamine, norephedrine, and 4-hydroxynorephedrine.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption

Methamphetamine is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract with peak methamphetamine concentrations occurring in 3.13 to 6.3 hours post ingestion. Methamphetamine is also well absorbed following inhalation and following intranasal administration. It is distributed to most parts of the body. Because methamphetamine has a high lipophilicity it is distributed across the blood brain barrier and crosses the placenta.

Source: Drug Bank

Half-Life

The biological half-life has been reported in the range of 4 to 5 hours.

Source: Drug Bank

Toxicity

Manifestations of acute overdosage with methamphetamine include restlessness, tremor, hyperreflexia, rapid respiration, confusion, assaultiveness, hallucinations, panic states, hyperpyrexia, and rhabdomyolysis. Fatigue and depression usually follow the central stimulation. Cardiovascular effects include arrhythmias, hypertension or hypotension, and circulatory collapse. Gastrointestinal symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps. Fatal poisoning usually terminates in convulsions and coma.

Source: Drug Bank

Route of Elimination

Excretion occurs primarily in the urine, the rate of which is dependent on urine pH. Between 30-54% of an oral dose is excreted in urine as unchanged methamphetamine and 10-23% as unchanged amphetamine. Following an intravenous dose, 45% is excreted as unchanged parent drug and 7% amphetamine.

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula

C10H15N

Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES

C[C@@H](Cc1ccccc1)NC

Source: OpenEye

Canonical SMILES

CN[C@@H](C)CC1=CC=CC=C1

Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight

149.2328

Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight

149.120449485

Source: Drug Bank

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Curated Information ?

Drug Targets

Gene Description
ADRA1A (source: Drug Bank)
ADRA1B (source: Drug Bank)
ADRA2A (source: Drug Bank)
ADRA2B (source: Drug Bank)
ADRA2C (source: Drug Bank)
MAOA (source: Drug Bank)
MAOB (source: Drug Bank)
SLC18A1 (source: Drug Bank)
SLC18A2 (source: Drug Bank)
SLC6A2 (source: Drug Bank)
SLC6A3 (source: Drug Bank)
SLC6A4 (source: Drug Bank)
TAAR1 (source: Drug Bank)

Drug Interactions

Drug Description
methamphetamine Decreased anorexic effect, may increases psychotic symptoms (source: Drug Bank)
methamphetamine Decreased anorexic effect, may increases psychotic symptoms (source: Drug Bank)
methamphetamine Risk of serotoninergic syndrome (source: Drug Bank)
methamphetamine Risk of serotoninergic syndrome (source: Drug Bank)
methamphetamine Decreased anorexic effect, may increase psychotic symptoms (source: Drug Bank)
methamphetamine Decreased anorexic effect, may increase psychotic symptoms (source: Drug Bank)
methamphetamine Risk of serotoninergic syndrome (source: Drug Bank)
methamphetamine Risk of serotoninergic syndrome (source: Drug Bank)
methamphetamine The agent decreases the effect of guanethidine (source: Drug Bank)
methamphetamine Methamphetamine may decrease the effect of guanethidine. (source: Drug Bank)
methamphetamine Possible hypertensive crisis (source: Drug Bank)
methamphetamine Possible hypertensive crisis (source: Drug Bank)
methamphetamine Decreased anorexic effect, may increase psychotic symptoms (source: Drug Bank)
methamphetamine Decreased anorexic effect, may increase psychotic symptoms (source: Drug Bank)
methamphetamine Decreased anorexic effect, may increase psychotic symptoms (source: Drug Bank)
methamphetamine Risk of serotoninergic syndrome (source: Drug Bank)
methamphetamine Risk of serotoninergic syndrome (source: Drug Bank)
methamphetamine Decreased anorexic effect, may increase psychotic symptoms (source: Drug Bank)
methamphetamine Decreased anorexic effect, may increase psychotic symptoms (source: Drug Bank)
methamphetamine Possible hypertensive crisis (source: Drug Bank)
methamphetamine Possible hypertensive crisis (source: Drug Bank)
methamphetamine Decreased anorexic effect, may increase pyschotic symptoms (source: Drug Bank)
methamphetamine Decreased anorexic effect, may increase pyschotic symptoms (source: Drug Bank)
methamphetamine Decreased anorexic effect, may increase pyschotic symptoms (source: Drug Bank)
methamphetamine Decreased anorexic effect, may increase pyschotic symptoms (source: Drug Bank)
methamphetamine Decreased anorexic effect, may increase pyschotic symptoms (source: Drug Bank)
methamphetamine Possible hypertensive crisis (source: Drug Bank)
methamphetamine Terbinafine may reduce the metabolism and clearance of Methamphetamine. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for therapeutic/adverse effects of Methamphetamine if Terbinafine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
methamphetamine Decreased anorexic effect, may increase psychotic symptoms (source: Drug Bank)
methamphetamine Decreased anorexic effect, may increase psychotic symptoms (source: Drug Bank)
methamphetamine Increased risk of serotonin syndrome. Monitor for symptoms of serotonin syndrome. (source: Drug Bank)
methamphetamine Methamphetamine may reduce the efficacy of Trandolapril. (source: Drug Bank)
methamphetamine The MAO inhibitor, Tranylcypromine, may increase the vasopressor effect of the amphetamine, Methamphetamine. Concomitant therapy should be avoided. (source: Drug Bank)
methamphetamine The 2D6 inhibitor, Trazodone, may increase the efficacy of Methamphetamine by decreasing Methamphetamine metabolism and clearance. Monitor for changes in Methamphetamine efficacy if Trazodone is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
methamphetamine The 2D6 inhibitor, Trazodone, may increase the efficacy of Methamphetamine by decreasing Methamphetamine metabolism and clearance. Monitor for changes in Methamphetamine efficacy if Trazodone is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
methamphetamine Decreased anorexic effect, may increase psychotic symptoms (source: Drug Bank)
methamphetamine Decreased anorexic effect, may increase psychotic symptoms (source: Drug Bank)
methamphetamine Triprolidine may reduce the sedative effect of the antihistamine, Methamphetamine. (source: Drug Bank)
methamphetamine Triprolidine may reduce the sedative effect of the antihistamine, Methamphetamine. (source: Drug Bank)

Curated Information ?

Relationships from National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT)

May Treat
Contraindicated With

Publications related to methamphetamine: 13

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
BDNF rs6265 polymorphism and drug addiction: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Haerian Batoul Sadat. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association of a functional FAAH polymorphism with methamphetamine-induced symptoms and dependence in a Malaysian population. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Sim Maw Shin, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Dopamine receptor D3 genetic polymorphism (rs6280TC) is associated with rates of cognitive impairment in methamphetamine-dependent men with HIV: preliminary findings. Journal of neurovirology. 2011. Gupta Saurabh, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Serotonin 1A receptor gene is associated with Japanese methamphetamine-induced psychosis patients. Neuropharmacology. 2010. Kishi Taro, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
A functional polymorphism in estrogen receptor alpha gene is associated with Japanese methamphetamine induced psychosis. Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry. 2009. Kishi Taro, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
G72 gene is associated with susceptibility to methamphetamine psychosis. Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry. 2009. Kotaka Tatsuya, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association study between casein kinase 1 epsilon gene and methamphetamine dependence. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2008. Kotaka T, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
The glycine transporter 1 gene (GLYT1) is associated with methamphetamine-use disorder. American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics. 2008. Morita Yukitaka, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
The dysbindin gene (DTNBP1) is associated with methamphetamine psychosis. Biological psychiatry. 2008. Kishimoto Makiko, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Identification of functional polymorphisms in the promoter region of the human PICK1 gene and their association with methamphetamine psychosis. The American journal of psychiatry. 2007. Matsuzawa Daisuke, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Possible association of beta-arrestin 2 gene with methamphetamine use disorder, but not schizophrenia. Genes, brain, and behavior. 2007. Ikeda M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Linkage disequilibrium and association with methamphetamine dependence/psychosis of mu-opioid receptor gene polymorphisms. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2006. Ide S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Haplotype association between GABAA receptor gamma2 subunit gene (GABRG2) and methamphetamine use disorder. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2005. Nishiyama T, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

Web Resource:
Wikipedia
National Drug Code Directory:
0378-8115-01
DrugBank:
DB01577
ChEBI:
6809
KEGG Compound:
C07164
PubChem Compound:
10836
PubChem Substance:
10318874
46508541
ChemSpider:
10379
Therapeutic Targets Database:
DAP001496
FDA Drug Label at DailyMed:
15e150c7-1347-40fb-9f58-c390521bc6f9

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention methamphetamine and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

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Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, Open Eye Scientific Software.