Drug/Small Molecule:
lithium

PharmGKB contains no dosing guidelines for this drug/small molecule. To report known genotype-based dosing guidelines, or if you are interested in developing guidelines, click here.

PharmGKB has no annotated drug labels with pharmacogenomic information for this drug/small molecule. If you know of a drug label with PGx, send us a message.

PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the page.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

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This is a non-comprehensive list of genetic tests with pharmacogenetics relevance, typically submitted by the manufacturer and manually curated by PharmGKB. The information listed is provided for educational purposes only and does not constitute an endorsement of any listed test or manufacturer.

A more complete listing of genetic tests is found at the Genetic Testing Registry (GTR).

PGx Test Variants Assayed Gene?

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page.

Links in the "Gene" column lead to PharmGKB Gene Pages.

Gene ? Variant?
(138)
Alternate Names / Tag SNPs ? Drugs ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs10008257 19904049G>A, 95356328G>A
G > A
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1012053 192+30336C>A, 23633437C>A, 42653437C>A, 44266C>A
C > A
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1019358 10405254A>G, 15524042A>G, 182431T>C, 3258-601T>C, 3302-601T>C
A > G
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1170191 193-26106A>G, 23655493A>G, 42675493A>G, 66322A>G
A > G
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs11869731 149955C>G, 32338871G>C, 555+144126C>G, 7075865G>C
G > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1187326 16450447C>T, 212+40C>T, 7450C>T, 87285915C>T
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1187327 10075T>C, 16453072T>C, 212+2665T>C, 87288540T>C
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs12693402 185808079C>T, 36017497C>T
C > T
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs12941497 31+723C>T, 3529746G>A, 38255594G>A
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs130058 -161A>T, 16293115T>A, 78173281T>A
T > A
5' Flanking
No VIP available CA VA
rs1360780 106-2636A>G, 35547571T>C, 35607571T>C, 93790A>G
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1387923 16805168A>G, 87640636A>G
A > G
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1390913 44921565G>A, 4624469G>A
G > A
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs140504 109818A>G, 23627369A>G, 2387A>G, 3017938A>G, Asn796Ser
A > G
Missense
Asn796Ser
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1565445 16781603G>A, 2125-18050G>A, 2173-18050G>A, 338606G>A, 87617071G>A
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs16909440 14A>G, 5020844T>C, 5080844T>C, Asn5Ser
T > C
Missense
Asn5Ser
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs16973410 19518975C>T, 38029873C>T
C > T
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs17026688 30826817C>T, 30886817C>T, 652-859G>A
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1799913 17987255G>T, 18047255G>T, 20081C>A, 804-7C>A
G > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1800497 113270828G>A, 16833244G>A, 17316G>A, 2137G>A, 32806C>T, DRD2 Taq1A, DRD2:32806C>T, DRD2:Taq1A, DRD2:Taq1A A1, DRD2:TaqIA allele, Glu713Lys, Taq1A
G > A
Missense
Glu713Lys
No VIP available CA VA
rs1800532 17987816G>T, 18047816G>T, 19520C>A, 803+221C>A
G > T
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs1801260 *213T>C, 3641252A>G, 56301369A>G
A > G
3' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1982350 -135+18525A>G, -135+2117A>G, -335+18525A>G, 13290131A>G, 13350131A>G
A > G
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs2032582 186947T>A, 186947T>G, 25193461A>C, 25193461A>T, 2677A, 2677G, 2677T, 2677T>A, 2677T>G, 3095G>T/A, 87160618A>C, 87160618A>T, 893 Ala, 893 Ser, 893 Thr, ABCB1*7, ABCB1: 2677G>T/A, ABCB1: 2677T/A>G, ABCB1: A893S, ABCB1: G2677T/A, ABCB1: c.2677G>T/A, ABCB1:2677G>A/T, ABCB1:2677G>T/A, ABCB1:A893T, Ala893Ser/Thr, MDR1, MDR1 G2677T/A, Ser893Ala, Ser893Thr, mRNA 3095G>T/A, p.Ala893Ser/Thr
A > C
A > T
Missense
Ser893Ala
Ser893Thr
No VIP available CA VA
rs2071427 32-836G>A, 3528644C>T, 38254492C>T
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2071570 -743G>T, 3531242C>A, 38257090C>A
C > A
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2107506 135300277C>G, 43614149C>G
C > G
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2269457 32-1033A>G, 3528841T>C, 38254689T>C
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2278749 1194-309C>T, 1323-309C>T, 13337878C>T, 13397878C>T
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2279287 -1193T>C, -1248T>C, -1393T>C, -1423T>C, 13238485T>C, 13298485T>C
T > C
5' Flanking
No VIP available CA VA
rs2284017 16487496T>C, 211+1484A>G, 37096927T>C, 6764A>G
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs2284018 16488133C>T, 211+847G>A, 37097564C>T, 6127G>A
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs228642 3868025C>T, 7863293C>T, 976+80C>T
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs228666 1134-228T>C, 3873457T>C, 7868725T>C
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs228697 2566C>G, 3892311C>G, 7887579C>G, Pro856Ala
C > G
Missense
Pro856Ala
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs228729 274+49T>C, 3850427T>C, 7845695T>C
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2289656 16728094G>A, 1889+13G>A, 1937+13G>A, 285097G>A, 87563562G>A
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2304672 -12C>G, 15619C>G, 239186589G>C, 5132848G>C
G > C
5' UTR
No VIP available CA VA
rs2314339 3527364C>T, 370+106G>A, 38253212C>T
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2433320 19918526G>A, 95370805G>A
G > A
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2433322 -119+3206A>G, -461+3206A>G, 19927462A>G, 95379741A>G, 96+3206A>G
A > G
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs2499984 5001541A>G, 5061541A>G
A > G
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2640909 3083T>C, 3894849T>C, 7890117T>C, Met1028Thr
T > C
Missense
Met1028Thr
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs265981 -684T>C, 174870902A>G, 19682175A>G, 5262T>C
A > G
5' UTR
No VIP available CA VA
rs2769605 17077203C>T, 87912671C>T
C > T
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2811332 129515128G>C, 234+31518C>G, 36010274G>C, 576+31518C>G
G > C
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs2826494 22104695C>G, 7766566C>G
C > G
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2859388 2862+340A>G, 3892947A>G, 7888215A>G
A > G
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs334558 -1001T>C, -1195A>G, 119813282A>G, 26308428A>G, 4983T>C, GSK3B: -50 T>C
A > G
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs34897046 3665248G>C, 56325365G>C, 623C>G, Ser208Cys
G > C
Missense
Ser208Cys
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3730353 111995666A>G, 1240+36T>C, 1396+36T>C, 1405+36T>C, 16165123A>G
A > G
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3736544 1764T>C, 3649875A>G, 56309992A>G, Asn588=
A > G
Synonymous
Asn588Asn
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3755557 -2676A>T, 119814957T>A, 149+332T>A, 26310103T>A, 3308A>T
T > A
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3918242 -1590C>T, -19-1571C>T, 14832068C>T, 3430C>T, 44635976C>T
C > T
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4512905 -54-5418T>C, 14194436T>C, 52051130T>C, 71111T>C
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs4532 -48G>A, 174870150C>T, 19681423C>T, 6014G>A
C > T
5' UTR
rs4680 1-5G>A, 19951271G>A, 27009G>A, 3103421G>A, 322G>A, 472G>A, COMP: Val158Met, COMT:Val108Met, Val108Met, Val158Met
G > A
5' Flanking
Val158Met
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4794826 1434+406G>A, 3524934C>T, 37337C>T, 38250782C>T
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs6265 196G>A, 220G>A, 241G>A, 27619916C>T, 27679916C>T, 283G>A, 434C>T, 442G>A, 503C>T, 68690G>A, BDNF:Val66Met, Val148Met, Val66Met, Val74Met, Val81Met, Val95Met
C > T
Missense
Val66Met
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs6275 113283477A>G, 16845893A>G, 67525T>C, 852T>C, 939T>C, His284=, His313=
A > G
Synonymous
His284His
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs6280 113890815C>T, 12085G>A, 20385961C>T, 25G>A, DRD3 Ser9Gly, DRD3 rs6280, DRD3: 9 Ser>Gly, DRD3: Gly9Ser, DRD3: Ser9Gly, DRD3:Ser9Gly, Gly9Ser, c.25T>C, p.S9G
C > T
Missense
Gly9Ser
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs6313 102C>T, 160+869C>T, 28449940G>A, 47469940G>A, 6230C>T, HTR2A:102C>T, HTR2A:T102C, Ser34=
G > A
Intronic
Ser34Ser
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs6318 113965735G>C, 152185G>C, 398067G>C, 68G>C, Cys23Ser, HTR2C:23Ser, HTR2C:Cys23Ser
C > G
Missense
Cys23Ser
No VIP available CA VA
rs6438552 119631814A>G, 186451T>C, 26126960A>G, 609-157T>C
A > G
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs6917661 154721557C>T, 58891014C>T
C > T
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs706895 -105A>G, -11-94A>G, 112041359T>C, 16210816T>C
T > C
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs7301408 -39+56227T>G, 22118691T>G, 29358567T>G
T > G
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs8192440 107395106A>G, 636T>C, 69538412A>G, Gly212=
A > G
Synonymous
Gly212Gly
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs890 *409T>G, 13715308A>C, 422715T>G, 6475432A>C
A > C
3' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs9315885 192+19709C>T, 23622810C>T, 3281G>A, 33639C>T, 42642810C>T
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs939347 -346C>T, 3530845G>A, 38256693G>A
G > A
5' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs971363 -1209T>G, 11970460T>G, 11980460T>G, 4006T>G
T > G
5' Flanking
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 138
2D structure from PubChem
provided by PubChem

Overview

Generic Names
Trade Names
  • Eskalith
  • LithoTab
Brand Mixture Names

PharmGKB Accession Id:
PA450243

Description

Lithium was used during the 19th century to treat gout. Lithium salts such as lithium carbonate (Li2CO3), lithium citrate, and lithium orotate are mood stabilizers. They are used in the treatment of bipolar disorder, since unlike most other mood altering drugs, they counteract both mania and depression. Lithium can also be used to augment other antidepressant drugs. It is also sometimes prescribed as a preventive treatment for migraine disease and cluster headaches. The active principle in these salts is the lithium ion Li+, which having a smaller diameter, can easily displace K+ and Na+ and even Ca+2, in spite of its greater charge, occupying their sites in several critical neuronal enzymes and neurotransmitter receptors.

Source: Drug Bank

Indication

Lithium is used as a mood stabilizer, and is used for treatment of depression and mania. It is often used in bipolar disorder treatment.

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

The precise mechanism of action of Li+ as a mood-stabilizing agent is currently unknown. It is possible that Li+ produces its effects by interacting with the transport of monovalent or divalent cations in neurons. An increasing number of scientists have come to the conclusion that the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate is the key factor in understanding how lithium works. Lithium has been shown to change the inward and outward currents of glutamate receptors (especially GluR3), without a shift in reversal potential. Lithium has been found to exert a dual effect on glutamate receptors, acting to keep the amount of glutamate active between cells at a stable, healthy level, neither too much nor too little. It is postulated that too much glutamate in the space between neurons causes mania, and too little, depression. Another mechanism by which lithium might help to regulate mood include the non-competitive inhibition of an enzyme called inositol monophosphatase. Alternately lithium's action may be enhanced through the deactivation of the GSK-3B enzyme. The regulation of GSK-3B by lithium may affect the circadian clock. GSK-3 is known for phosphorylating and thus inactivating glycogen synthase. GSK-3B has also been implicated in the control of cellular response to damaged DNA. GSK-3 normally phosphorylates beta catenin, which leads to beta catenin degratation. When GSK-3 is inhibited, beta catenin increases and transgenic mice with overexpression of beta catenin express similar behaviour to mice treated with lithium. These results suggest that increase of beta catenin may be a possible pathway for the therapeutic action of lithium.

Source: Drug Bank

Pharmacology

Although lithium has been used for over 50 years in treatment of bipolar disorder, the mechanism of action is still unknown. Lithium's therapeutic action may be due to a number of effects, ranging from inhibition of enzymes such as glycogen synthase kinase 3, inositol phosphatases, or modulation of glutamate receptors.

Source: Drug Bank

Food Interaction

Avoid iodine supplements.|Avoid alcohol.|Do not change your salt intake from day to day without telling your doctor.|Avoid excessive quantities of coffee or tea (Caffeine).|Take with food to reduce irritation. Drink plenty of liquids.

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula

Li

Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES

[Li+]

Source: PharmGKB

[Li]

Source: OpenEye

Canonical SMILES

[Li+]

Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight

6.941

Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight

7.016004049

Source: Drug Bank

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Curated Information ?

Drug Targets

Gene Description
CTNNB1 (source: Drug Bank)
GRIA3 (source: Drug Bank)
GSK3B (source: Drug Bank)
IMPA1 (source: Drug Bank)
IMPA2 (source: Drug Bank)
INPP1 (source: Drug Bank)

Drug Interactions

Drug Description
lithium Theophylline decreases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The ACE inhibitor increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The ACE inhibitor increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The thiazide diuretic increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The thiazide diuretic increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The ARB increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The ARB increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The ACE inhibitor increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The ACE inhibitor increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The COX-2 inhibitor increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The COX-2 inhibitor increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The thiazide diuretic increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The thiazide diuretic increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The ACE inhibitor increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The NSAID increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The NSAID, diflunisal, may decrease the renal excretion of lithium. Increased risk of lithium toxicity. (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The ACE inhibitor increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The ACE inhibitor increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium Eplerenone increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The ARB increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The ARB increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium Etoricoxib increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The SSRI increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The SSRI, fluoxetine, increases serum levels of lithium. (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The SSRI increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The SSRI, fluvoxamine, increases serum levels of lithium. (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The ACE inhibitor increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The ACE inhibitor increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium Possible extrapyramidal effects and neurotoxicity with this combination (source: Drug Bank)
lithium Possible extrapyramidal effects and neurotoxicity with this combination (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The thiazide diuretic increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The thiazide diuretic increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The NSAID increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The NSAID, ibuprofen, may decrease the renal excretion of lithium. Increased risk of lithium toxicity. (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The thiazide diuretic increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The thiazide diuretic increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The NSAID increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The NSAID, indomethacin, may decrease the renal excretion of lithium. Increased risk of lithium toxicity. (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The ARB increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The ARB increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The NSAID, ketoprofen, may increase the serum concentration of lithium by decreasing its renal clearance. Consider a dose reduction in lithium upon initiation of ketoprofen therapy. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of lithium if ketoprofen is initiated, discontinued or does changed. (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The NSAID increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The NSAID, ketorolac, may decrease the renal excretion of lithium. Increased risk of lithium toxicity. (source: Drug Bank)
lithium Signs of increased lithium levels without increase with this combination (source: Drug Bank)
lithium Signs of increased lithium levels without increase with this combination (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The ACE inhibitor increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The ACE inhibitor increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
aminophylline Theophylline decreases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
benazepril The ACE inhibitor increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
benazepril The ACE inhibitor increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
bendroflumethiazide The thiazide diuretic increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
bendroflumethiazide The thiazide diuretic increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
benzthiazide The thiazide diuretic increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
bromfenac The NSAID increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
caffeine Caffeine decreases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
caffeine Caffeine decreases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
candesartan The ARB increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
candesartan The ARB increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
captopril The ACE inhibitor increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
captopril The ACE inhibitor increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
celecoxib The COX-2 inhibitor increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
celecoxib The COX-2 inhibitor increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
chlorothiazide The thiazide diuretic increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
chlorothiazide The thiazide diuretic increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
chlorthalidone The thiazide diuretic increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
chlorthalidone The thiazide diuretic increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
cilazapril The ACE inhibitor increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
citric acid The urine alkalizer decreases the effect of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
cyclothiazide The thiazide diuretic increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
cyclothiazide The thiazide diuretic increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
diclofenac The NSAID increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
diclofenac The NSAID, diclofenac, may decrease the renal excretion of lithium. Increased risk of lithium toxicity. (source: Drug Bank)
dyphylline Theophylline decreases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
enalapril The ACE inhibitor increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
enalapril The ACE inhibitor increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
eplerenone Eplerenone increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
eprosartan The ARB increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
eprosartan The ARB increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
etoricoxib Etoricoxib increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
fluoxetine The SSRI increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
fluoxetine The SSRI, fluoxetine, increases serum levels of lithium. (source: Drug Bank)
fluvoxamine The SSRI increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
fluvoxamine The SSRI, fluvoxamine, increases serum levels of lithium. (source: Drug Bank)
forasartan The ARB increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
fosinopril The ACE inhibitor increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
fosinopril The ACE inhibitor increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
haloperidol Possible extrapyramidal effects and neurotoxicity with this combination (source: Drug Bank)
haloperidol Possible extrapyramidal effects and neurotoxicity with this combination (source: Drug Bank)
hydrochlorothiazide The thiazide diuretic increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
hydrochlorothiazide The thiazide diuretic increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
hydroflumethiazide The thiazide diuretic increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
ibuprofen The NSAID increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
ibuprofen The NSAID, ibuprofen, may decrease the renal excretion of lithium. Increased risk of lithium toxicity. (source: Drug Bank)
indapamide The thiazide diuretic increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
indapamide The thiazide diuretic increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
indomethacin The NSAID increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
indomethacin The NSAID, indomethacin, may decrease the renal excretion of lithium. Increased risk of lithium toxicity. (source: Drug Bank)
iodine Possible hypothyroidism with this combination (source: Drug Bank)
iodine Possible hypothyroidism with this combination (source: Drug Bank)
irbesartan The ARB increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
irbesartan The ARB increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
ketorolac The NSAID increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
ketorolac The NSAID, ketorolac, may decrease the renal excretion of lithium. Increased risk of lithium toxicity. (source: Drug Bank)
l-methyldopa Signs of increased lithium without increase with this combination (source: Drug Bank)
lisinopril The ACE inhibitor increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lisinopril The ACE inhibitor increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
losartan Losartan increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
losartan Losartan increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lumiracoxib The COX-2 inhibitor increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
mefenamic acid The NSAID increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
meloxicam Meloxicam increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
meloxicam Meloxicam increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
methyclothiazide The thiazide diuretic increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
Methyldopa Signs of increased lithium without increase with this combination (source: Drug Bank)
metolazone The thiazide diuretic, metolazone, may increase serum levels of lithium. (source: Drug Bank)
metronidazole Metronidazole increases the effect and toxicity of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
metronidazole Metronidazole increases the effect and toxicity of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
moexipril The ACE inhibitor increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
naproxen The NSAID increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
naproxen The NSAID, naproxen, may decrease the renal excretion of lithium. Increased risk of lithium toxicity. (source: Drug Bank)
oxtriphylline Theophylline decreases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
perindopril The ACE inhibitor increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
perindopril The ACE inhibitor increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
phenylbutazone The NSAID increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
phenylbutazone The NSAID, phenylbutazone, may decrease the renal excretion of lithium. Increased risk of lithium toxicity. (source: Drug Bank)
piroxicam The NSAID increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
piroxicam The NSAID, piroxicam, may decrease the renal excretion of lithium. Increased risk of lithium toxicity. (source: Drug Bank)
polythiazide The thiazide diuretic increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
potassium The urine alkalizer decreases the effect of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
potassium The urine alkalizer decreases the effect of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
quinapril The ACE inhibitor increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
quinapril The ACE inhibitor increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
quinethazone The thiazide diuretic increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
ramipril The ACE inhibitor increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
ramipril The ACE inhibitor increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
rofecoxib The COX-2 inhibitor increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
rofecoxib The COX-2 inhibitor increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
saprisartan The ARB increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
sibutramine Possible serotoninergic syndrome with this combination (source: Drug Bank)
sibutramine Possible serotoninergic syndrome with this combination (source: Drug Bank)
sodium The urine alkalizer decreases the effect of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
sodium bicarbonate The urine alkalizer decreases the effect of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
spirapril The ACE inhibitor increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
sumatriptan Possible serotoninergic syndrome with this combination (source: Drug Bank)
sumatriptan Possible serotoninergic syndrome with this combination (source: Drug Bank)
tasosartan The ARB increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
telmisartan The ARB increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
telmisartan The ARB increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
theophylline Theophylline decreases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
theophylline Theophylline decreases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
topiramate Topiramate could modify lithium levels (source: Drug Bank)
topiramate Topiramate could modify lithium levels (source: Drug Bank)
trandolapril The ACE inhibitor increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
trandolapril The ACE inhibitor increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
trichlormethiazide The thiazide diuretic increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
valdecoxib The COX-2 inhibitor increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
valdecoxib The COX-2 inhibitor increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
valsartan The ARB increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
valsartan The ARB increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Signs of lithium toxicity (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Signs of lithium toxicity (source: Drug Bank)
lithium Losartan increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium Losartan increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The COX-2 inhibitor increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The NSAID increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The NSAID, mefenamic acid, may decrease the renal excretion of lithium. Increased risk of lithium toxicity. (source: Drug Bank)
lithium Meloxicam increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium Meloxicam increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The thiazide diuretic increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium Metronidazole increases the effect and toxicity of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium Metronidazole increases the effect and toxicity of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The NSAID increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The NSAID, naproxen, may decrease the renal excretion of lithium. Increased risk of lithium toxicity. (source: Drug Bank)
lithium Theophylline decreases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The ACE inhibitor increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The ACE inhibitor increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The NSAID increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The NSAID, phenylbutazone, may decrease the renal excretion of lithium. Increased risk of lithium toxicity. (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The NSAID increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The NSAID, piroxicam, may decrease the renal excretion of lithium. Increased risk of lithium toxicity. (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The ACE inhibitor increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The ACE inhibitor increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The ACE inhibitor increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium The ACE inhibitor increases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium Telmisartan may increase serum Lithium concentrations. Monitor serum Lithium levels during concomitant therapy to avoid Lithium toxicity. (source: Drug Bank)
lithium Telmisartan may increase serum Lithium concentrations. Monitor serum Lithium levels during concomitant therapy to avoid Lithium toxicity. (source: Drug Bank)
lithium Tenoxicam may increase the serum concentration of Lithium. A dose adjustment of Lithium may be required. Monitor for changes in Lithium therapeutic and adverse effects if Tenoxicam is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
lithium Theophylline decreases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium Theophylline decreases serum levels of lithium (source: Drug Bank)
lithium Tiaprofenic acid may increase the therapeutic/adverse effects of Lithium by increasing Lithium serum concentrations. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Lithium if Tiaprofenic acid is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
lithium Increased risk of nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
lithium Tolmetin may increase the risk of Lithium toxicity by decreasing the renal elminiation of Lithium. A dose adjustment of Lithium may be required. Monitor for changes in Lithium therapeutic and adverse effects if Tolmetin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
lithium Trandolapril may increase the serum concentration of Lithium increasing the risk of Lithium toxicity. Monitor for changes in Lithium serum concentrations, toxicity and efficacy if Trandolapril is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
lithium Increased risk of serotonin syndrome. Use caution during concomitant therapy and monitor for symptoms of serotonin syndrome. (source: Drug Bank)
lithium Increased risk of serotonin syndrome. Monitor for symptoms of serotonin syndrome. (source: Drug Bank)
lithium Increased risk of serotonin syndrome. Monitor for symptoms of serotonin syndrome. (source: Drug Bank)
lithium Trichlormethiazide may increase the serum concentration of Lithium by decreasing Lithium excretion. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Lithium if Trichlorthiazide is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
lithium Increased risk of serotonin syndrome. Monitor for symptoms of serotonin syndrome. (source: Drug Bank)
lithium Valsartan may increase serum Lithium concentrations. Monitor serum Lithium levels during concomitant therapy to avoid Lithium toxicity. (source: Drug Bank)
lithium Increased risk of serotonin syndrome. Monitor for symptoms of serotonin syndrome. (source: Drug Bank)
lithium Use of two serotonin modulators, such as zolmitriptan and lithium, increases the risk of serotonin syndrome. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for serotonin syndrome during concomitant therapy. (source: Drug Bank)

Curated Information ?

EvidenceDisease
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Bipolar Disorder
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Depression

Relationships from National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT)

May Treat
Contraindicated With

Publications related to lithium: 33

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The genetics of pro-arrhythmic adverse drug reactions. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Petropoulou Evmorfia, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Use of magnetic resonance imaging in pharmacogenomics. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Viviani Roberto, et al. PubMed
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Variant GADL1 and Response to Lithium Therapy in Bipolar I Disorder. The New England journal of medicine. 2013. Chen Chien-Hsiun, et al. PubMed
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Glycogen synthase kinase 3beta gene polymorphisms may be associated with bipolar I disorder and the therapeutic response to lithium. Journal of affective disorders. 2013. Lin Yen-Feng, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics in major depression: a comprehensive meta-analysis. Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry. 2013. Niitsu Tomihisa, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics of bipolar disorder. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Severino Giovanni, et al. PubMed
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Neurotrophic Tyrosine Kinase Receptor Type 2 (NTRK2) Gene Associated with Treatment Response to Mood Stabilizers in Patients with Bipolar I Disorder. Journal of molecular neuroscience : MN. 2013. Wang Zuowei, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
A survey of genomic studies supports association of circadian clock genes with bipolar disorder spectrum illnesses and lithium response. PloS one. 2012. McCarthy Michael J, et al. PubMed
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Functional genetic variation in the Rev-Erbalpha pathway and lithium response in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Genes, brain, and behavior. 2011. McCarthy M J, et al. PubMed
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Evidence for association of an ACCN1 gene variant with response to lithium treatment in Sardinian patients with bipolar disorder. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Squassina Alessio, et al. PubMed
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Polymorphisms in melatonin synthesis pathways: possible influences on depression. Journal of circadian rhythms. 2011. Kripke Daniel F, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Functional polymorphism of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) gene and response to lithium prophylaxis in bipolar patients. Human psychopharmacology. 2011. Rybakowski Janusz K, et al. PubMed
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Clinical and genetic correlates of suicidal ideation during antidepressant treatment in a depressed outpatient sample. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Perroud Nader, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Meta-analysis of FKBP5 gene polymorphisms association with treatment response in patients with mood disorders. Neuroscience letters. 2010. Zou Yan-Feng, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of lithium response in bipolar disorder. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. McCarthy Michael J, et al. PubMed
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Polymorphisms in GRIK4, HTR2A, and FKBP5 show interactive effects in predicting remission to antidepressant treatment. Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 2010. Horstmann Sonja, et al. PubMed
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Nuclear receptor rev-erb-{alpha} circadian gene variants and lithium carbonate prophylaxis in bipolar affective disorder. Journal of biological rhythms. 2010. Campos-de-Sousa Sara, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
FKBP5 polymorphisms and antidepressant response in geriatric depression. American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics. 2010. Sarginson Jane E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetic considerations in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy. 2010. Lohoff Falk W, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics of lithium long-term treatment: focus on initiation and adaptation mechanisms. Neuropsychobiology. 2010. Serretti Alessandro, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The International Consortium on Lithium Genetics (ConLiGen): an initiative by the NIMH and IGSLI to study the genetic basis of response to lithium treatment. Neuropsychobiology. 2010. Schulze Thomas G, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Interacting genes in lithium prophylaxis: preliminary results of an exploratory analysis on the role of DGKH and NR1D1 gene polymorphisms in 199 Sardinian bipolar patients. Neuroscience letters. 2009. Manchia Mirko, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Association studies of the BDNF and the NTRK2 gene polymorphisms with prophylactic lithium response in bipolar patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2008. Dmitrzak-Weglarz Monika, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Stargazin involvement with bipolar disorder and response to lithium treatment. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2008. Silberberg Gilad, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic variants in FKBP5 affecting response to antidepressant drug treatment. Pharmacogenomics. 2008. Kirchheiner Julia, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Actimetric evidence that CLOCK 3111 T/C SNP influences sleep and activity patterns in patients affected by bipolar depression. American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics. 2007. Benedetti Francesco, et al. PubMed
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Genetic variability at HPA axis in major depression and clinical response to antidepressant treatment. Journal of affective disorders. 2007. Papiol Sergi, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PP2A-Bgamma subunit and KCNQ2 K+ channels in bipolar disorder. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2007. Borsotto M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
100 years and counting: prospects for defeating Alzheimer's disease. Science (New York, N.Y.). 2006. Roberson Erik D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Nuclear receptor Rev-erbalpha is a critical lithium-sensitive component of the circadian clock. Science (New York, N.Y.). 2006. Yin Lei, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Polymorphisms in FKBP5 are associated with increased recurrence of depressive episodes and rapid response to antidepressant treatment. Nature genetics. 2004. Binder Elisabeth B, et al. PubMed
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Serotonin receptor 2A, 2C, 1A genes and response to lithium prophylaxis in mood disorders. Journal of psychiatric research. 2000. Serretti A, et al. PubMed
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The polymorphic inositol polyphosphate 1-phosphatase gene as a candidate for pharmacogenetic prediction of lithium-responsive manic-depressive illness. Pharmacogenetics. 1998. Steen V M, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

Web Resource:
Wikipedia
DrugBank:
DB01356
ChEBI:
30142
49713
KEGG Compound:
C15473
PubChem Compound:
28486
PubChem Substance:
11538471
46505392
Drugs Product Database (DPD):
236683
ChemSpider:
26502
Therapeutic Targets Database:
DNC000879

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention lithium and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

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Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, Open Eye Scientific Software.