Drug/Small Molecule:
halothane

PharmGKB contains no dosing guidelines for this drug/small molecule. To report known genotype-based dosing guidelines, or if you are interested in developing guidelines, click here.

PharmGKB has no annotated drug labels with pharmacogenomic information for this drug/small molecule. If you know of a drug label with PGx, send us a message.

PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the page.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

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This is a non-comprehensive list of genetic tests with pharmacogenetics relevance, typically submitted by the manufacturer and manually curated by PharmGKB. The information listed is provided for educational purposes only and does not constitute an endorsement of any listed test or manufacturer.

A more complete listing of genetic tests is found at the Genetic Testing Registry (GTR).

PGx Test Variants Assayed Gene?

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page.

Links in the "Gene" column lead to PharmGKB Gene Pages.

List of all halothane variant annotations

Gene ? Variant?
(142)
Alternate Names ? Drugs ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs118192124 11259494C>T, 38991276C>T, 71937C>T, 7354C>T, Arg2452Trp
C > T
Missense
Arg2452Trp
No VIP available CA VA
rs118192161 11203069C>T, 15512C>T, 38934851C>T, 487C>T, Arg163Cys
C > T
Missense
Arg163Cys
No VIP available CA VA
rs118192162 11214217A>C, 11214217A>G, 1565A>C, 1565A>G, 26660A>C, 26660A>G, 38945999A>C, 38945999A>G, Tyr522Cys, Tyr522Ser
A > C
A > G
Missense
Tyr522Cys
Tyr522Ser
No VIP available CA VA
rs118192163 11253423G>A, 11253423G>C, 38985205G>A, 38985205G>C, 6488G>A, 6488G>C, 65866G>A, 65866G>C, Arg2163His, Arg2163Pro
G > A
G > C
Missense
Arg2163Pro
Arg2163His
No VIP available CA VA
rs118192167 11338862A>G, 14372A>G, 14387A>G, 151305A>G, 39070644A>G, Tyr4791Cys, Tyr4796Cys
A > G
Missense
Tyr4796Cys
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs118192168 11339261G>A, 14530G>A, 14545G>A, 151704G>A, 39071043G>A, Val4844Ile, Val4849Ile
G > A
Missense
Val4849Ile
No VIP available CA VA
rs118192170 11343847T>C, 14678T>C, 14693T>C, 156290T>C, 39075629T>C, Ile4893Thr, Ile4898Thr
T > C
Missense
Ile4898Thr
No VIP available CA VA
rs118192172 11216403C>T, 1840C>T, 28846C>T, 38948185C>T, Arg614Cys
C > T
Missense
Arg614Cys
No VIP available CA VA
rs118192175 11253422C>T, 38985204C>T, 6487C>T, 65865C>T, Arg2163Cys
C > T
Missense
Arg2163Cys
No VIP available CA VA
rs118192176 11253437G>A, 38985219G>A, 6502G>A, 65880G>A, Val2168Met
G > A
Missense
Val2168Met
No VIP available CA VA
rs118192177 11255141C>G, 11255141C>T, 38986923C>G, 38986923C>T, 6617C>G, 6617C>T, 67584C>G, 67584C>T, Thr2206Arg, Thr2206Met
C > G
C > T
Missense
Thr2206Arg
Thr2206Met
No VIP available CA VA
rs121918592 1021G>A, 1021G>C, 11207570G>A, 11207570G>C, 20013G>A, 20013G>C, 38939352G>A, 38939352G>C, Gly341Arg
G > A
G > C
Missense
Gly341Arg
No VIP available CA VA
rs121918593 11258851G>A, 38990633G>A, 71294G>A, 7300G>A, Gly2434Arg
G > A
Missense
Gly2434Arg
No VIP available CA VA
rs121918594 11259513G>A, 38991295G>A, 71956G>A, 7373G>A, Arg2458His
G > A
Missense
Arg2458His
No VIP available CA VA
rs121918595 11338952C>T, 14462C>T, 14477C>T, 151395C>T, 39070734C>T, Thr4821Ile, Thr4826Ile
C > T
Missense
Thr4826Ile
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1801086 11205568G>A, 11205568G>C, 11205568G>M, 18011G>A, 18011G>C, 18011G>M, 38937350G>A, 38937350G>C, 38937350G>M, 742G>A, 742G>C, 742G>M, Gly248Arg, RYR1:ARG248GLY
G > A
G > C
Missense
Gly248Arg
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs193922772 11216404G>T, 1841G>T, 28847G>T, 38948186G>T, Arg614Leu
G > A
G > T
Missense
Arg614Leu
No VIP available CA VA
rs28933397 11259512C>T, 38991294C>T, 71955C>T, 7372C>T, 7372CT, ARG2458CYS, Arg2458Cys
C > T
Missense
Arg2458Cys
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 142
2D structure from PubChem
provided by PubChem

Overview

Generic Names
  • 2-bromo-2-chloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane
  • Alotano [Dcit]
  • Bromchlortrifluoraethanum
  • Bromochlorotrifluoroethane
  • Cf3chclbr
  • Fluorotane
  • Fluorothane
  • Freon 123b1
  • Ftorotan [Russian]
  • Ftuorotan
  • Halotano [INN-Spanish]
  • Halothan
  • Halothanum [INN-Latin]
  • Narcotann Ne-Spofa [Russian]
Trade Names
  • Anestan
  • Chalothane
  • Fluktan
  • Fluothane
  • Halan
  • Halotan
  • Halothane
  • Halsan
  • Narcotan
  • Narcotane
  • Narkotan
  • Phthorothanum
  • Rhodialothan
Brand Mixture Names

PharmGKB Accession Id:
PA449845

Description

A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. nitrous oxide is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)

Source: Drug Bank

Indication

For the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

Halothane causes general anaethesia due to its actions on multiple ion channels, which ultimately depresses nerve conduction, breathing, cardiac contractility. Its immobilizing effects have been attributed to its binding to potassium channels in cholinergic neurons. Halothane's effect are also likely due to binding to NMDA and calcium channels, causing hyperpolarization.

Source: Drug Bank

Pharmacology

Halothane is a general inhalation anesthetic used for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. It reduces the blood pressure and frequently decreases the pulse rate and depresses respiration. It induces muscle relaxation and reduces pains sensitivity by altering tissue excitability. It does so by decreasing the extent of gap junction mediated cell-cell coupling and altering the activity of the channels that underlie the action potential.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity

Biotransformation

Halothane is metabolized in the liver, primarily by CYP2E1, and to a lesser extent by CYP3A4 and CYP2A6.

Source: Drug Bank

Toxicity

Toxic effects of halothane include malignant hyperthermia and hepatitis.

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula

C2HBrClF3

Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES

C(C(F)(F)F)(Cl)Br

Source: OpenEye

Canonical SMILES

FC(F)(F)C(Cl)Br

Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight

197.382

Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight

195.890225001

Source: Drug Bank

PharmGKB Curated Pathways

Pathways created internally by PharmGKB based primarily on literature evidence.

PharmGKB contains no curated pathways for this drug. If you would like to volunteer to work on a pathway, please let us know.

External Pathways

Links to non-PharmGKB pathways.

  1. CYP2E1 reactions - (Reactome via Pathway Interaction Database)
  2. P450 Dehalogenation - (Reactome via Pathway Interaction Database)

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Curated Information ?

EvidenceGene
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
RYR1

Drug Targets

Gene Description
ALB (source: Drug Bank)
ATP2C1 (source: Drug Bank)
ATP5D (source: Drug Bank)
GABRA1 (source: Drug Bank)
GLRA1 (source: Drug Bank)
GNG2 (source: Drug Bank)
GRIA1 (source: Drug Bank)
GRIN2A (source: Drug Bank)
GRIN3A (source: Drug Bank)
GRIN3B (source: Drug Bank)
KCNJ3 (source: Drug Bank)
KCNJ6 (source: Drug Bank)
KCNK3 (source: Drug Bank)
KCNK9 (source: Drug Bank)
KCNMA1 (source: Drug Bank)
KCNN4 (source: Drug Bank)
MT-ND1 (source: Drug Bank)
NPSR1 (source: Drug Bank)
RHO (source: Drug Bank)

Drug Interactions

Drug Description
halothane Increased risk of cardiac arrhythmia (source: Drug Bank)
halothane Monitor arterial pressure closely (source: Drug Bank)
halothane Increased risk of cardiac arrhythmia (source: Drug Bank)
halothane Increased risk of cardiac arrhythmia (source: Drug Bank)
halothane Increased risk of cardiac arrhythmia (source: Drug Bank)

Curated Information ?

Relationships from National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT)

May Treat
Diagnoses
Induces
Contraindicated With

Publications related to halothane: 11

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Functional and genetic characterization of clinical malignant hyperthermia crises: a multi-centre study. Orphanet journal of rare diseases. 2014. Klingler Werner, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism in the brain. Journal of psychiatry & neuroscience : JPN. 2012. Miksys Sharon, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
A study of a family with the skeletal muscle RYR1 mutation (c.7354C>T) associated with central core myopathy and malignant hyperthermia susceptibility. Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia. 2012. Taylor A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
A mathematical model to improve on phenotyping for molecular genetic research in malignant hyperthermia. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2009. Ginz Hans F, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Polymorphic drug metabolism in anaesthesia. Current drug metabolism. 2009. Restrepo Juan G, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Malignant hyperthermia: a pharmacogenetic disorder. Pharmacogenomics. 2008. Stowell Kathryn M. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
A novel ryanodine receptor mutation and genotype-phenotype correlation in a large malignant hyperthermia New Zealand Maori pedigree. Human molecular genetics. 2000. Brown R L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Malignant hyperthermia in infancy and identification of novel RYR1 mutation. British journal of anaesthesia. 2000. Chamley D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Ryanodine receptor mutations in malignant hyperthermia and central core disease. Human mutation. 2000. McCarthy T V, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Polymorphisms and deduced amino acid substitutions in the coding sequence of the ryanodine receptor (RYR1) gene in individuals with malignant hyperthermia. Genomics. 1992. Gillard E F, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
A substitution of cysteine for arginine 614 in the ryanodine receptor is potentially causative of human malignant hyperthermia. Genomics. 1991. Gillard E F, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

Web Resource:
Wikipedia
National Drug Code Directory:
0409-4894-02
DrugBank:
DB01159
PDB:
HLT
ChEBI:
5615
KEGG Compound:
C07515
KEGG Drug:
D00542
PubChem Compound:
3562
PubChem Substance:
46506589
7847608
IUPHAR Ligand:
2401
Drugs Product Database (DPD):
589187
ChemSpider:
3441
HET:
HLT
Therapeutic Targets Database:
DAP000692
FDA Drug Label at DailyMed:
c690b127-9c05-462d-d083-361002d49e1d

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention halothane and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

Common Searches

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Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, Open Eye Scientific Software.