Drug/Small Molecule:
glycine

PharmGKB contains no dosing guidelines for this drug/small molecule. To report known genotype-based dosing guidelines, or if you are interested in developing guidelines, click here.

PharmGKB contains no drug labels with pharmacogenomic information for this drug/small molecule. To report a drug label with PGx, click here.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

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This is a non-comprehensive list of genetic tests with pharmacogenetics relevance, typically submitted by the manufacturer and manually curated by PharmGKB. The information listed is provided for educational purposes only and does not constitute an endorsement of any listed test or manufacturer.

A more complete listing of genetic tests is found at the Genetic Testing Registry (GTR).

PGx Test Variants Assayed Gene?
2D structure from PubChem
provided by PubChem

Overview

Generic Names
  • 2-Aminoacetic acid
  • Aminoacetic acid
  • Aminoethanoic acid
  • Gly
Trade Names
  • Aciport
  • Glicoamin
  • Glycocoll
  • Glycolixir
  • Glycosthene
  • Gyn-Hydralin
  • Padil
Brand Mixture Names

PharmGKB Accession Id:
PA449789

Description

A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.

Source: Drug Bank

Indication

Supplemental glycine may have antispastic activity. Very early findings suggest it may also have antipsychotic activity as well as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

In the CNS, there exist strychnine-sensitive glycine binding sites as well as strychnine-insensitive glycine binding sites. The strychnine-insensitive glycine-binding site is located on the NMDA receptor complex. The strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor complex is comprised of a chloride channel and is a member of the ligand-gated ion channel superfamily. The putative antispastic activity of supplemental glycine could be mediated by glycine's binding to strychnine-sensitive binding sites in the spinal cord. This would result in increased chloride conductance and consequent enhancement of inhibitory neurotransmission. The ability of glycine to potentiate NMDA receptor-mediated neurotransmission raised the possibility of its use in the management of neuroleptic-resistant negative symptoms in schizophrenia. <br/>Animal studies indicate that supplemental glycine protects against endotoxin-induced lethality, hypoxia-reperfusion injury after liver transplantation, and D-galactosamine-mediated liver injury. Neutrophils are thought to participate in these pathologic processes via invasion of tissue and releasing such reactive oxygen species as superoxide. In vitro studies have shown that neutrophils contain a glycine-gated chloride channel that can attenuate increases in intracellular calcium and diminsh neutrophil oxidant production. This research is ealy-stage, but suggests that supplementary glycine may turn out to be useful in processes where neutrophil infiltration contributes to toxicity, such as ARDS.

Source: Drug Bank

Pharmacology

Helps trigger the release of oxygen to the energy requiring cell-making process; Important in the manufacturing of hormones responsible for a strong immune system.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity

Biotransformation

Hepatic

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption

Absorbed from the small intestine via an active transport mechanism.

Source: Drug Bank

Toxicity

ORL-RAT LD 50 7930 mg/kg, SCU-RAT LD 50 5200 mg/kg, IVN-RAT LD 50 2600 mg/kg, ORL-MUS LD 50 4920 mg/kg; Doses of 1 gram daily are very well tolerated. Mild gastrointestinal symptoms are infrequently noted. In one study doses of 90 grams daily were also well tole.

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula

C2H5NO2

Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES

C(C(=O)O)N

Source: OpenEye

Canonical SMILES

NCC(O)=O

Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight

75.0666

Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight

75.032028409

Source: Drug Bank

PharmGKB Curated Pathways

Pathways created internally by PharmGKB based primarily on literature evidence.

PharmGKB contains no curated pathways for this drug. If you would like to volunteer to work on a pathway, please let us know.

External Pathways

Links to non-PharmGKB pathways.

  1. Amino acid transport across the plasma membrane - (Reactome via Pathway Interaction Database)
  2. Amino acid uptake across the plasma membrane - (Reactome via Pathway Interaction Database)
  3. Carnitine synthesis - (Reactome via Pathway Interaction Database)
  4. Conjugation of benzoate with glycine - (Reactome via Pathway Interaction Database)
  5. Conjugation of salicylate with glycine - (Reactome via Pathway Interaction Database)
  6. Creatine metabolism - (Reactome via Pathway Interaction Database)
  7. Cytosolic tRNA aminoacylation - (Reactome via Pathway Interaction Database)
  8. De novo synthesis of IMP - (Reactome via Pathway Interaction Database)
  9. Glyoxylate metabolism - (Reactome via Pathway Interaction Database)
  10. Heme biosynthesis - (Reactome via Pathway Interaction Database)
  11. hemoglobins chaperone - (BioCarta via Pathway Interaction Database)
  12. Leukotriene synthesis - (Reactome via Pathway Interaction Database)
  13. Metabolism of folate and pterines - (Reactome via Pathway Interaction Database)
  14. Mitochondrial tRNA aminoacylation - (Reactome via Pathway Interaction Database)
  15. Recycling of bile acids and salts - (Reactome via Pathway Interaction Database)
  16. Synthesis of bile acids and bile salts via 7alpha-hydroxycholesterol - (Reactome via Pathway Interaction Database)

LinkOuts

Web Resource:
Wikipedia
National Drug Code Directory:
0338-0289-47
DrugBank:
DB00145
PDB:
GLY
ChEBI:
15428
KEGG Compound:
C00037
KEGG Drug:
D00011
PubChem Compound:
750
PubChem Substance:
3339
46508219
IUPHAR Ligand:
727
ChemSpider:
730
HET:
GLY
Therapeutic Targets Database:
DAP000288
FDA Drug Label at DailyMed:
d4665408-04d8-4ad7-8589-708d4defb869

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention glycine and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

Common Searches

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Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, Open Eye Scientific Software.