Drug/Small Molecule:
gemcitabine

PharmGKB contains no dosing guidelines for this drug/small molecule. To report known genotype-based dosing guidelines, or if you are interested in developing guidelines, click here.

PharmGKB has no annotated drug labels with pharmacogenomic information for this drug/small molecule. If you know of a drug label with PGx, send us a message.

Links to Unannotated Labels

These links are to labels associated with gemcitabine that have not been annotated by PharmGKB.

  1. DailyMed - DrugLabel PA166105144

PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the page.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

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This is a non-comprehensive list of genetic tests with pharmacogenetics relevance, typically submitted by the manufacturer and manually curated by PharmGKB. The information listed is provided for educational purposes only and does not constitute an endorsement of any listed test or manufacturer.

A more complete listing of genetic tests is found at the Genetic Testing Registry (GTR).

PGx Test Variants Assayed Gene?

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page.

Links in the "Gene" column lead to PharmGKB Gene Pages.

List of all gemcitabine variant annotations

Gene ? Variant?
(142)
Alternate Names ? Drugs ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available CA VA
rs1042858 2232G>A, 4099466G>A, 4159466G>A, 48543G>A, Ala744=, RRM1:2464G>A, rs1042858
G > A
Synonymous
Ala744Ala
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1042927 *316C>A, 4099929C>A, 4159929C>A, 49006C>A
C > A
3' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1044457 *360C>T, 1119C>T, 17814695C>T, 47842777C>T
C > T
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1045642 208920T>A, 208920T>C, 25171488A>G, 25171488A>T, 3435T>A, 3435T>C, 87138645A>G, 87138645A>T, ABCB1*6, ABCB1: 3435C>T, ABCB1: C3435T, ABCB1: c.3435C>T, ABCB1:3435C>T, Ile1145=, Ile1145Ile, MDR1 3435C>T, MDR1 C3435T, PGP C3435T, c.3435C>T, mRNA 3853C>T
A > T
A > G
Synonymous
Ile1145Ile
No VIP available CA VA
rs1048977 20945055C>T, 435C>T, 7625143C>T, CDA:435C>T, T145T, Thr145=, mRNA 614C>T
C > T
Synonymous
Thr145Thr
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs10489997 -3+6836G>A, 10614916C>T, 160405498C>T
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1056836 10122C>C, 1294C>C, 17120090C>G, 38298203C>G, CYP1B1*3, CYP1B1: L432V, CYP1B1:4326 C>G, CYP1B1:L432V, Leu432=
G > C
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1060896 16344824C>A, 225A>C, 225C>A, 45554267C>A, R75S, SLC28A2:283A>C, Ser75Arg, mRNA 284A>C
C > A
Missense
Ser75Arg
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1065634 *1022A>G, -507A>G, 115259768T>C, 4748A>G, 85231686T>C
T > C
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs10736526 122589092T>C, 162-57835T>C, 26151508T>C
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs10868138 16081833T>C, 338A>G, 660A>G, 86917301T>C, Tyr113Cys
T > C
Not Available
Tyr113Cys
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs10883617 -903T>C, 103113035T>C, 4211T>C, 53917499T>C
T > C
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs10916852 -9-134C>A, 21052693G>T, 244-134C>A, 7732781G>T
G > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs11030918 -756T>C, 243555T>C, 4055487T>C, 4115487T>C, 4564T>C
T > C
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs11062040 16306C>T, 2031257C>T, 2091257C>T, 319+11173G>A
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs11141915 128039A>C, 19400326A>C, 284+15704A>C, 90235794A>C
A > C
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs11211524 172-5414A>C, 172-928A>C, 17805131A>C, 321-928A>C, 47833213A>C
A > C
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs1127687 *810G>A, *926G>A, 115490109G>A, 66294573G>A
G > A
3' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1128503 1236T>C, 167964T>C, 25043506A>G, 87550285A>G, ABCB1 1236C>T, ABCB1*8, ABCB1: c.1236T>C, ABCB1:1236C>T, ABCB1:1236T>C, Gly412=, Gly412Gly, mRNA 1654T>C, p.Gly412Gly
A > G
Not Available
Gly412Gly
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1155463 23140523C>A, 8802394C>A
C > A
Not Available
No VIP available CA VA
rs11598702 104897985T>C, 175+1178A>G, 55702449T>C
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs11615 18191871A>G, 354T>C, 45923653A>G, 63434T>C, Asn118=, ERCC1:19007T>C, ERCC1:Asn118Asn
A > G
Synonymous
Asn118Asn
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs11644322 1057-205905C>T, 32653799C>T, 79039600C>T, 911050C>T
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs11710163 -27+9024T>C, 12636288A>G, 12696288A>G, 14391T>C
A > G
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs11719165 194586088T>C, 538837T>C
T > C
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs11853372 421873T>G, 795+4320T>G, 85456346T>G
T > G
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs11854484 16336035C>T, 45545478C>T, 65C>T, Pro22Leu
C > T
Missense
Pro22Leu
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs12046844 36210297G>A, 66238379G>A
G > A
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs12090346 17813475C>T, 47841557C>T, 498+592C>T, 645+592C>T, 717+592C>T
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs12118636 23048077G>A, 53076159G>A
G > A
Not Available
No VIP available CA No Variant Annotations available
rs121434568 177791T>G, 2573T>G, 55181822T>G, 55191822T>G, Leu858Arg
T > G
Not Available
Leu858Arg
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs12361312 1460C>T, 5158391C>T, 59852596C>T
C > T
Not Available
No VIP available CA VA
rs12415607 -1310C>A, -1534C>A, -1542C>A, -1608C>A, -905C>A, 115438204C>A, 66242668C>A
C > A
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs12507552 108361146C>T, 183813425C>T, 458+759G>A, 491+759G>A
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs12648166 12084412A>G, 19481A>G, 207+9846A>G, 71873745A>G
A > G
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs12806698 -269C>A, 244042C>A, 4055974C>A, 4115974C>A, 5051C>A
C > A
5' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs13181 *304T>G, 18123137T>G, 2251A>C, 23927A>C, 45854919T>G, ERCC2 Lys751Gln, ERCC2:2251A>C, ERCC2:Lys751Gln, Lys751Gln, rs13181:T>G
T > G
Missense
Lys751Gln
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1705772 -779G>A, 26934880G>A, 34174756G>A, 4541G>A
G > A
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs17215836 403839_403840insTGT, 419_420insTGT, 85438312_85438313insTGT, Leu140delinsLeuVal
- > TGT
- > TTG
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs17216177 -34T>C, 101603522T>C, 3742-34T>C, 52407986T>C, 66060T>C
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs17309872 *771A>T, *843T>A, 32814T>A, 33515788A>T, 3711880A>T, 58044A>T
A > T
3' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs17661089 56105996A>G, 6700355A>G, 97A>G
A > G
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs179619 13762359C>T, 13822359C>T
C > T
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1799793 11587G>A, 18135477C>T, 45867259C>T, 862G>A, 934G>A, Asp288Asn, Asp312Asn, XPD Asp312Asn, XPD:Asp312Asn
C > T
Missense
Asp288Asn
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1800440 10186A>G, 1358A>G, 17120026T>C, 38298139T>C, Asn453Ser
T > C
Missense
Asn453Ser
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1801133 11210333G>A, 11796321G>A, 14783C>T, 419C>T, 665C>T, 677C>T, 788C>T, A222V, Ala140Val, Ala222Val, Ala263Val, C677T, MTHFR: c.677C>T, MTHFR:667C>T, p.A222V
G > A
Not Available
Ala140Val
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1805087 237048500A>G, 2756A>G, 30566279A>G, 94920A>G, Asp919Gly, MS 2756A>G, MS D919G, MTR:2756A>G, MTR:Asp919Gly
A > G
Missense
Asp919Gly
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1808458 118879253C>T, 8627916C>T
C > T
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs183484 30209C>A, 4081132C>A, 4141132C>A, 850C>A, Arg284=
C > A
Synonymous
Arg284Arg
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1885301 -1549A>G, -1549G>A, 101541053A>G, 3591A>G, 52345517A>G
A > G
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1901440 134437959C>A, 24186622C>A
C > A
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1910236 59374420G>A, 59434420G>A
G > A
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2032582 186947T>A, 186947T>G, 25193461A>C, 25193461A>T, 2677A, 2677G, 2677T, 2677T>A, 2677T>G, 3095G>T/A, 87160618A>C, 87160618A>T, 893 Ala, 893 Ser, 893 Thr, ABCB1*7, ABCB1: 2677G>T/A, ABCB1: 2677T/A>G, ABCB1: A893S, ABCB1: G2677T/A, ABCB1: c.2677G>T/A, ABCB1:2677G>A/T, ABCB1:2677G>T/A, ABCB1:A893T, Ala893Ser/Thr, MDR1, MDR1 G2677T/A, Ser893Ala, Ser893Thr, mRNA 3095G>T/A, p.Ala893Ser/Thr
A > T
A > C
Missense
Ser893Ala
Ser893Thr
No VIP available CA VA
rs2072671 20915701A>C, 7595789A>C, 79A>C, CDA: c.79A>C, CDA:79A>C, K27Q, Lys27Gln, p.Lys27Gln
A > C
Missense
Lys27Gln
No VIP available CA VA
rs2227310 1020C>G, 115489152C>G, 66293616C>G, 690C>G, 731C>G, 765C>G, 864C>G, Asp230Glu, Asp255Glu, Asp288Glu, Asp340Glu, Thr244Ser
C > G
Missense
Asp230Glu
Asp230Ser
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2242046 1561G>A, 444256G>A, 85478729G>A, Asp521Asn, N521D, SLC28A1:1576T>C
G > A
Missense
Asp521Asn
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2242047 1528C>T, 444223C>T, 85478696C>T, Arg510Cys, R510C, SLC28A1:1543G>A
C > T
Missense
Arg510Cys
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2242048 1368G>G, 443937A>G, 85478410A>G, Gln456=, SLC28A1:1383C>T
A > G
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2284449 20-2374T>C, 4060849T>C, 4120849T>C, 9926T>C
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2290272 412958G>A, 565G>A, 85447431G>A, SLC28A1: V189I, Val189Ile
G > A
Missense
Val189Ile
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs232043 28202G>A, 4079125G>A, 4139125G>A, 651-425G>A
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs25487 1196A>G, 16323944T>C, 44055726T>C, Gln399Arg, XRCC1 Arg399Gln, XRCC1:Arg399Gln
T > C
Missense
Gln399Arg
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2550731 1057-200856G>T, 32658848G>T, 79044649G>T, 916099G>T
G > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs274713 -35+8748T>G, 6713560T>G, 6723560T>G
T > G
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs274717 -35+6255A>G, 6711067A>G, 6721067A>G
A > G
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs28371759 25183T>C, 37394469A>G, 875T>C, 878T>C, 99361626A>G, CYP3A4*18, L293P, Leu292Pro, Leu293Pro
A > G
Missense
Leu293Pro
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2900174 11547532A>G, 4307656A>G, 65-68T>C
A > G
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs306104 110631265T>C, 18945137T>C
T > C
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs324148 30-549T>C, 44136578T>C, 44196578T>C
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs34489327 *145-370delT, *145-370delTinsCTTTAA, *449delA, *449delAinsTTAAAG, *859delT, *859delTinsCTTTAA, 20843delA, 20843delAinsTTAAAG, 6-basepair 3'UTR repeat, 663446delA, 663446delAinsTTAAAG, 673446delA, 673446delAinsTTAAAG, TYMS:-TTAAAG, TYMS:1494del, TYMS:1494del TTAAAG, ttaaag
T > -
T > TTAAAG
3' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs34743033 28-bp tandem repeats, CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG, TSER*2, TSER*3, TYMS: 28 bp tandem repeat, TYMS: 2R, TYMS: TSER *2/*3, TYMS:TSER 28-basepair 5'UTR enhancer region repeat
CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCGCCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCGCCGCGCCACTTCGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCCC > CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCGCCGCGCCACTTCGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCCC
CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCGCCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCGCCGCGCCACTTCGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCCC > CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCGCCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCGCCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCGCCGCGCCACTTCGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCCC
CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCGCCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCGCCGCGCCACTTCGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCCC > CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCGCCGCGCCACTTCGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCGCCGCGCCACTTCGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCCC
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs35687416 172-4418G>T, 17806127G>T, 240G>T, 389G>T, 47834209G>T, Gln80His
G > T
Not Available
Gln80His
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs35932500 108383869T>C, 172A>G, 183836148T>C, 205A>G, Asn58Asp, Asn69Asp
T > C
Missense
Asn69Asp
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3744311 35682008C>T, 70407856C>T, 763-6899G>A
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3750117 240T>C, 276T>C, 33050946A>G, 33060946A>G, 393T>C, 46464T>C, Tyr131=, Tyr80=, Tyr92=
A > G
Synonymous
Tyr80Tyr
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3775289 12073341T>C, 71862674T>C, 8410T>C, 92-1110T>C, DCK:IVS1-1110T>C
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3778504 -52+1681G>A, -55+1681G>A, 44129200G>A, 44189200G>A
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3817657 31669T>C, 4082592T>C, 4142592T>C, 877-242T>C
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3925058 -1846G>A, -1995G>A, 17769541G>A, 47797623G>A
G > A
5' Flanking
No VIP available CA VA
rs4353229 *290T>C, *406T>C, 115489589T>C, 66294053T>C
T > C
3' UTR
No VIP available CA VA
rs4492666 171+1057A>C, 17772763A>C, 320+1057A>C, 47800845A>C
A > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs451774 *606A>G, *851A>G, 24754A>G, 28442550A>G, 28502550A>G
A > G
3' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs45445694 2, 28-bp tandem repeats located in the TS enhancer region of 5'UTR, TYMS:*2
CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCGCCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG > 3
CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCGCCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG > 7
CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCGCCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG > 4
CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCGCCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG > (CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG)2
CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCGCCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG > 8
CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCGCCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG > 9
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4655226 155-3137C>T, 20928284C>T, 7608372C>T
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs4694362 12104531C>T, 39600C>T, 71893864C>T, 757-1205C>T
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4742 108363409A>C, 108363409A>G, 108363409A>T, 183815688A>C, 183815688A>G, 183815688A>T, 315T>A, 315T>C, 315T>G, 348T>A, 348T>C, 348T>G, DCTD:315T>C, V105V, V116V, Val105=, Val116=, mRNA 489T>C, mRNA 512T>C
A > T
A > C
A > G
Synonymous
Val116Val
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4769060 12317877A>G, 31337877A>G, 324-204A>G, 495-204A>G, 55263A>G
A > G
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4785367 3570393T>C, 49956194T>C
T > C
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4877831 16064416C>G, 1647+376G>C, 1969+376G>C, 86899884C>G
C > G
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs487989 10370485G>A, 1747G>A, 65064690G>A, G583R, Gly583Arg, POLA2:2089G>A
G > A
Missense
Gly583Arg
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs490332 176165086A>G, 20976359A>G
A > G
Not Available
No VIP available CA VA
rs60369023 208G>A, 20931474G>A, 7611562G>A, A70T, Ala70Thr, CDA: c.208G>A, CDA:208G>A, p.Ala70Thr
G > A
Missense
Ala70Thr
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs642990 24660434T>C, 54688516T>C
T > C
Not Available
No VIP available CA VA
rs66878317 12070289A>G, 5358A>G, 70A>G, 71859622A>G, Ile24Val
A > G
Missense
Ile24Val
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs6946062 -19-7507A>G, 154-16580A>G, 24303A>G, 33073107T>C, 33083107T>C
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs7149097 103539669A>G, 84539669A>G
A > G
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs717620 -24C>T, 101542578C>T, 5116C>T, 52347042C>T, ABCC2: 5'UTR, ABCC2:(-24)C>T, mRNA 118C>T
C > T
5' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs720106 29055T>C, 4079978T>C, 4139978T>C, 792+287T>C
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs725518 17922G>A, 387+80G>A, 4068845G>A, 4128845G>A
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs73748206 105+2542G>A, 35547955C>T, 35607955C>T, 93406G>A
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs747199 -51-655G>C, -52+441G>C, -54-652G>C, -55+441G>C, 44134345G>C, 44194345G>C
G > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs7543016 171G>C, 17771557G>C, 22G>C, 47799639G>C, Gly8Arg
G > C
Not Available
Gly8Arg
No VIP available CA VA
rs760370 1260-201A>G, 44140953A>G, 44200953A>G
A > G
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs763780 12560A>G, 482A>G, 52041739T>C, 52101739T>C, His161Arg
T > C
Missense
His161Arg
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs7712169 12373942G>A, 12383942G>A
G > A
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs776746 12083G>A, 219-237G>A, 321-1G>A, 37303382C>T, 581-237G>A, 689-1G>A, 99270539C>T, CYP3A5*1, CYP3A5*3, CYP3A5*3C, CYP3A5:6986A>G, g.6986A>G, intron 3 splicing defect, rs776746 A>G
C > T
Acceptor
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs7771466 10190G>T, 34-361G>T, 52044109C>A, 52104109C>A
C > A
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs7853758 1381C>T, 16065458G>A, 1703C>T, 86900926G>A, Leu461=
G > A
Not Available
Leu461Leu
No VIP available CA VA
rs7867504 16084768T>C, 267A>G, 589A>G, 86920236T>C, Thr89=
T > C
Not Available
Thr89Thr
No VIP available CA VA
rs7921977 -1+461C>T, -169C>T, -177C>T, -243C>T, 115439569C>T, 56C>T, 66244033C>T, Thr19Ile
C > T
Missense
Thr19Ile
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs7940013 27381C>T, 4078304C>T, 4138304C>T, 651-1246C>T
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs814951 190531999C>T, 42020641C>T
C > T
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs818194 20931828A>T, 266+296A>T, 7611916A>T
A > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs8187710 101611294G>A, 4544G>A, 52415758G>A, 73832G>A, ABCC2 rs8187710, Cys1515Tyr, MRP2 Cys1515Tyr
G > A
Missense
Cys1515Tyr
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs8187758 414402C>A, 709C>A, 85448875C>A, Gln237Lys
C > A
Missense
Gln237Lys
No VIP available CA VA
rs9394992 29+913C>T, 44135992C>T, 44195992C>T
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs944050 110224A>G, 1406+1643A>G, 1407-4A>G, 45700045T>C, 64700045T>C
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs992160 -920C>T, 44294641C>T, 44354641C>T
C > T
5' Flanking
No VIP available CA VA
rs9937 2223A>G, 4099457A>G, 4159457A>G, 48534A>G, RRM1:2455A>G, Thr741=, rs3177016
A > G
Synonymous
Thr741Thr
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 142
2D structure from PubChem
provided by PubChem

Overview

Generic Names
Trade Names
  • DDFC
  • DFDC
  • GEO
  • Gemcin
  • Gemcitabina [INN-Spanish]
  • Gemcitabine HCl
  • Gemcitabine hydrochloride
  • Gemcitabinum [INN-Latin]
  • Gemtro
  • Gemzar
Brand Mixture Names

PharmGKB Accession Id:
PA449748

Description

Gemcitabine is a nucleoside analog used as chemotherapy. It is marketed as Gemzar® by Eli Lilly and Company. As with fluorouracil and other analogues of pyrimidines, the drug replaces one of the building blocks of nucleic acids, in this case cytidine, during DNA replication. The process arrests tumor growth, as new nucleosides cannot be attached to the "faulty" nucleoside, resulting in apoptosis (cellular "suicide").
Gemcitabine is used in various carcinomas: non-small cell lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, bladder cancer and breast cancer. It is being investigated for use in oesophageal cancer, and is used experimentally in lymphomas and various other tumor types.

Source: Drug Bank

Indication

For the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer, locally advanced (Stage IIIA or IIIB), or metastatic (Stage IV) non-small cell lung cancer and as first-line treatment for patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas.

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

Gemcitabine inhibits thymidylate synthetase, leading to inhibition of DNA synthesis and cell death. Gemcitabine is a prodrug so activity occurs as a result of intracellular conversion to two active metabolites, gemcitabine diphosphate and gemcitabine triphosphate by deoxycitidine kinase. Gemcitabine diphosphate also inhibits ribonucleotide reductase, the enzyme responsible for catalyzing synthesis of deoxynucleoside triphosphates required for DNA synthesis. Finally, Gemcitabine triphosphate (diflurorodeoxycytidine triphosphate) competes with endogenous deoxynucleoside triphosphates for incorporation into DNA.

Source: Drug Bank

Pharmacology

Gemcitabine is an antineoplastic anti-metabolite. Anti-metabolites masquerade as purine or pyrimidine - which become the building blocks of DNA. They prevent these substances becoming incorporated in to DNA during the "S" phase (or DNA synthesis phase of the cell cycle), stopping normal development and division. Gemcitabine blocks an enzyme which converts the cytosine nucleotide into the deoxy derivative. In addition, DNA synthesis is further inhibited because Gemcitabine blocks the incorporation of the thymidine nucleotide into the DNA strand.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity

Biotransformation

Transformed via nucleoside kinases to two active metabolites, gemcitabine diphosphate and gemcitabine triphosphate. Can also undergo deamination via cytidine deaminase to an inactive uracil metabolite (dFdU).

Source: Drug Bank

Protein Binding

Plasma protein binding is negligible (<10%)

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption

100%

Source: Drug Bank

Half-Life

Short infusions ranged from 32 to 94 minutes, and the value for long infusions vary from 245 to 638 minutes, depending on age and gender.

Source: Drug Bank

Toxicity

Myelosuppression, paresthesias, and severe rash were the principal toxicities, LD 50=500 mg/kg (orally in mice and rats)

Source: Drug Bank

Clearance

Source: Drug Bank

Volume of Distribution

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula

C9H11F2N3O4

Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES

c1cn(c(=O)nc1N)[C@H]2C([C@@H]([C@H](O2)CO)O)(F)F

Source: OpenEye

Canonical SMILES

NC1=NC(=O)N(C=C1)[C@@H]1O[C@H]

Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight

263.1981

Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight

263.071762265

Source: Drug Bank

PharmGKB Curated Pathways

Pathways created internally by PharmGKB based primarily on literature evidence.

  1. Gemcitabine Pathway
    Model non-tissue specific cancer cell displaying genes which may be involved in the gemcitabine pathway.

External Pathways

Links to non-PharmGKB pathways.

PharmGKB contains no links to external pathways for this drug. To report a pathway, click here.

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Curated Information ?

Drug Targets

Gene Description
CMPK1 (source: Drug Bank)
RRM1 (source: Drug Bank)
TYMS (source: Drug Bank)

Drug Interactions

Drug Description
acenocoumarol The agent increases the effect of anticoagulant (source: Drug Bank)
dicumarol The agent increases the effect of anticoagulant (source: Drug Bank)
paclitaxel Paclitaxel increases the effect/toxicity of gemcitabine (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The agent increases the effect of anticoagulant (source: Drug Bank)
gemcitabine Paclitaxel increases the effect/toxicity of gemcitabine (source: Drug Bank)
gemcitabine Paclitaxel increases the effect/toxicity of gemcitabine (source: Drug Bank)
gemcitabine Co-administration of Temsirolimus and Gemcitabine may result in serious adverse drug reactions. (source: Drug Bank)
gemcitabine Trastuzumab may increase the risk of neutropenia and anemia. Monitor closely for signs and symptoms of adverse events. (source: Drug Bank)

Curated Information ?

Relationships from National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT)

May Treat
Contraindicated With

Publications related to gemcitabine: 97

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PharmGKB summary: gemcitabine pathway. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2014. Alvarellos Maria L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Role of solute carrier transporters in pancreatic cancer: a review. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Lemstrová Radmila, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Epigenetic perspectives on cancer chemotherapy response. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Liu Mou-Ze, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphisms of SLC28A3, SLC29A1 and RRM1 predict clinical outcome in patients with metastatic breast cancer receiving gemcitabine plus paclitaxel chemotherapy. European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990). 2014. Lee Soo-Youn, et al. PubMed
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SLC28A3 genotype and gemcitabine rate of infusion affect dFdCTP metabolite disposition in patients with solid tumours. British journal of cancer. 2014. Khatri A, et al. PubMed
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Prognostic Value of Human Equilibrative NucleosideTransporter1 in Pancreatic Cancer Receiving Gemcitabin-Based Chemotherapy: A Meta-Analysis. PloS one. 2014. Liu Zhu-Qing, et al. PubMed
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Genetic factors associated with gemcitabine pharmacokinetics, disposition, and toxicity. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. Knights Jonathan, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Rapid deaminator status is associated with poor clinical outcome in pancreatic cancer patients treated with a gemcitabine-based regimen. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Serdjebi Cindy, et al. PubMed
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Implications of Genome-Wide Association Studies in Cancer Therapeutics. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Patel Jai N, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CDA gene polymorphisms and enzyme activity: genotype-phenotype relationship in an Italian-Caucasian population. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Carpi Francesco M, et al. PubMed
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DNA repair and cytotoxic drugs: the potential role of RAD51 in clinical outcome of non-small-cell lung cancer patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Nogueira Augusto, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics of gemcitabine metabolism: functional analysis of genetic variants in cytidine deaminase and deoxycytidine kinase. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2013. Baker Jessica A Roseberry, et al. PubMed
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Excision repair cross-complementing gene-1, ribonucleotide reductase subunit M1, ribonucleotide reductase subunit M2, and human equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1 expression and prognostic value in biliary tract malignancy. Cancer. 2013. Fisher Sarah B, et al. PubMed
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Predictive and prognostic roles of ribonucleotide reductase M1 in resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Cancer. 2013. Xie Hao, et al. PubMed
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Contribution of FKBP5 Genetic Variation to Gemcitabine Treatment and Survival in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma. PloS one. 2013. Ellsworth Katarzyna A, et al. PubMed
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Akt/mTOR signaling pathway is crucial for gemcitabine resistance induced by Annexin II in pancreatic cancer cells. The Journal of surgical research. 2012. Kagawa Shingo, et al. PubMed
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Safety and effectiveness of gemcitabine in 260 patients with biliary tract cancer in a Japanese clinical practice based on post-marketing surveillance in Japan. Japanese journal of clinical oncology. 2012. Okubo Sumiko, et al. PubMed
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Harnessing gemcitabine metabolism: a step towards personalized medicine for pancreatic cancer. Therapeutic advances in medical oncology. 2012. Saif Muhammad Wasif, et al. PubMed
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Association of CASP7 polymorphisms and survival of patients with non-small cell lung cancer with platinum-based chemotherapy treatment. Chest. 2012. Qian Ji, et al. PubMed
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Levels of gemcitabine transport and metabolism proteins predict survival times of patients treated with gemcitabine for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Gastroenterology. 2012. Maréchal Raphaël, et al. PubMed
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Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 confers intrinsic and acquired resistance to gemcitabine in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma MIA PaCa-2 cells. International journal of oncology. 2012. Duong Hong-Quan, et al. PubMed
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Silencing of ribonucleotide reductase subunit M1 potentiates the antitumor activity of gemcitabine in resistant cancer cells. Cancer biology & therapy. 2012. Wonganan Piyanuch, et al. PubMed
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High incidence of severe neutropenia after gemcitabine-based chemotherapy in Chinese cancer patients with CDA 79A>C mutation. Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry. 2012. Xu Jialin, et al. PubMed
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Effect of genetic polymorphisms on therapeutic response and clinical outcomes in pancreatic cancer patients treated with gemcitabine. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Woo Hye In, et al. PubMed
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Pathway-based pharmacogenomics of gemcitabine pharmacokinetics in patients with solid tumors. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Mitra Amit K, et al. PubMed
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Associations Between ABCC2 Polymorphisms and Cisplatin Disposition and Efficacy. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2012. Sprowl J A, et al. PubMed
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First-SIGNAL: first-line single-agent iressa versus gemcitabine and cisplatin trial in never-smokers with adenocarcinoma of the lung. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2012. Han Ji-Youn, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Erlotinib versus standard chemotherapy as first-line treatment for European patients with advanced EGFR mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (EURTAC): a multicentre, open-label, randomised phase 3 trial. The lancet oncology. 2012. Rosell Rafael, et al. PubMed
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A genome-wide association study identifies four genetic markers for hematological toxicities in cancer patients receiving gemcitabine therapy. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. Kiyotani Kazuma, et al. PubMed
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The influence of gemcitabine pathway polymorphisms on treatment outcome in patients with malignant mesothelioma. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. Er¿ulj Nina, et al. PubMed
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Genomic approach towards personalized anticancer drug therapy. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Midorikawa Yutaka, et al. PubMed
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Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1: a novel drug target in cancer development. Pharmacological reviews. 2012. Butcher Neville J, et al. PubMed
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ERCC1 as a biomarker for bladder cancer patients likely to benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. BMC cancer. 2012. Sun Jong-Mu, et al. PubMed
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A genome-wide association study of overall survival in pancreatic cancer patients treated with gemcitabine in CALGB 80303. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2011. Innocenti Federico, et al. PubMed
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Localization of association signal from risk and protective variants in sequencing studies. Frontiers in genetics. 2012. Brisbin Abra, et al. PubMed
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Ribonucleotide reductase M2 does not predict survival in patients with resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma. International journal of clinical and experimental pathology. 2012. Xie Hao, et al. PubMed
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Association between DNA-repair polymorphisms and survival in pancreatic cancer patients treated with combination chemotherapy. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Giovannetti Elisa, et al. PubMed
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FKBP5 as a Selection Biomarker for Gemcitabine and Akt Inhibitors in Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer. PloS one. 2012. Hou Junmei, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomic characterization of US FDA-approved cytotoxic drugs. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Peters Eric J, et al. PubMed
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Differential effect of polymorphisms of CMPK1 and RRM1 on survival in advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with gemcitabine or taxane/cisplatinum. Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. 2011. Ryu Jeong-Seon, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Erlotinib versus chemotherapy as first-line treatment for patients with advanced EGFR mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (OPTIMAL, CTONG-0802): a multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 study. The lancet oncology. 2011. Zhou Caicun, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic effects and modifiers of radiotherapy and chemotherapy on survival in pancreatic cancer. Pancreas. 2011. Zeng Hongmei, et al. PubMed
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Genetic variations in multiple drug action pathways and survival in advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer treated with chemotherapy. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2011. Li Yafei, et al. PubMed
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Influence of polymorphisms in MTHFR 677 C¿T, TYMS 3R¿2R and MTR 2756 A¿G on NSCLC risk and response to platinum-based chemotherapy in advanced NSCLC. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Cui Lian-Hua, et al. PubMed
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Cytidine deaminase single-nucleotide polymorphism is predictive of toxicity from gemcitabine in patients with pancreatic cancer: RTOG 9704. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2011. Farrell J J, et al. PubMed
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Gemcitabine and platinum pathway pharmacogenetics in Asian breast cancer patients. Cancer genomics & proteomics. 2011. Wong Andrea Li-Ann, et al. PubMed
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Pharmocoepigenetics: a new approach to predicting individual drug responses and targeting new drugs. Pharmacological reports : PR. 2011. Baer-Dubowska Wanda, et al. PubMed
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Gemcitabine metabolic and transporter gene polymorphisms are associated with drug toxicity and efficacy in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Cancer. 2010. Tanaka Motofumi, et al. PubMed
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Systematic review of pharmacoeconomic studies of pharmacogenomic tests. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Beaulieu Mathieu, et al. PubMed
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CD38 expression, function, and gene resequencing in a human lymphoblastoid cell line-based model system. Leukemia & lymphoma. 2010. Hartman William R, et al. PubMed
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Blood-based CHRNA3 single nucleotide polymorphism and outcome in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients. Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands). 2010. Carcereny Enric, et al. PubMed
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Drug transporter pharmacogenetics in nucleoside-based therapies. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Errasti-Murugarren Ekaitz, et al. PubMed
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Expression of gemcitabine- and cisplatin-related genes in non-small-cell lung cancer. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Toffalorio F, et al. PubMed
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Identifying molecular markers for chemosensitivity to gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer: increased expression of interferon-stimulated gene 15 kd is associated with intrinsic chemoresistance. Pancreas. 2010. Ina Shinomi, et al. PubMed
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Copy number variation and cytidine analogue cytotoxicity: a genome-wide association approach. BMC genomics. 2010. Kalari Krishna R, et al. PubMed
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RRM1 single nucleotide polymorphism -37C-->A correlates with progression-free survival in NSCLC patients after gemcitabine-based chemotherapy. Journal of hematology & oncology. 2010. Dong Song, et al. PubMed
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The increasing role of pharmacogenetics in the treatment of gastrointestinal cancers. Gastrointestinal cancer research : GCR. 2009. Yalçin Suayib. PubMed
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Generating genome-scale candidate gene lists for pharmacogenomics. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Hansen N T, et al. PubMed
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Inhibition of Hedgehog signaling enhances delivery of chemotherapy in a mouse model of pancreatic cancer. Science (New York, N.Y.). 2009. Olive Kenneth P, et al. PubMed
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A new statistical screening approach for finding pharmacokinetics-related genes in genome-wide studies. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2009. Sato Y, et al. PubMed
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Distribution of gemcitabine pathway genotypes in ethnic Asians and their association with outcome in non-small cell lung cancer patients. Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands). 2009. Soo Ross A, et al. PubMed
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Resistance gene expression determines the in vitro chemosensitivity of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). BMC cancer. 2009. Glaysher Sharon, et al. PubMed
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Clinical pharmacology and pharmacogenetics of gemcitabine. Drug metabolism reviews. 2009. Wong Andrea, et al. PubMed
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Gemcitabine and arabinosylcytosin pharmacogenomics: genome-wide association and drug response biomarkers. PloS one. 2009. Li Liang, et al. PubMed
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Gemcitabine and cytosine arabinoside cytotoxicity: association with lymphoblastoid cell expression. Cancer research. 2008. Li Liang, et al. PubMed
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Gemcitabine pharmacogenomics: deoxycytidine kinase and cytidylate kinase gene resequencing and functional genomics. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2008. Kocabas Neslihan Aygun, et al. PubMed
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Correlation between cytidine deaminase genotype and gemcitabine deamination in blood samples. Nucleosides, nucleotides & nucleic acids. 2008. Giovannetti E, et al. PubMed
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Efficacy of gemcitabine in patients with non-small cell lung cancer according to promoter polymorphisms of the ribonucleotide reductase M1 gene. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2008. Kim Soo-Ok, et al. PubMed
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Discovery of genetic profiles impacting response to chemotherapy: application to gemcitabine. Human mutation. 2008. Jarjanazi Hamdi, et al. PubMed
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Correlation of CDA, ERCC1, and XPD polymorphisms with response and survival in gemcitabine/cisplatin-treated advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2008. Tibaldi Carmelo, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Toxic death case in a patient undergoing gemcitabine-based chemotherapy in relation with cytidine deaminase downregulation. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2007. Mercier Cédric, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics of gemcitabine: can genetic studies lead to tailor-made therapy?. British journal of cancer. 2007. Ueno H, et al. PubMed
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An association between RRM1 haplotype and gemcitabine-induced neutropenia in breast cancer patients. The oncologist. 2007. Rha Sun Young, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacokinetics of gemcitabine in Japanese cancer patients: the impact of a cytidine deaminase polymorphism. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2007. Sugiyama Emiko, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Cellular pharmacology of gemcitabine. Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology / ESMO. 2006. Mini E, et al. PubMed
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Gemcitabine pharmacogenomics: cytidine deaminase and deoxycytidylate deaminase gene resequencing and functional genomics. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2006. Gilbert Judith A, et al. PubMed
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Micro-array analysis of resistance for gemcitabine results in increased expression of ribonucleotide reductase subunits. Nucleosides, nucleotides & nucleic acids. 2006. Smid K, et al. PubMed
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cN-II expression predicts survival in patients receiving gemcitabine for advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands). 2005. Sève Pascal, et al. PubMed
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Severe drug toxicity associated with a single-nucleotide polymorphism of the cytidine deaminase gene in a Japanese cancer patient treated with gemcitabine plus cisplatin. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2005. Yonemori Kan, et al. PubMed
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The promise of pharmacogenomics: gemcitabine and pemetrexed. Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.). 2004. Rosell Rafael, et al. PubMed
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The absence of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 is associated with reduced survival in patients with gemcitabine-treated pancreas adenocarcinoma. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2004. Spratlin Jennifer, et al. PubMed
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Determinants of sensitivity and resistance to gemcitabine: the roles of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 and deoxycytidine kinase in non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer science. 2004. Achiwa Hiroyuki, et al. PubMed
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An increase in the expression of ribonucleotide reductase large subunit 1 is associated with gemcitabine resistance in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines. Cancer research. 2004. Davidson Jennifer D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Gene expression as a predictive marker of outcome in stage IIB-IIIA-IIIB non-small cell lung cancer after induction gemcitabine-based chemotherapy followed by resectional surgery. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2004. Rosell Rafael, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Synergistic antitumor activity by combined treatment with gemcitabine and antisense oligodeoxynucleotide targeting clusterin gene in an intravesical administration model against human bladder cancer kotcc-1 cells. The Journal of urology. 2004. Miyake Hideaki, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Ribonucleotide reductase messenger RNA expression and survival in gemcitabine/cisplatin-treated advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2004. Rosell Rafael, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Physical and functional interactions between USF and Sp1 proteins regulate human deoxycytidine kinase promoter activity. The Journal of biological chemistry. 2003. Ge Yubin, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Identification and analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the gemcitabine pharmacologic pathway. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2004. Fukunaga A K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
First-line gemcitabine with cisplatin or epirubicin in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a phase III trial. British journal of cancer. 2003. Wachters F M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Phase II study of liposomal doxorubicin and gemcitabine in the salvage treatment of ovarian cancer. British journal of cancer. 2003. D'Agostino G, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Histone deacetylase inhibitor LAQ824 down-regulates Her-2 and sensitizes human breast cancer cells to trastuzumab, taxotere, gemcitabine, and epothilone B. Molecular cancer therapeutics. 2003. Fuino Lianne, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Sensitization of human breast cancer cells to gemcitabine by the protein kinase C modulator bryostatin 1. Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology. 2003. Ali Shadan, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Increased sensitivity to gemcitabine of P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein-overexpressing human cancer cell lines. British journal of cancer. 2003. Bergman A M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Functional characterization in yeast of genetic variants in the human equilibrative nucleoside transporter, ENT1. Pharmacogenetics. 2003. Osato Douglas H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pretreatment deoxycytidine kinase levels predict in vivo gemcitabine sensitivity. Molecular cancer therapeutics. 2002. Kroep Judith R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Determinants of resistance to 2',2'-difluorodeoxycytidine (gemcitabine). Drug resistance updates : reviews and commentaries in antimicrobial and anticancer chemotherapy. 2002. Bergman Andries M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Gemcitabine transport in xenopus oocytes expressing recombinant plasma membrane mammalian nucleoside transporters. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 1999. Mackey J R, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

Web Resource:
Wikipedia
National Drug Code Directory:
0002-7501-01
DrugBank:
DB00441
PDB:
GEO
ChEBI:
175901
KEGG Compound:
C07650
KEGG Drug:
D02368
PubChem Compound:
60750
PubChem Substance:
46506425
9852
Drugs Product Database (DPD):
2230309
ChemSpider:
54753
HET:
GEO
Therapeutic Targets Database:
DAP001246
FDA Drug Label at DailyMed:
9dc35c59-f4f3-43b4-8251-0cf5c06cdc80

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention gemcitabine and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

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Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, Open Eye Scientific Software.