Drug/Small Molecule:
etidronic acid

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PharmGKB has no annotated drug labels with pharmacogenomic information for this drug/small molecule. If you know of a drug label with PGx, send us a message.

PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the page.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

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This is a non-comprehensive list of genetic tests with pharmacogenetics relevance, typically submitted by the manufacturer and manually curated by PharmGKB. The information listed is provided for educational purposes only and does not constitute an endorsement of any listed test or manufacturer.

A more complete listing of genetic tests is found at the Genetic Testing Registry (GTR).

PGx Test Variants Assayed Gene?

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page.

Links in the "Gene" column lead to PharmGKB Gene Pages.

List of all etidronic acid variant annotations

Gene ? Variant?
(142)
Alternate Names ? Drugs ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available CA VA
rs1544410 1024+283G>A, 10383141C>T, 1174+283G>A, 48239835C>T, 63980G>A, VDR: BsmI, VDR:BsmI
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available CA No Variant Annotations available
rs16944 -598T>C, 113594867A>G, 3343530A>G, 4490T>C, IL1B: -511 C/T
A > G
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1800012 104-441G>T, 13551901C>A, 48277749C>A, 6252G>T, COL1A1 sp1
C > A
Intronic
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 142
2D structure from PubChem
provided by PubChem

Overview

Generic Names
  • Acetodiphosphonic acid
  • Acide etidronique [INN-French]
  • Acido etidronico [INN-Spanish]
  • Acidum etidronicum [INN-Latin]
  • EHDP
  • Etidronate
  • Etidronate Disodium
  • Etidronsaeure
  • HEDP
  • Hydroxyethanediphosphonic acid
  • Oxyethylidenediphosphonic acid
Trade Names
  • Cintichem Technetium 99m Hedspa
  • Dequest 2010
  • Dequest 2015
  • Dequest Z 010
  • Didronel
  • Didronel IV
  • Ferrofos 510
  • MPI Stannous Diphosphonate
  • Osteoscan
  • Turpinal SL
Brand Mixture Names
  • Didrocal (Calcium Carbonate + Etidronate Disodium)

PharmGKB Accession Id:
PA449548

Description

A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits ectopic calcification and slows down bone resorption and bone turnover.

Source: Drug Bank

Indication

For the treatment of symptomatic Paget's disease of bone and in the prevention and treatment of heterotopic ossification following total hip replacement or due to spinal cord injury.

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

Bisphosphonates, when attached to bone tissue, are absorbed by osteoclasts, the bone cells that breaks down bone tissue. Although the mechanism of action of non-nitrogenous bisphosphonates has not been fully elucidated, available data suggest that they bind strongly to hydroxyapatite crystals in the bone matrix, preferentially at the sites of increased bone turnover and inhibit the formation and dissolution of the crystals. Other actions may include direct inhibition of mature osteoclast function, promotion of osteoclast apoptosis, and interference with osteoblast-mediated osteoclast activation. Etidronic acid does not interfere with bone mineralization. In malignancy-related hypercalcemia, etidronic acid decreases serum calcium by inhibiting tumour-induced bone resorption and reducing calcium flow from the resorbing bone into the blood. Etidronic acid also reduces morbidity of osteolytic bone metastases by inhibiting tumour-induced bone resorption. Etidronic acid may promote osteoclast apoptosis by competing with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the cellular energy metabolism. The osteoclast initiates apoptosis and dies, leading to an overall decrease in the breakdown of bone.

Source: Drug Bank

Pharmacology

Etidronic acid is a first generation (non-nitrogenous) bisphosphonate in the same family as clodronate and tiludronate. Etidronic acid affects calcium metabolism and inhibits bone resorption and soft tissue calcification. Of the etidronic acid that is resorbed (from oral preparation) or infused (for intravenous drugs), about 50% is excreted unchanged by the kidney. The remainder has a very high affinity for bone tissue, and is rapidly absorbed onto the bone surface. Etidronic acid has been shown to prevent or delay skeletal-related events and decrease bone pain as well as normalize calcium levels in the presence of hypercalcemia.

Source: Drug Bank

Food Interaction

Avoid aluminium, calcium, iron and magnesium within 2 hours of taking medication.|Take on an empty stomach with a full glass of water.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity

Biotransformation

Not metabolized.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption

The amount of drug absorbed after an oral dose is approximately 3%.

Source: Drug Bank

Half-Life

In normal subjects, plasma half-life of etidronic acid, based on non-compartmental pharmacokinetics is 1 to 6 hours.

Source: Drug Bank

Toxicity

Clinical experience with acute etidronic acid overdosage is extremely limited. Decreases in serum calcium following substantial overdosage may be expected in some patients. Signs and symptoms of hypocalcemia also may occur in some of these patients. Some patients may develop vomiting. In one event, an 18-year-old female who ingested an estimated single dose of 4800 to 6000 mg (67 to 100 mg/kg) of etidronate was reported to be mildly hypocalcemic (7 .5 2 mg/ dl) and experienced paresthesia of the fingers.

Source: Drug Bank

Route of Elimination

Etidronate disodium is not metabolized. Within 24 hours, approximately half the absorbed dose is excreted in urine; the remainder is distributed to bone compartments from which it is slowly eliminated. Unabsorbed drug is excreted intact in the feces.

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula

C2H8O7P2

Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES

CC(O)(P(=O)(O)O)P(=O)(O)O

Source: OpenEye

Canonical SMILES

CC(O)(P(O)(O)=O)P(O)(O)=O

Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight

206.0282

Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight

205.974525634

Source: Drug Bank

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Curated Information ?

EvidenceGene
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
COL1A1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
IL1B
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
VDR

Drug Targets

Gene Description
ATP6V1A (source: Drug Bank)
PTPRS (source: Drug Bank)

Drug Interactions

Drug Description
etidronic acid Formation of non-absorbable complexes (source: Drug Bank)
aluminium Formation of non-absorbable complexes (source: Drug Bank)
Calcium Formation of non-absorbable complexes (source: Drug Bank)
Calcium Formation of non-absorbable complexes (source: Drug Bank)
iron Formation of non-absorbable complexes (source: Drug Bank)
iron Formation of non-absorbable complexes (source: Drug Bank)
Magnesium Formation of non-absorbable complexes (source: Drug Bank)
Magnesium Formation of non-absorbable complexes (source: Drug Bank)
magnesium oxide Formation of non-absorbable complexes (source: Drug Bank)
sucralfate Formation of non-absorbable complexes (source: Drug Bank)
sucralfate Formation of non-absorbable complexes (source: Drug Bank)
etidronic acid Formation of non-absorbable complexes (source: Drug Bank)

Curated Information ?

Publications related to etidronic acid: 8

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms predict acquired resistance to clodronate treatment in patients with Paget's disease of bone. Calcified tissue international. 2008. Mossetti Giuseppe, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Vitamin D receptor genotypes and response to zoledronic acid therapy in thalassemia-induced osteoporosis. Annals of hematology. 2008. Otrock Zaher K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
-511 C/T IL1B gene polymorphism is associated to resistance to bisphosphonates treatment in Paget disease of bone. Bone. 2006. Corral-Gudino Luis, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
BsmI vitamin D receptor genotypes influence the efficacy of antiresorptive treatments in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. A 1-year multicenter, randomized and controlled trial. Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA. 2005. Palomba Stefano, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Effectiveness of alendronate treatment in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: relationship with BsmI vitamin D receptor genotypes. Clinical endocrinology. 2003. Palomba Stefano, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Two polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor gene--association with bone mass and 5-year change in bone mass with or without hormone-replacement therapy in postmenopausal women: the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study. Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. 2002. Tofteng C L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
COLIA1 Sp1 polymorphism predicts response of femoral neck bone density to cyclical etidronate therapy. Calcified tissue international. 2002. Qureshi A M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
VDR genotype and response to etidronate therapy in late postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA. 1999. Marc J, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

Web Resource:
Wikipedia
National Drug Code Directory:
0378-3286-91
DrugBank:
DB01077
ChEBI:
4907
KEGG Compound:
C07736
KEGG Drug:
D00314
PubChem Compound:
3305
PubChem Substance:
46507694
626344
Drugs Product Database (DPD):
2248686
BindingDB:
50115102
ChemSpider:
3189
Therapeutic Targets Database:
DNC000629
FDA Drug Label at DailyMed:
fa07734d-b381-4f33-a555-53b6614f4b08

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention etidronic acid and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

Common Searches

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Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, Open Eye Scientific Software.