Drug/Small Molecule:
estradiol

PharmGKB contains no dosing guidelines for this drug/small molecule. To report known genotype-based dosing guidelines, or if you are interested in developing guidelines, click here.

PharmGKB has no annotated drug labels with pharmacogenomic information for this drug/small molecule. If you know of a drug label with PGx, send us a message.

Links to Unannotated Labels

These links are to labels associated with estradiol that have not been annotated by PharmGKB.

  1. DailyMed - DrugLabel PA166105124

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

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This is a non-comprehensive list of genetic tests with pharmacogenetics relevance, typically submitted by the manufacturer and manually curated by PharmGKB. The information listed is provided for educational purposes only and does not constitute an endorsement of any listed test or manufacturer.

A more complete listing of genetic tests is found at the Genetic Testing Registry (GTR).

PGx Test Variants Assayed Gene?

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page.

Links in the "Gene" column lead to PharmGKB Gene Pages.

Gene ? Variant?
(138)
Alternate Names / Tag SNPs ? Drugs ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs11849538 *916+326G>C, *921+326G>C, 1620+326G>C, 77175978C>G, 96175978C>G
C > G
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1864729 11555738G>A, 98282189G>A
G > A
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2369049 77171851A>G, 96171851A>G
A > G
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs6721961 -490-1420A>G, -555-178A>G, 178130037T>C, 28339455T>C
T > G
T > C
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs7158782 77169131A>G, 96169131A>G
A > G
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs7159713 77169577A>G, 96169577A>G
A > G
Not Available
VIP No Clinical Annotations available No Variant Annotations available
rs776746 12083G>A, 219-237G>A, 321-1G>A, 37303382C>T, 581-237G>A, 689-1G>A, 99270539C>T, CYP3A5*1, CYP3A5*3, CYP3A5*3C, CYP3A5:6986A>G, g.6986A>G, intron 3 splicing defect, rs776746 A>G
C > T
Acceptor
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 138
2D structure from PubChem
provided by PubChem

Overview

Generic Names
  • 17-beta
  • Beta-Estradiol
  • Cis-Estradiol
  • Cis-Oestradiol
  • D-Estradiol
  • D-Oestradiol
  • Dihydrofollicular Hormone
  • Dihydrofolliculin
  • Dihydroxyesterin
  • Dihydroxyestrin
  • Dihydroxyoestrin
  • Estradiol Cypionate
  • Estradiol Valerate
  • Estradiol-17beta
  • estradiol
Trade Names
  • Aerodiol
  • Agofollin
  • Alora
  • Altrad
  • Amnestrogen
  • Aquadiol
  • Bardiol
  • Climaderm
  • Climara
  • Combipatch
  • Compudose
  • Compudose 200
  • Compudose 365
  • Corpagen
  • Delestrogen
  • Depo-Estradiol
  • Dermestril
  • Dihydromenformon
  • Dihydrotheelin
  • Dimenformon
  • Dimenformon Prolongatum
  • Diogyn
  • Diogynets
  • Divigel
  • Elestrin
  • Encore
  • Esclim
  • Estinyl
  • Estrace
  • Estraderm
  • Estraderm Tts
  • Estradurin
  • Estrasorb
  • Estreva
  • Estrifam
  • Estring
  • Estring Vaginal Ring
  • Estroclim
  • Estroclim 50
  • Estrofem 2
  • Estrofem Forte
  • Estrogel
  • Estrogens, Esterified
  • Estrovite
  • Evamist
  • Evorel
  • Extrasorb
  • Femestral
  • Femestrol
  • Feminone
  • Femogen
  • Fempatch
  • Femring
  • Femtrace
  • Femtran
  • Follicyclin
  • Ginedisc
  • Ginosedol
  • Gynergon
  • Gynestrel
  • Gynodiol
  • Gynoestryl
  • Gynpolar
  • Innofem
  • Lamdiol
  • Lynoral
  • Macrodiol
  • Macrol
  • Menest
  • Menorest
  • Menostar
  • Microdiol
  • Nordicol
  • Oestergon
  • Oestradiol
  • Oestradiol R
  • Oestrogel
  • Oestroglandol
  • Oestrogynal
  • Ovahormon
  • Ovasterol
  • Ovastevol
  • Ovociclina
  • Ovocyclin
  • Ovocycline
  • Ovocylin
  • Perlatanol
  • Primofol
  • Profoliol
  • Profoliol B
  • Progynon
  • Progynon Dh
  • Progynon-Dh
  • Ricifon
  • Ritsifon
  • Sandrena Gel
  • Sisare Gel
  • Sk-Estrogens
  • Soldep
  • Sotipox
  • Syndiol
  • Systen
  • Tradelia
  • Trial Sat
  • Trocosone
  • Vagifem
  • Vivelle
  • Vivelle-DOT
  • Zerella
  • Zumenon
Brand Mixture Names
  • Alesse 21 Tablets (Ethinyl Estradiol + Levonorgestrel)
  • Alesse 28 Tablets (Ethinyl Estradiol + Levonorgestrel)
  • Brevicon 0.5/35 21 Tab (Ethinyl Estradiol + Norethindrone)
  • Brevicon 0.5/35 28 Tab (Ethinyl Estradiol + Norethindrone)
  • Brevicon 1/35 21 Tab (Ethinyl Estradiol + Norethindrone)
  • Brevicon 1/35 28 Tab (Ethinyl Estradiol + Norethindrone)
  • Calf-Oid Implant (Estradiol Benzoate + Progesterone)
  • Climacteron Injection (Estradiol Benzoate + Estradiol Dienanthate + Testosterone Enanthate Benzilic Acid Hydrazone)
  • Demulen 50 (21 Day Pack) (Ethinyl Estradiol + Ethynodiol Diacetate)
  • Demulen 50 (28 Day Pack) (Ethinyl Estradiol + Ethynodiol Diacetate)
  • Min-Ovral 21 Tab (Ethinyl Estradiol + Levonorgestrel)
  • Min-Ovral 28 Tab (Ethinyl Estradiol + Levonorgestrel)
  • Neo Mens Tab (Ethinyl Estradiol + Ethisterone)
  • Ortho 10/11 Tablets (21 Day) (Ethinyl Estradiol + Norethindrone)
  • Ortho 10/11 Tablets (28 Day) (Ethinyl Estradiol + Norethindrone)
  • Ovral 21 Tab (Ethinyl Estradiol + Norgestrel (Norgestrel))
  • Ovral 28tab (Ethinyl Estradiol + Norgestrel)
  • Preven Tablets (Ethinyl Estradiol + Levonorgestrel)
  • Synphasic 21 Tablets (Ethinyl Estradiol + Norethindrone)
  • Synphasic-28 Tablets (Ethinyl Estradiol + Norethindrone)
  • Tri-Cyclen Lo (Ethinyl Estradiol + Norgestimate)
  • Triphasil 21 Tab (Ethinyl Estradiol + Levonorgestrel)
  • Triphasil 28 Tab (Ethinyl Estradiol + Levonorgestrel)
  • Triquilar 21 (Ethinyl Estradiol + Levonorgestrel)

PharmGKB Accession Id:
PA449503

Description

Generally refers to the 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries and the placenta. It is also produced by the adipose tissue of men and postmenopausal women. The 17-alpha-isomer of estradiol binds weakly to estrogen receptors (receptors, estrogen) and exhibits little estrogenic activity in estrogen-responsive tissues. Various isomers can be synthesized.

Source: Drug Bank

Indication

For the treatment of urogenital symptoms associated with post-menopausal atrophy of the vagina (such as dryness, burning, pruritus and dyspareunia) and/or the lower urinary tract (urinary urgency and dysuria).

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

Estradiol enters target cells freely (e.g., female organs, breasts, hypothalamus, pituitary) and interacts with a target cell receptor. When the estrogen receptor has bound its ligand it can enter the nucleus of the target cell, and regulate gene transcription which leads to formation of messenger RNA. The mRNA interacts with ribosomes to produce specific proteins that express the effect of estradiol upon the target cell. Estrogens increase the hepatic synthesis of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), thyroid-binding globulin (TBG), and other serum proteins and suppress follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from the anterior pituitary.

Source: Drug Bank

Pharmacology

Estradiol, the principal intracellular human estrogen, is substantially more active than its metabolites, estrone and estriol, at the cellular level.

Source: Drug Bank

Food Interaction

Take with food to decrease nausea.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity

Biotransformation

Exogenous estrogens are metabolized using the same mechanism as endogenous estrogens. Estrogens are partially metabolized by cytochrome P450.

Source: Drug Bank

Protein Binding

>95%

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption

43%

Source: Drug Bank

Half-Life

36 hours

Source: Drug Bank

Toxicity

Can cause nausea and vomiting, and withdrawal bleeding may occur in females.

Source: Drug Bank

Route of Elimination

Estradiol, estrone and estriol are excreted in the urine along with glucuronide and sulfate conjugates.

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula

C18H24O2

Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES

C[C@]12CC[C@@H]3c4ccc(cc4CC[C@H]3[C@@H]1CC[C@@H]2O)O

Source: OpenEye

Canonical SMILES

C[C@]12CC[C@H]

Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight

272.382

Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight

272.177630012

Source: Drug Bank

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Curated Information ?

EvidenceGene
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
CYP3A4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
CYP3A5
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
NFE2L2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
TCL1A

Drug Targets

Gene Description
ESR1 (source: Drug Bank)
ESR2 (source: Drug Bank)
NR1I2 (source: Drug Bank)
SHBG (source: Drug Bank)

Drug Interactions

Drug Description
amobarbital The enzyme inducer decreases the effect of hormones (source: Drug Bank)
amobarbital The enzyme inducer, amobarbital, decreases the effect of the hormone agent, estradiol. (source: Drug Bank)
aprobarbital The enzyme inducer decreases the effect of hormones (source: Drug Bank)
aprobarbital The enzyme inducer, aprobarbital, decreases the effect of the hormone agent, estradiol. (source: Drug Bank)
butabarbital The enzyme inducer decreases the effect of hormones (source: Drug Bank)
butabarbital The enzyme inducer, butabarbital, decreases the effect of the hormone agent, estradiol. (source: Drug Bank)
butalbital The enzyme inducer decreases the effect of hormones (source: Drug Bank)
butalbital The enzyme inducer, butalbital, decreases the effect of the hormone agent, estradiol. (source: Drug Bank)
butethal The enzyme inducer decreases the effect of hormones (source: Drug Bank)
butethal The enzyme inducer, butethal, decreases the effect of the hormone agent, estradiol. (source: Drug Bank)
ethotoin The enzyme inducer decreases the effect of hormones (source: Drug Bank)
ethotoin The enzyme inducer, ethotoin, decreases the effect of the hormone agent, estradiol. (source: Drug Bank)
fosphenytoin The enzyme inducer decreases the effect of hormones (source: Drug Bank)
fosphenytoin The enzyme inducer, fosphenytoin, decreases the effect of the hormone agent, estradiol. (source: Drug Bank)
griseofulvin The enzyme inducer decreases the effect of hormones (source: Drug Bank)
griseofulvin The enzyme inducer, griseofulvin, decreases the effect of the hormone agent, estradiol. (source: Drug Bank)
heptabarbital The enzyme inducer decreases the effect of hormones (source: Drug Bank)
heptabarbital The enzyme inducer, heptabarbital, decreases the effect of the hormone agent, estradiol. (source: Drug Bank)
hexobarbital The enzyme inducer decreases the effect of hormones (source: Drug Bank)
hexobarbital The enzyme inducer, hexobarbital, decreases the effect of the hormone agent, estradiol. (source: Drug Bank)
mephenytoin The enzyme inducer decreases the effect of hormones (source: Drug Bank)
mephenytoin The enzyme inducer, mephenytoin, decreases the effect of the hormone agent, estradiol. (source: Drug Bank)
methohexital The enzyme inducer decreases the effect of hormones (source: Drug Bank)
methohexital The enzyme inducer, methohexital, decreases the effect of the hormone agent, estradiol. (source: Drug Bank)
methylphenobarbital The enzyme inducer decreases the effect of hormones (source: Drug Bank)
methylphenobarbital The enzyme inducer, methylphenobarbital, decreases the effect of the hormone agent, estradiol. (source: Drug Bank)
pentobarbital The enzyme inducer decreases the effect of hormones (source: Drug Bank)
pentobarbital The enzyme inducer, pentobarbital, decreases the effect of the hormone agent, estradiol. (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital The enzyme inducer decreases the effect of hormones (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital The enzyme inducer, phenobarbital, decreases the effect of the hormone agent, estradiol. (source: Drug Bank)
phenytoin The enzyme inducer decreases the effect of hormones (source: Drug Bank)
phenytoin The enzyme inducer, phenytoin, decreases the effect of the hormone agent, estradiol. (source: Drug Bank)
prednisolone The estrogenic agent increases the effect of corticosteroid (source: Drug Bank)
prednisolone The estrogenic agent, estradiol, may increase the effect of corticosteroid, prednisolone. (source: Drug Bank)
prednisone The estrogenic agent increases the effect of corticosteroid (source: Drug Bank)
prednisone The estrogenic agent, estradiol, may increase the effect of corticosteroid, prednisone. (source: Drug Bank)
primidone The enzyme inducer decreases the effect of hormones (source: Drug Bank)
primidone The enzyme inducer, primidone, decreases the effect of the hormone agent, estradiol. (source: Drug Bank)
raloxifene Association not recommended (source: Drug Bank)
raloxifene Association not recommended (source: Drug Bank)
secobarbital The enzyme inducer decreases the effect of hormones (source: Drug Bank)
secobarbital The enzyme inducer, secobarbital, decreases the effect of the hormone agent, estradiol. (source: Drug Bank)
talbutal The enzyme inducer decreases the effect of hormones (source: Drug Bank)
talbutal The enzyme inducer, talbutal, decreases the effect of the hormone agent, estradiol. (source: Drug Bank)
ursodeoxycholic acid Estrogens decreases the effect of ursodiol (source: Drug Bank)
estradiol The enzyme inducer decreases the effect of the hormones (source: Drug Bank)
estradiol This anti-infectious agent could decrease the effect of the oral contraceptive (source: Drug Bank)
estradiol The oral contraceptive decreases the effect of lamotrigine (source: Drug Bank)
estradiol The enzyme inducer decreases the effect of hormones (source: Drug Bank)
estradiol This product may cause a slight decrease of contraceptive effect (source: Drug Bank)
estradiol The estrogenic agent increases the effect of the corticosteroid (source: Drug Bank)
estradiol The estrogenic agent increases the effect of corticosteroid (source: Drug Bank)
estradiol The enzyme inducer decreases the effect of hormones (source: Drug Bank)
estradiol Association not recommended (source: Drug Bank)
estradiol The contraceptive increases the effect and toxicity of theophylline (source: Drug Bank)
estradiol Thiopental may decrease the effect of Ethinyl estradiol. Contraceptive failure may occur. Alternative nonhomomonal contraception should be used during concomitant therapy. (source: Drug Bank)

Curated Information ?

Relationships from National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT)

May Treat
May Prevent
Contraindicated With

Publications related to estradiol: 33

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
TSPYL5 SNPs: Association with Plasma Estradiol Concentrations and Aromatase Expression. Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.). 2013. Liu Mohan, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
PharmGKB summary: very important pharmacogene information for CYP3A5. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. Lamba Jatinder, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Aromatase inhibitors, estrogens and musculoskeletal pain: estrogen-dependent T-cell leukemia 1A (TCL1A) gene-mediated regulation of cytokine expression. Breast cancer research : BCR. 2012. Liu Mohan, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Effect of efavirenz on UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1, 1A4, 1A6, and 1A9 activities in human liver microsomes. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland). 2012. Ji Hye Young, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Tamoxifen metabolites as active inhibitors of aromatase in the treatment of breast cancer. Breast cancer research and treatment. 2011. Lu Wenjie Jessie, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Copy number variants in pharmacogenetic genes. Trends in molecular medicine. 2011. He Yijing, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Effect of NFE2L2 genetic polymorphism on the association between oral estrogen therapy and the risk of venous thromboembolism in postmenopausal women. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Bouligand J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmocoepigenetics: a new approach to predicting individual drug responses and targeting new drugs. Pharmacological reports : PR. 2011. Baer-Dubowska Wanda, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic polymorphisms in sex hormone metabolizing genes and drug response in women with epilepsy. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Grover Sandeep, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Methadone: a substrate and mechanism-based inhibitor of CYP19 (aromatase). Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2010. Lu Wenjie Jessie, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Variation in anastrozole metabolism and pharmacodynamics in women with early breast cancer. Cancer research. 2010. Ingle James N, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Adenosine A1 receptor, a target and regulator of estrogen receptoralpha action, mediates the proliferative effects of estradiol in breast cancer. Oncogene. 2010. Lin Z, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genome-wide copy-number-variation study identified a susceptibility gene, UGT2B17, for osteoporosis. American journal of human genetics. 2008. Yang Tie-Lin, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Effect of pregnane X receptor ligands on transport mediated by human OATP1B1 and OATP1B3. European journal of pharmacology. 2008. Gui Chunshan, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Influence of mutations associated with Gilbert and Crigler-Najjar type II syndromes on the glucuronidation kinetics of bilirubin and other UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A substrates. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2007. Udomuksorn Wandee, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Human CYP2A6 is induced by estrogen via estrogen receptor. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2007. Higashi Eriko, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic diversity and function in the human cytosolic sulfotransferases. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2007. Hildebrandt M A T, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Endoxifen, a secondary metabolite of tamoxifen, and 4-OH-tamoxifen induce similar changes in global gene expression patterns in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 2006. Lim Young Chai, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Functional analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms of hepatic organic anion transporter OATP1B1 (OATP-C). Pharmacogenetics. 2004. Iwai Megumi, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
A proposed nomenclature system for the cytosolic sulfotransferase (SULT) superfamily. Pharmacogenetics. 2004. Blanchard Rebecca L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Estrogen receptor-mediated regulation of oxidative stress and DNA damage in breast cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2004. Mobley James A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Human estrogen sulfotransferase (SULT1E1) pharmacogenomics: gene resequencing and functional genomics. British journal of pharmacology. 2003. Adjei Araba A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The effect of valproic acid on drug and steroid glucuronidation by expressed human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases. Biochemical pharmacology. 2003. Ethell Brian T, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacokinetics of anastrozole and tamoxifen alone, and in combination, during adjuvant endocrine therapy for early breast cancer in postmenopausal women: a sub-protocol of the 'Arimidex and tamoxifen alone or in combination' (ATAC) trial. British journal of cancer. 2001. Dowsett M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Human 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate synthetase: radiochemical enzymatic assay, biochemical properties, and hepatic variation. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2001. Xu Z, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The pregnane X receptor: a promiscuous xenobiotic receptor that has diverged during evolution. Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.). 2000. Jones S A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Impact of tamoxifen on the pharmacokinetics and endocrine effects of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole in postmenopausal women with breast cancer. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 1999. Dowsett M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SXR, a novel steroid and xenobiotic-sensing nuclear receptor. Genes & development. 1998. Blumberg B, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
An intron 1 enhancer element mediates oestrogen-induced suppression of ERBB2 expression. Oncogene. 1997. Bates N P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Anti-oestrogen stimulation of ERBB2 ectodomain shedding from BT-474 human breast cancer cells with ERBB2 gene amplification. European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990). 1996. Wärri A M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Oestrogen and epidermal growth factor down-regulate erbB-2 oncogene protein expression in breast cancer cells by different mechanisms. British journal of cancer. 1994. Antoniotti S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Transcriptional repression of the neu protooncogene by estrogen stimulated estrogen receptor. Cancer research. 1992. Russell K S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Differences in the cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes involved in the 2-hydroxylation of oestradiol and 17 alpha-ethinyloestradiol. Relative activities of rat and human liver enzymes. The Biochemical journal. 1990. Ball S E, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

Web Resource:
Wikipedia
National Drug Code Directory:
0378-1452-01
DrugBank:
DB00783
PDB:
ECO
ChEBI:
16469
KEGG Compound:
C00951
KEGG Drug:
D00105
PubChem Compound:
5757
PubChem Substance:
148536
46508115
IUPHAR Ligand:
1012
1013
Drugs Product Database (DPD):
2246969
BindingDB:
17292
ChemSpider:
5554
HET:
ECO
Therapeutic Targets Database:
DAP000854
FDA Drug Label at DailyMed:
144db6ad-c4cf-45ea-b27c-a76a319dba38

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention estradiol and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

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Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, Open Eye Scientific Software.