Drug/Small Molecule:
clopidogrel

Available Guidelines

  1. CPIC Dosing Guideline for clopidogrel and CYP2C19
  2. Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for clopidogrel and CYP2C19

last updated 05/22/2013

CPIC Dosing Guideline for clopidogrel and CYP2C19

Summary

The CPIC Dosing Guideline for clopidogrel recommends an alternative antiplatelet therapy (e.g., prasugrel, ticagrelor) for CYP2C19 poor or intermediate metabolizers if there is no contraindicaiton.

Annotation

September 2013 Update

Advance online publication May 2013.

  • The 2013 update of CPIC guidelines regarding clopidogrel have been published in Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics by the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC). Literature published between 1966 to January 2013 was reviewed. The updated therapeutic recommendations are more focused to patients with acute coronary syndromes undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (ACS/PCI) than the original guideline, with additional updates involve refined recommendations for variant and novel CYP2C19 alleles beyond *2.
  • At the time of the development of this recommendation, there are no data available on the possible role of CYP2C19 in clopidogrel response in pediatric patient populations; however, there is no reason to suspect that CYP2C19 variant alleles would affect clopidogrel metabolism differently in children as compared with adults.
  • Download and read:

Table 1: Antiplatelet therapy recommendations based on CYP2C19 status when considering clopidogrel for ACS patients undergoing PCI

Adapted from Tables 1 and 2 of the 2013 guideline manuscript.

Likely phenotype Genotypes Examples of diplotypes Implications for clopidogrel Therapeutic recommendations Classification of recommendations
Ultrarapid metabolizer (UM)
(~5-30% of patients)
An individual carrying two increased activity alleles (*17) or one functional allele (*1) plus one increased activity allele (*17) *1/*17, *17/*17 Increased platelet inhibition; decreased residual platelet aggregation 1 Clopidogrel - label recommended dosage and administration Strong
Extensive metabolizer (EM)
(~35-50% of patients)
An individual carrying two functional (*1) alleles *1/*1 Normal platelet inhibition; normal residual platelet aggregation Clopidogrel - label recommended dosage and administration Strong
Intermediate metabolizer (IM)
(~18-45% of patients)
An individual carrying one functional allele (*1) plus one loss-of-function allele (*2-*8) or one loss-of-function allele (*2-*8) plus one increased activity allele (*17) 2 *1/*2, *1/*3, *2/*17 Reduced platelet inhibition; increased residual platelet aggregation; increased risk for adverse cardiovascular events Alternative antiplatelet therapy (if no contraindication); e.g., prasugrel, ticagrelor Moderate
Poor metabolizer (PM)
(~2-15% of patients)
An individual carrying two loss-of-function alleles (*2-*8) *2/*2, *2/*3, *3/*3 Significantly reduced platelet inhibition; increased residual platelet aggregation; increased risk for adverse cardiovascular events Alternative antiplatelet therapy (if no contraindication); e.g., prasugrel, ticagrelor Strong

1 The CYP2C19*17 allele (rs12248560) may be associated with increased risk of bleeding.
2 The predicted metabolizer phenotype for *2-*8/*17 genotypes are provisional classifications. The currently available evidence indicates that the *17 gain-of-function allele is unable to completely compensate for the *2 loss-of-function allele [Article:20492469]; however, this data has not been consistently replicated and is therefore a provisional classification (Table S5).

An important caveat for all genotyping tests is that the "wild-type" (*1) status is reported if all other alleles that are measured are absent. Some genotype tests do not interrogate the rare loss of function alleles and therefore, if present, they may be erroneously reported as "wild type". Furthermore, in human DNA, it is always possible that a new, previously undiscovered (and therefore un-interrogated) site of variation may confer altered enzyme function in an individual, and thus lead to the rare possibility of a loss-of-function allele being erroneously called as "wild-type" (*1). The guidelines do not focus on demographic and other clinical variables, such as adherence to therapy, age, diabetes mellitus, obesity, smoking, and concomitant use of other drugs that may influence clopidogrel efficacy and clinical decision making.

The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) has endorsed the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium guidelines for cytochrome P450-2C19 (CYP2C19) genotype and clopidogrel therapy.

August 2011

Advance online publication June 2011.


last updated 08/10/2011

Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for clopidogrel and CYP2C19

Summary

The Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for clopidogrel recommends to consider an alternative drug for CYP2C19 poor or intermediate metabolizers, because of increased risk for reduced response to clopidogrel. Prasugrel might be associated with an increased bleeding risk compared to clopidogrel.

Annotation

The Royal Dutch Pharmacists Association - Pharmacogenetics Working Group has evaluated therapeutic dose recommendations for clopidogrel based on the CYP2C19 genotype [Article:21412232]. For the CYP2C19 PM and IM phenotype they conclude an increased risk for reduced response to clopidogrel and recommend to consider an alternative drug. Prasugrel is not or to a much smaller extent metabolized by CYP2C19 but is associated with an increased bleeding risk compared to clopidogrel.

Phenotype (Genotype) Therapeutic Dose Recommendation Level of Evidence Clinical Relevance
CYP2C19 PM (*2/*2, *2/*3, *3/*3) Increased risk for reduced response to clopidogrel. Consider alternative drug. Prasugrel is not or to a much smaller extent metabolized by CYP2C19 but is associated with an increased bleeding risk compared to clopidogrel Published controlled studies of good quality* relating to phenotyped and/or genotyped patients or healthy volunteers, and having relevant pharmacokinetic or clinical endpoints Clinical effect (statistically significant difference): death; arrhythmia; unanticipated myelosuppression
CYP2C19 IM (*1/*2, *1/*3, *17/*2, *17/*3) Increased risk for reduced response to clopidogrel. Consider alternative drug. Prasugrel is not or to a much smaller extent metabolized by CYP2C19 but is associated with an increased bleeding risk compared to clopidogrel Published controlled studies of good quality* relating to phenotyped and/or genotyped patients or healthy volunteers, and having relevant pharmacokinetic or clinical endpoints Clinical effect (statistically significant difference): death; arrhythmia; unanticipated myelosuppression
CYP2C19 UM (*17/*17) None Published controlled studies of moderate quality# relating to phenotyped and/or genotyped patients or healthy volunteers, and having relevant pharmacokinetic or clinical endpoints Minor clinical effect (statistically significant difference): QTc prolongation (<450 ms female, <470 ms male); international normalized ratio increase < 4.5
Kinetic effect (statistically significant difference)
  • *See Methods or PMID: 18253145 for definition of "good quality."
  • #wherever one or more of the "good quality" criteria was missing, the quality of the study was considered to be "moderate"

PharmGKB annotates drug labels containing pharmacogenetic information approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency, Japan (PMDA). PharmGKB annotations provide a brief summary of the PGx in the label, an excerpt from the label and a downloadable highlighted label PDF file. A list of genes and phenotypes found within the label is mapped to label section headers and listed at the end of each annotation. PharmGKB also attempts to interpret the level of action implied in each label with the "PGx Level" tag.

Sources:

  • FDA Information is gathered from the FDA's "Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labels" and from FDA-approved labels brought to our attention. Please note that drugs may be removed from or added to the FDA's Table without our knowledge. We periodically check the Table for changes and update PharmGKB accordingly. Drugs listed on the Table to our knowledge are tagged with the Biomarker icon. A drug label that has been removed from the Table will not have the Biomarker icon but will continue to have an annotation on PharmGKB stating the label has been removed from the FDA's Table. We acquire label PDF files from DailyMed.
  • EMA European Public Assessment Reports (EPARs) that contain PGx information were identified from [Article:24433361] and also by searching for drugs for which we have PGx-containing FDA drug labels.

We welcome any information regarding drug labels containing PGx information approved by the FDA, EMA, PMDA or other Medicine Agencies around the world - please contact feedback.



last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for clopidogrel and CYP2C19

Genetic testing recommended

Summary

The FDA-approved drug label for clopidogrel (Plavix) warns that patients who are CYP2C19 poor metabolizers may have diminished effectiveness of the drug, leading to higher cardiovascular event rates following acute coronary syndrome or percutaneous coronary intervention, as compared to patients with normal CYP2C19 function. The drug label suggests that alternative treatment or treatment strategies are considered in patients identified as CYP2C19 poor metabolizers.

There's more of this label. Read more.




Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria, manually curated by PharmGKB, are shown below.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the page.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

? = Mouse-over for quick help

This is a non-comprehensive list of genetic tests with pharmacogenetics relevance, typically submitted by the manufacturer and manually curated by PharmGKB. The information listed is provided for educational purposes only and does not constitute an endorsement of any listed test or manufacturer.

A more complete listing of genetic tests is found at the Genetic Testing Registry (GTR).

PGx Test Variants Assayed Gene?
Roche AmpliChip CYP450 Test Variant in CYP2C19
DMET Plus (Affymetrix, Inc) Variant in CYP2C19
VeraCode ADME Core Panel (Illumina, Inc) Variant in CYP2C19
TaqMan Drug Metabolism Genotyping Assay Sets (Applied Biosystems, Inc) Variant in CYP2C19
Laboratory Corporation of America Variant in CYP2C19
iPLEX ADME PGx (Sequenom, Inc) CYP2C19*1, CYP2C19*12, CYP2C19*17, CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3, CYP2C19*4, CYP2C19*5A, CYP2C19*5B, CYP2C19*6, CYP2C19*7, CYP2C19*8
AmpliChip CYP450 Test (Roche Molecular Systems, Inc) CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3
eSensor 2C19 Genotyping Test (GenMark Diagnostics, Inc) CYP2C19*10, CYP2C19*13, CYP2C19*17, CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3, CYP2C19*4, CYP2C19*5, CYP2C19*6, CYP2C19*7, CYP2C19*8, CYP2C19*9
Luminex xTAG CYP2C19 CYP2C19*1, CYP2C19*10, CYP2C19*17, CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3, CYP2C19*4, CYP2C19*5, CYP2C19*6, CYP2C19*7, CYP2C19*8, CYP2C19*9
Spartan RX CYP2C19 System CYP2C19*17, CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3 , rs12248560 , rs4986893 , rs4244285
INFINITI CYP2C19 (AutoGenomics, Inc) CYP2C19*17, CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3 , rs12248560 , rs4986893 , rs4244285
INFINITI CYP450 2C19+ (AutoGenomics, Inc) CYP2C19*10, CYP2C19*17, CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3, CYP2C19*4, CYP2C19*5, CYP2C19*6, CYP2C19*7, CYP2C19*8, CYP2C19*9 , rs12248560 , rs28399504 , rs41291556 , rs72552267 , rs17884712 , rs4986893 , rs6413438 , rs4244285 , rs72558186 , rs56337013

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page.

Links in the "Gene" column lead to PharmGKB Gene Pages.

List of all clopidogrel variant annotations

Gene ? Variant?
(142)
Alternate Names ? Drugs ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP1A2 *1A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP1A2 *1C N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA CYP2B6 *1 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA CYP2B6 *5 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2B6 *5A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2B6 *6 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA CYP2C19 *1 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA CYP2C19 *1A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2C19 *1B N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA CYP2C19 *2 N/A N/A N/A
VIP No VIP available VA CYP2C19 *2A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2C19 *2B N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2C19 *2C N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2C19 *2D N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA CYP2C19 *3 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2C19 *3A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2C19 *3B N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA CYP2C19 *4 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA CYP2C19 *5 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA CYP2C19 *6 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA CYP2C19 *8 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2C19 *9 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA CYP2C19 *10 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2C19 *11 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA CYP2C19 *13 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA CYP2C19 *14 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA CYP2C19 *15 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2C19 *17 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA CYP2C19 *18 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA CYP2C19 *19 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA CYP2C19 *23 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA CYP2C19 *25 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA CYP2C19 *26 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA CYP2C19 *28 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2C9 *1 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2C9 *2 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2C9 *3 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2C9 *8 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP3A5 *1A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP3A5 *3A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA No VIP available P2RY12 A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA P2RY12 F N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA No VIP available P2RY12 H1 N/A N/A N/A
VIP CA VA P2RY12 H2 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
CYP2C19 extensive metabolizers N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA
rs10306114 -1140A>G, -287A>G, -762A>G, -842A>G, -890A>G, -920A>G, 125132522A>G, 4294A>G, 54297054A>G, A-842G
A > G
5' Flanking
No VIP available CA VA
rs1045642 208920T>A, 208920T>C, 25171488A>G, 25171488A>T, 3435T>A, 3435T>C, 87138645A>G, 87138645A>T, ABCB1*6, ABCB1: 3435C>T, ABCB1: C3435T, ABCB1: c.3435C>T, ABCB1:3435C>T, Ile1145=, Ile1145Ile, MDR1 3435C>T, MDR1 C3435T, PGP C3435T, c.3435C>T, mRNA 3853C>T
A > T
A > G
Synonymous
Ile1145Ile
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1048943 1384A>C, 1384A>G, 1384A>T, 3103T>A, 3103T>C, 3103T>G, 45803542T>A, 45803542T>C, 45803542T>G, 75012985T>A, 75012985T>C, 75012985T>G, CYP1A1*2C, CYP1A1:2455A>G, CYP1A1:4889A>G, CYP1A1:Hinc II, CYP1A1:I462V, CYP1A1:m2, Ile462Leu, Ile462Phe, Ile462Val
T > G
T > C
T > A
Missense
Ile462Val
Ile462Leu
Ile462Phe
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1050450 *581C>T, 49334834G>A, 49394834G>A, 5958C>T, 599C>T
G > A
Missense
Pro200Leu
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs10509681 1196A>G, 35506A>G, 47603213T>C, 890A>G, 96798749T>C, 986A>G, A1196G, CYP2C8*3, CYP2C8: K399R, Lys297Arg, Lys329Arg, Lys399Arg
T > C
Missense
Lys329Arg
No VIP available CA VA
rs1057910 1075A>C, 47545517A>C, 47639A>C, 96741053A>C, CYP2C9*3, CYP2C9*3:Ile359Leu, CYP2C9: I359L, CYP2C9:359Ile>Leu, CYP2C9:Ile359Leu, Ile359Leu, mRNA 11A>C
A > C
Missense
Ile359Leu
No VIP available CA VA
rs1062535 2945772G>A, 52351413G>A, 71258G>A, 825G>A, 847G>A, 968G>A, Thr275=
G > A
Not Available
Thr275Thr
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1065776 152553628C>T, 57C>T, 5893C>T, 59048774C>T, Ala19=, P2RY1:893C>T, P2RY1:C893T
C > T
Synonymous
Ala19Ala
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs11188072 -3402, 1599C>T, 47323525C>T, 96519061C>T, CYP2C19:, CYP2C19: -3402C>T, part of CYP2C19*17
C > T
Not Available
No VIP available CA VA
rs1126643 2941728C>T, 52347369C>T, 67214C>T, 759C>T, 781C>T, 902C>T, GPIa 807C >T, Phe253=
C > T
Not Available
Phe253Phe
No VIP available CA VA
rs12041331 -9-3996G>A, 156869714G>A, 8358356G>A
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs12248560 -806C>A, -806C>T, 4195C>A, 4195C>T, 47326121C>A, 47326121C>T, 96521657C>A, 96521657C>T, CYP2C19*17, CYP2C19*17 CYP2C19: -806C>T, CYP2C19: -806C>T
C > T
C > A
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs16846673 151055645T>C, 2146-12202T>C, 255970T>C, 51900A>G, 57550791T>C, 989A>G, Glu330Gly
T > C
Missense
Glu330Gly
No VIP available CA VA
rs1799853 430C>T, 47506511C>T, 8633C>T, 96702047C>T, Arg144Cys, CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9:144Arg>Cys, CYP2C9:Arg144Cys, mRNA 455C>T
C > T
Missense
Arg144Cys
No VIP available CA VA
rs1799983 11291734T>G, 12965T>G, 150696111T>G, 894T>G, Asp298Glu, NOS3:894G>T
T > G
Missense
Asp298Glu
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2032582 186947T>A, 186947T>G, 25193461A>C, 25193461A>T, 2677A, 2677G, 2677T, 2677T>A, 2677T>G, 3095G>T/A, 87160618A>C, 87160618A>T, 893 Ala, 893 Ser, 893 Thr, ABCB1*7, ABCB1: 2677G>T/A, ABCB1: 2677T/A>G, ABCB1: A893S, ABCB1: G2677T/A, ABCB1: c.2677G>T/A, ABCB1:2677G>A/T, ABCB1:2677G>T/A, ABCB1:A893T, Ala893Ser/Thr, MDR1, MDR1 G2677T/A, Ser893Ala, Ser893Thr, mRNA 3095G>T/A, p.Ala893Ser/Thr
A > T
A > C
Missense
Ser893Ala
Ser893Thr
rs2046934 -15+742C>T, 151057642G>A, 2146-10205G>A, 257967G>A, 49903C>T, 57552788G>A, P2RY12:744T>C, P2RY12:T744C, P2RY12:i-T744C
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2108622 1297G>A, 14389G>A, 15990431C>T, 23454G>A, 7253233C>T, CYP4F2 exon 11, CYP4F2: C>T, CYP4F2: V433M, CYP4F2:V433M, V433M, Val433Met, c.1297G>A, mRNA 1347G>A, p.Val433Met
C > T
Missense
Val433Met
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2134688 150816886G>A, 227+1853C>T, 2305528G>A, 37359C>T
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs2242480 1023+12G>A, 1026+12G>A, 25343G>A, 37394309C>T, 99361466C>T
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2246709 21090T>C, 37398562A>G, 670+258T>C, 99365719A>G
A > G
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2470890 +, 1548C>T, 295T>C, 37544C>T, 45837983C>T, 75047426C>T, Asn516=, CYP1A2*1B, CYP1A2:1545T>C, CYP1A2:1548T>C, CYP1A2:5347T>C, CYP1A2:Asn516Asn, CYP1A2:Ex7
C > T
Synonymous
Asn516Asn
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2740574 -392G>A, 37414939C>T, 4713G>A, 5'-flanking region -392A>G, 99382096C>T, CYP3A4*1B, CYP3A4-V, CYP3A4:-392A>G
C > T
5' Flanking
No VIP available CA VA
rs28399504 1A>G, 47326927A>G, 5001A>G, 80161A>G, 96522463A>G, 99C>T, CYP2C19*4, CYP2C19:A1G, Met1Val
A > G
Missense
Met1Val
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3213619 -129T>C, 117372T>C, 25263036A>G, 87230193A>G, ABCB1:T-129C
A > G
5' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs35599367 20493C>T, 37399159G>A, 522-191C>T, 99366316G>A, CYP3A4*22
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3745274 13781059G>T, 20638G>T, 41512841G>T, 516G>T, CYP2B6*6, CYP2B6:516G>T, CYP2B6:Gln172His, Gln172His, Q172H
G > T
Missense
Gln172His
No VIP available CA VA
rs3785161 -816A>C, 55793695A>C, 9407894A>C
A > C
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3892097 21915516C>T, 353-1G>A, 42524947C>T, 506-1G>A, 6937G>A, CYP2D6*4, CYP2D6:1846G>A, part of CYP2D6*4
C > T
Acceptor
rs4244285 24154G>A, 24154G>C, 47346080G>A, 47346080G>C, 681G>A, 681G>C, 96541616G>A, 96541616G>C, CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19:681G>A, CYP2C19:G681A, Pro227=
G > A
G > C
Synonymous
Pro227Pro
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4253728 209-1003G>A, 26000636G>A, 46610067G>A, 68569G>A
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4793665 -211C>T, 13986239C>T, 48712087C>T
C > T
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4823613 208+3819A>G, 25988876A>G, 46598307A>G, 56809A>G
A > G
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs4986893 22948G>A, 47344874G>A, 636G>A, 96540410G>A, CYP2C19*3, CYP2C19:636G>A, CYP2C19:G636A, Trp212Ter
G > A
Stop Codon
Trp212null
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4986910 1331T>C, 1334 C allele, 1334T>C, 28285T>C, 37391367A>G, 445Thr allele, 99358524A>G, CYP3A4*3, CYP3A4:M445T, Met444Thr, Met445Thr, mRNA 1438T>C
A > G
Missense
Met445Thr
No VIP available CA VA
rs5918 10634882T>C, 176T>C, 34523T>C, 45360730T>C, A2, GP IIIa HPA-1, GP3A PIA2, HPA-1b, ITGB3:1565T>C, ITGB3:Leu33Pro, Leu33Pro polymorphism of ß3 integrins, Leu59Pro, P1A2, PI, PIA1/PIA2
T > C
Missense
Leu59Pro
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs5985 103G>T, 6258795C>A, 6318795C>A, 7130G>T, Val35Leu
C > A
Missense
Val35Leu
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs6136 169563951T>G, 21052593T>G, 2266A>C, 40427A>C
T > G
Missense
Thr756Pro
No VIP available CA VA
rs662 21439A>G, 32970289T>C, 575A>G, 94937446T>C, Gln192Arg
T > C
Missense
Gln192Arg
No VIP available CA VA
rs6785930 151056616G>A, 18C>T, 2146-11231G>A, 256941G>A, 50929C>T, 57551762G>A, Asn6=
G > A
Synonymous
Asn6Asn
No VIP available CA VA
rs6787801 -180+2739T>C, 151099741A>G, 300066A>G, 4486-703A>G, 57594887A>G, 7804T>C
A > G
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs6809699 151056598A>C, 2146-11249A>C, 256923A>C, 36T>G, 50947T>G, 57551744A>C, Gly12=
A > C
Synonymous
Gly12Gly
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs701265 152554357A>G, 59049503A>G, 6622A>G, 786A>G, P2RY1:1622A>G, P2RY1:1622AG, P2RY1:A1622G, Val262=
A > G
Synonymous
Val262Val
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs705379 -108C>T, 32986738G>A, 4990C>T, 94953895G>A
G > A
5' Flanking
No VIP available CA VA
rs71647871 14506G>A, 428G>A, 431G>A, 47536C>T, 55857570C>T, 9471769C>T, Gly143Glu, Gly144Glu
C > T
Missense
Gly144Glu
No VIP available CA VA
rs71647872
A > -
Not Available
No VIP available CA VA
rs762551 -9-154C>A, 32035C>A, 45832474C>A, 75041917C>A, CYP1A2*1F, CYP1A2:734C>A
C > A
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs776746 12083G>A, 219-237G>A, 321-1G>A, 37303382C>T, 581-237G>A, 689-1G>A, 99270539C>T, CYP3A5*1, CYP3A5*3, CYP3A5*3C, CYP3A5:6986A>G, g.6986A>G, intron 3 splicing defect, rs776746 A>G
C > T
Acceptor
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs8069732 10627087C>T, 165+1065C>T, 26728C>T, 45352935C>T
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs854560 12801T>A, 12801T>C, 12801T>G, 12801T>N, 163T>A, 163T>C, 163T>G, 163T>N, 32978927A>C, 32978927A>G, 32978927A>N, 32978927A>T, 94946084A>C, 94946084A>G, 94946084A>N, 94946084A>T, Leu55=, Leu55Met, Leu55Val, Leu55Xaa
A > T
A > C
A > G
A > N
Missense
Leu55Met
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 142
2D structure from PubChem
provided by PubChem

Overview

Generic Names
Trade Names
  • Clopidogrel [Ban:Inn]
  • Clopidogrel sulfate
  • Plavix
Brand Mixture Names

PharmGKB Accession Id:
PA449053

Description

Clopidogrel, an antiplatelet agent structurally and pharmacologically similar to ticlopidine, is used to reduce atherosclerotic events such as myocardial infarction, stroke, and vascular death in patients who have had a recent stroke, recent MI, or have established peripheral vascular disease.

Source: Drug Bank

Indication

For the reduction of atherosclerotic events (myocardial infarction, stroke, and vascular death) in patients with atherosclerosis documented by recent stroke, recent myocardial infarction, or established peripheral arterial disease

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

The active metabolite of clopidogrel prevents binding of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to its platelet receptor, impairing the ADP-mediated activation of the glycoprotein GPIIb/IIIa complex. It is proposed that the inhibition involves a defect in the mobilization from the storage sites of the platelet granules to the outer membrane. he drug specifically and irreversibly inhibits the P2Y12 subtype of ADP receptor, which is important in aggregation of platelets and cross-linking by the protein fibrin. No direct interference occurs with the GPIIb/IIIa receptor. As the glycoprotein GPIIb/IIIa complex is the major receptor for fibrinogen, its impaired activation prevents fibrinogen binding to platelets and inhibits platelet aggregation. By blocking the amplification of platelet activation by released ADP, platelet aggregation induced by agonists other than ADP is also inhibited by the active metabolite of clopidogrel.

Source: Drug Bank

Pharmacology

Clopidogrel, an antiplatelet agent structurally and pharmacologically similar to ticlopidine, is used to reduce atherosclerotic events such as myocardial infarction, stroke, and vascular death in patients who have had a recent stroke, recent MI, or have established peripheral vascular disease.

Source: Drug Bank

Food Interaction

Take without regard to meals.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity

Biotransformation

Hepatic, extensive and rapid, by hydrolysis to the main circulating metabolite, a carboxylic acid derivative, which accounts for approximately 85% of the circulating drug-related compounds. A glucuronic acid derivative of the carboxylic acid derivative has also been found in plasma and urine. Neither the parent compound nor the carboxylic acid derivative has a platelet inhibiting effect.

Source: Drug Bank

Protein Binding

98%

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption

Absorption is at least 50% based on urinary excretion of clopidogrel-related metabolites. Bioavailability has not been found to be affected by food.

Source: Drug Bank

Half-Life

Carboxylic acid derivative: 8 hours (after single and multiple doses). Covalent binding to platelets has accounted for 2% of radiolabeled clopidogrel with a half-life of 11 days.

Source: Drug Bank

Toxicity

Symptoms of acute toxicity include vomiting (in baboons), prostration, difficult breathing, and gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

Source: Drug Bank

Route of Elimination

Following an oral dose of 14C-labeled clopidogrel in humans, approximately 50% of total radioactivity was excreted in urine and approximately 46% in feces over the 5 days post-dosing.

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula

C16H16ClNO2S

Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES

COC(=O)[C@H](c1ccccc1Cl)N2CCc3c(ccs3)C2

Source: OpenEye

Canonical SMILES

COC(=O)[C@@H](N1CCC2=C(C1)C=CS2)C1=CC=CC=C1Cl

Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight

321.822

Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight

321.059027158

Source: Drug Bank

PharmGKB Curated Pathways

Pathways created internally by PharmGKB based primarily on literature evidence.

  1. Clopidogrel Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Clopidogrel metabolism.
  1. Platelet Aggregation Inhibitor Pathway, Pharmacodynamics
    Effects of antiplatelet drugs on platelet aggregation pathway.

External Pathways

Links to non-PharmGKB pathways.

PharmGKB contains no links to external pathways for this drug. To report a pathway, click here.

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Curated Information ?

Drug Targets

Gene Description
P2RY12 (source: Drug Bank)
SELP (source: Drug Bank)

Curated Information ?

EvidenceDrug
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
omeprazole

Drug Interactions

Drug Description
clopidogrel Additive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects may increase bleed risk. Concomitant therapy should be avoided. (source: Drug Bank)
clopidogrel The prostacyclin analogue, Treprostinil, increases the risk of bleeding when combined with the antiplatelet agent, Clopidogrel. Monitor for increased bleeding during concomitant thearpy. (source: Drug Bank)
clopidogrel Increased bleed risk may occur as a result of additive anticoagulant effects. Increase monitoring for signs and symptoms of bleeding during concomitant therapy. (source: Drug Bank)

Curated Information ?

Relationships from National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT)

May Prevent
Contraindicated With

Publications related to clopidogrel: 314

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Impact of common ABCB1 polymorphism on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of clopidogrel and its metabolites. Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. 2014. Karaźniewicz-Łada M, et al. PubMed
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Gene polymorphism of cytochrome P450 2C19*2 and clopidogrel resistance reflected by platelet function assays: a meta-analysis. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Hou Xiaowen, et al. PubMed
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The effect of CYP2C19 gene polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of prasugrel 5-mg, prasugrel 10-mg and clopidogrel 75-mg in patients with coronary artery disease. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2014. Gurbel P A, et al. PubMed
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Functional characterization of 21 CYP2C19 allelic variants for clopidogrel 2-oxidation. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2014. Takahashi M, et al. PubMed
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The role of clinical parameters and of CYP2C19 G681 and CYP4F2 G1347A polymorphisms on platelet reactivity during dual antiplatelet therapy. Blood coagulation & fibrinolysis : an international journal in haemostasis and thrombosis. 2014. Tatarunas Vacis, et al. PubMed
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The influence of the CYP2C19*10 allele on clopidogrel activation and CYP2C19*2 genotyping. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2014. Langaee Taimour Y, et al. PubMed
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Platelet factor XIIIa release during platelet aggregation and plasma clot strength measured by thrombelastography in patients with coronary artery disease treated with clopidogrel. Platelets. 2014. Kreutz Rolf P, et al. PubMed
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Genetics of platelet inhibitor treatment. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Trenk Dietmar, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 Gene Variants, Race, and Mortality Among Clopidogrel Treated Patients Following Acute Myocardial Infarction. Circulation. Cardiovascular genetics. 2014. Cresci Sharon, et al. PubMed
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Impact of CYP3A5 polymorphism on platelet reactivity at percutaneous coronary intervention and after 9 months of aspirin and clopidogrel therapy in Japanese patients with coronary artery disease. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Hokimoto Seiji, et al. PubMed
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Lack of association between peri-procedural myocardial damage and CYP2C19 gene variant in elective percutaneous coronary intervention. Heart and vessels. 2014. Yoshimura Hiromi, et al. PubMed
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Effectiveness of clopidogrel dose escalation to normalize active metabolite exposure and antiplatelet effects in CYP2C19 poor metabolizers. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Horenstein Richard B, et al. PubMed
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The Influence of Genetic Polymorphism of Cyp2c19 Isoenzyme on the Pharmacokinetics of Clopidogrel and Its Metabolites in Patients With Cardiovascular Diseases. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Karaźniewicz-Łada Marta, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Impact of CYP2C19 polymorphism on clinical outcome following coronary stenting is more important in non-diabetic than diabetic patients. Thrombosis research. 2014. Mizobe Michio, et al. PubMed
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Prevalence of CYP2C19 variant alleles and pharmacodynamic variability of aspirin and clopidogrel in Native Americans. American heart journal. 2014. Oestreich Julie H, et al. PubMed
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Implementation of pharmacogenetics: The University of Maryland personalized anti-platelet pharmacogenetics program. American journal of medical genetics. Part C, Seminars in medical genetics. 2014. Shuldiner Alan R, et al. PubMed
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The PlA1/A2 polymorphism of glycoprotein IIIa in relation to efficacy of antiplatelet drugs: a systematic review and meta-analysis. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Floyd Christopher N, et al. PubMed
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Grapefruit juice inhibits the metabolic activation of clopidogrel. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2014. Holmberg M T, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 polymorphisms and coronary heart disease risk factors synergistically impact clopidogrel response variety after percutaneous coronary intervention. Coronary artery disease. 2014. Liu Tao, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics of oral antiplatelet drugs. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Yasmina Alfi, et al. PubMed
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Aspirin decreases the systemic exposure to clopidogrel through modulation of P-glycoprotein, but does not alter its antithrombotic activity. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2014. Oh Jaeseong, et al. PubMed
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CES1A -816C as a genetic marker to predict greater platelet clopidogrel response in patients with percutaneous coronary intervention. Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology. 2014. Zou Jian-Jun, et al. PubMed
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Positive Clinical Response to Clopidogrel is Independent of Paraoxonase 1 Q192R and CYP2C19 Genetic Variants. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Martínez-Quintana Efrén, et al. PubMed
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Factor XIII Val34Leu polymorphism and recurrent myocardial infarction in patients with coronary artery disease. Journal of thrombosis and thrombolysis. 2014. Kreutz Rolf P, et al. PubMed
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The effects of CES1A2 A(-816)C and CYP2C19 loss-of-function polymorphisms on clopidogrel response variability among Chinese patients with coronary heart disease. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2014. Xie Cheng, et al. PubMed
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CYP 450 2C19 polymorphisms in Indian patients with coronary artery disease. Indian heart journal. 2014. Shetkar Sudhir S, et al. PubMed
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Relationship between statin type and responsiveness to clopidogrel in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention: a subgroup analysis of the CILON-T trial. Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis. 2014. Suh Jung-Won, et al. PubMed
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Effects of Cytochrome P450 2C19 and Paraoxonase 1 Polymorphisms on Antiplatelet Response to Clopidogrel Therapy in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease. PloS one. 2014. Tresukosol Damrus, et al. PubMed
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Thrombin-induced platelet-fibrin clot strength: Relation to high on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity, genotype, and post-percutaneous coronary intervention outcomes. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2013. Jeong Y-H, et al. PubMed
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Clinically actionable genotypes among 10,000 patients with preemptive pharmacogenomic testing. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2013. Van Driest Sara L, et al. PubMed
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Routine assessment of on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity and gene polymorphisms in predicting clinical outcome following drug-eluting stent implantation in patients with stable coronary artery disease. JACC. Cardiovascular interventions. 2013. Viviani Anselmi Chiara, et al. PubMed
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The effect of CYP2C19 genotype on the time course of platelet aggregation inhibition after clopidogrel administration. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Kim Ho-Sook, et al. PubMed
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Applied Pharmacogenomics in Cardiovascular Medicine. Annual review of medicine. 2013. Weeke Peter, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome CYP2C19 polymorphism and risk of adverse clinical events in clopidogrel-treated patients: a meta-analysis based on 23,035 subjects. Archives of cardiovascular diseases. 2013. Mao Liu, et al. PubMed
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Personalized antiplatelet therapy according to CYP2C19 genotype after percutaneous coronary intervention: a randomized control trial. International journal of cardiology. 2013. Xie Xiang, et al. PubMed
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Impact of CYP2C19 Polymorphism on Platelet Function Tests and Coagulation and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention. Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis. 2013. Kaikita Koichi, et al. PubMed
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PON1 Q192R genotype influences clopidogrel responsiveness by relative platelet inhibition instead of on-treatment platelet reactivity. Thrombosis research. 2013. Li Xiaoqi, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 Poor Metabolizer Is Associated with Clinical Outcome of Clopidogrel Therapy in Acute Myocardial Infarction but Not Stable Angina. Circulation. Cardiovascular genetics. 2013. Kim Ho-Sook, et al. PubMed
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The impact of CYP2C19 genotype on cardiovascular events and platelet reactivity in patients with coronary artery disease receiving clopidogrel. International journal of cardiology. 2013. Tousoulis Dimitris, et al. PubMed
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Racial disparity with on-treatment platelet reactivity in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. American heart journal. 2013. Pendyala Lakshmana K, et al. PubMed
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Impact of the CYP2C19*17 polymorphism on the clinical outcome of clopidogrel therapy in Asian patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. Park Mahn-Won, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics of anti-platelet therapy focused on peripheral blood cells of coronary arterial disease patients. Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry. 2013. Luchessi André Ducati, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics of anti-platelet and anti-coagulation therapy. Current cardiology reports. 2013. Fisch Adam S, et al. PubMed
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Genetic determinants of high on-treatment platelet reactivity in clopidogrel treated Chinese patients. Thrombosis research. 2013. Zhang Lanning, et al. PubMed
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P2Y12 receptor gene polymorphism and antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel in patients with coronary artery disease after coronary stenting. Blood coagulation & fibrinolysis : an international journal in haemostasis and thrombosis. 2013. Zoheir Naguib, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP2C19*2 and *3 loss-of-function alleles on the pharmacodynamic effects of standard- and high-dose clopidogrel in East Asians undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: the results of the ACCEL-DOUBLE-2N3 study. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2013. Jeong Y-H, et al. PubMed
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The CYP2C19*17 Variant is not Independently Associated with Clopidogrel Response. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2013. Lewis Jp, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 polymorphisms and antiplatelet effects of clopidogrel in acute ischemic stroke in China. Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation. 2013. Jia Dong-mei, et al. PubMed
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Impact of ABCC3/MRP3 -211C/T polymorphism on clopidogrel responsiveness in patients with percutaneous coronary intervention. Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology. 2013. Zou Jian-Jun, et al. PubMed
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Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) guidelines for cytochrome P450-2C19 (CYP2C19) genotype and clopidogrel therapy: 2013 Update. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2013. Scott Stuart A, et al. PubMed
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Challenges in pharmacogenetics. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Cascorbi Ingolf, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics of anti-platelet therapy: how much evidence is enough for clinical implementation?. Journal of human genetics. 2013. Perry Christina G, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP2C19 loss-of-function variants on the antiplatelet effects and cardiovascular events in clopidogrel-treated Chinese patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Zou Jian-Jun, et al. PubMed
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Besides CYP2C19, PON1 genetic variant influences post-clopidogrel platelet reactivity in Chinese patients. International journal of cardiology. 2013. Wu Hongyi, et al. PubMed
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Effect of CYP2C19*2 and *17 genetic variants on platelet response to clopidogrel and prasugrel maintenance dose and relation to bleeding complications. The American journal of cardiology. 2013. Grosdidier Charlotte, et al. PubMed
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Effects of coexisting polymorphisms of CYP2C19 and P2Y12 on clopidogrel responsiveness and clinical outcome in patients with acute coronary syndromes undergoing stent-based coronary intervention. Chinese medical journal. 2013. Tang Xiao-Fang, et al. PubMed
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Relationship Between CYP2C19 Loss-of-Function Polymorphism and Platelet Reactivities With Clopidogrel Treatment in Japanese Patients Undergoing Coronary Stent Implantation. Circulation journal : official journal of the Japanese Circulation Society. 2013. Nakata Tomoyuki, et al. PubMed
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Relationship Between CYP2C19 Loss-of-Function Polymorphism and Platelet Reactivities With Clopidogrel Treatment in Japanese Patients Undergoing Coronary Stent Implantation. Circulation journal : official journal of the Japanese Circulation Society. 2013. Nakata Tomoyuki, et al. PubMed
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Clopidogrel and warfarin pharmacogenetic tests: what is the evidence for use in clinical practice?. Current opinion in cardiology. 2013. Shahin Mohamed H A, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 polymorphism and antiplatelet effects of clopidogrel in Chinese stroke patients. Die Pharmazie. 2013. Yang Jie, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C19 influences the response to clopidogrel in ischemic heart disease patients in the South Indian Tamilian population. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Subraja K, et al. PubMed
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Carboxylesterase 1 as a determinant of clopidogrel metabolism and activation. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 2013. Zhu Hao-Jie, et al. PubMed
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Spaced administration of PA32540 and clopidogrel results in greater platelet inhibition than synchronous administration of enteric-coated aspirin and enteric-coated omeprazole and clopidogrel. American heart journal. 2013. Gurbel Paul A, et al. PubMed
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Genetic Variation in PEAR1 is Associated with Platelet Aggregation and Cardiovascular Outcomes. Circulation. Cardiovascular genetics. 2013. Lewis Joshua P, et al. PubMed
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Mutational analysis clopidogrel resistance and platelet function in patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting. Genomics. 2013. Correll Mick, et al. PubMed
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High-dose atorvastatin on the pharmacodynamic effects of double-dose clopidogrel in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions: The ACHIDO (Atorvastatin and Clopidogrel HIgh DOse in stable patients with residual high platelet activity) study. JACC. Cardiovascular interventions. 2013. Leoncini Mario, et al. PubMed
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Relationship of CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*3 Gene Polymorphism with Clopidogrel Response Variability and Recurrent Cardiovascular Events in Chinese Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention. Pharmacology. 2013. Liu Yamin, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Clinical pharmacogenomics: opportunities and challenges at point of care. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2013. Scott S A. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Amlodipine - Not a Significant Contributor to Clopidogrel Non-Response?. Heart (British Cardiac Society). 2013. Kreutz Rolf P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Cardiovascular risk among patients on clopidogrel anti-platelet therapy after placement of drug-eluting stents is modified by genetic variants in both the CYP2C19 and ABCB1 genes. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2013. Carlquist J F, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 3A4*22, PPAR-alpha, and ARNT polymorphisms and clopidogrel response. Clinical pharmacology : advances and applications. 2013. Kreutz Rolf P, et al. PubMed
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Paraoxonase-1 Q192R polymorphism is not associated with clopidogrel response in Chinese stroke patients. Die Pharmazie. 2012. Yang Jie, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 polymorphisms in the Thai population and the clinical response to clopidogrel in patients with atherothrombotic-risk factors. Pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine. 2013. Sukasem Chonlaphat, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics and cardiovascular disease--implications for personalized medicine. Pharmacological reviews. 2013. Johnson Julie A, et al. PubMed
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Effects of VerifyNow P2Y12 test and CYP2C19*2 testing on clinical outcomes of patients with cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Platelets. 2013. Yamaguchi Yusuke, et al. PubMed
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Indirect estimation of the comparative treatment effect in pharmacogenomic subgroups. PloS one. 2013. Sorich Michael J, et al. PubMed
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Paraoxonase 1 Gene Polymorphism Does Not Affect Clopidogrel Response Variability but Is Associated with Clinical Outcome after PCI. PloS one. 2013. Park Kyung Woo, et al. PubMed
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Cardiovascular outcomes associated with concomitant use of clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitors in patients with acute coronary syndrome in Taiwan. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2012. Lin Chen-Fang, et al. PubMed
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Clarifying the importance of CYP2C19 and PON1 in the mechanism of clopidogrel bioactivation and in vivo antiplatelet response. European heart journal. 2012. Gong Inna Y, et al. PubMed
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Effect of the CYP2C19*2 and *3 genotypes, ABCB1 C3435T and PON1 Q192R alleles on the pharmacodynamics and adverse clinical events of clopidogrel in Chinese people after percutaneous coronary intervention. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2012. Tang Xiao-Fang, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics in clinical practice and drug development. Nature biotechnology. 2012. Harper Andrew R, et al. PubMed
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Cardiovascular Pharmacogenomics: The Future of Cardiovascular Therapeutics?. The Canadian journal of cardiology. 2012. Roden Dan M. PubMed
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Bedside monitoring to adjust antiplatelet therapy for coronary stenting. The New England journal of medicine. 2012. Collet Jean-Philippe, et al. PubMed
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The functional G143E variant of carboxylesterase 1 is associated with increased clopidogrel active metabolite levels and greater clopidogrel response. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. Lewis Joshua P, et al. PubMed
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Effects of CYP2C19 variant alleles on postclopidogrel platelet reactivity and clinical outcomes in an actual clinical setting in China. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. Wu Hongyi, et al. PubMed
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The paraoxonase-1 pathway is not a major bioactivation pathway of clopidogrel in vitro. British journal of pharmacology. 2012. Ancrenaz V, et al. PubMed
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Ability of rabeprazole to prevent gastric mucosal damage from clopidogrel and low doses of aspirin depends on CYP2C19 genotype. Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association. 2012. Uotani Takahiro, et al. PubMed
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Value of platelet pharmacogenetics in common clinical practice of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. International journal of cardiology. 2012. Verschuren Jeffrey J W, et al. PubMed
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The clinical relevance of the clopidogrel-proton pump inhibitor interaction. Journal of cardiovascular translational research. 2012. Mohammad Atif, et al. PubMed
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Association between polymorphisms of eNOS and GPx-1 genes, activity of free-radical processes and in-stent restenosis. Molecular and cellular biochemistry. 2012. Shuvalova Yu A, et al. PubMed
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Meta-analysis of cytochrome P450 2C19 polymorphism and risk of adverse clinical outcomes among coronary artery disease patients of different ethnic groups treated with clopidogrel. The American journal of cardiology. 2012. Jang Jae-Sik, et al. PubMed
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Protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) mediated platelet aggregation is dependant on clopidogrel response. Thrombosis research. 2012. Kreutz Rolf P, et al. PubMed
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Operational implementation of prospective genotyping for personalized medicine: the design of the Vanderbilt PREDICT project. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2012. Pulley J M, et al. PubMed
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Influence of the paraoxonase-1 Q192R genetic variant on clopidogrel responsiveness and recurrent cardiovascular events: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2012. Reny J-L, et al. PubMed
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Factors associated with the failure of clopidogrel dose-adjustment according to platelet reactivity monitoring to optimize P2Y12-ADP receptor blockade. Thrombosis research. 2012. Bonello Laurent, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of clopidogrel: comparison between a standard and a rapid genetic testing. Genetic testing and molecular biomarkers. 2012. Saracini Claudia, et al. PubMed
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Relationship between cytochrome P450 2C19*17 genotype distribution, platelet aggregation and bleeding risk in patients with blood stasis syndrome of coronary artery disease treated with clopidogrel. Zhong xi yi jie he xue bao = Journal of Chinese integrative medicine. 2012. Dai Ze-long, et al. PubMed
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Effects of clopidogrel and itraconazole on the disposition of efavirenz and its hydroxyl-metabolites: exploration of a novel CYP2B6 phenotyping index. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2012. Jiang Fen, et al. PubMed
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Clopidogrel: a case for indication-specific pharmacogenetics. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2012. Johnson J A, et al. PubMed
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Influence of genetic polymorphisms on the effect of high- and standard-dose clopidogrel after percutaneous coronary intervention: the GIFT (Genotype Information and Functional Testing) study. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2012. Price Matthew J, et al. PubMed
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Point-of-care genetic testing for personalisation of antiplatelet treatment (RAPID GENE): a prospective, randomised, proof-of-concept trial. Lancet. 2012. Roberts Jason D, et al. PubMed
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The impact of genetic polymorphisms of P2Y12, CYP3A5 and CYP2C19 on clopidogrel response variability in Iranian patients. Biochemical pharmacology. 2012. Namazi Soha, et al. PubMed
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Interaction analysis between genetic polymorphisms and pharmacodynamic effect in patients treated with adjunctive cilostazol to dual antiplatelet therapy: results of the ACCEL-TRIPLE (Accelerated Platelet Inhibition by Triple Antiplatelet Therapy According to Gene Polymorphism) study. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2012. Kim In-Suk, et al. PubMed
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Effect of PON1 Q192R genetic polymorphism on clopidogrel efficacy and cardiovascular events in the Clopidogrel in the Unstable Angina to Prevent Recurrent Events trial and the Atrial Fibrillation Clopidogrel Trial with Irbesartan for Prevention of Vascular Events. Circulation. Cardiovascular genetics. 2012. Paré Guillaume, et al. PubMed
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Paraoxonase 1 Q192R variant and clopidogrel efficacy: fact or fiction?. Circulation. Cardiovascular genetics. 2012. Lewis Joshua P, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 genotype and cardiovascular events. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. 2012. Shuldiner Alan R, et al. PubMed
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Cardiovascular pharmacogenomics: current status and future directions-report of a national heart, lung, and blood institute working group. Journal of the American Heart Association. 2012. Musunuru Kiran, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 and PON1 polymorphisms regulating clopidogrel bioactivation in Chinese, Malay and Indian subjects. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Chan Mark Y, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19*2 and other genetic variants affecting platelet response to clopidogrel in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Thrombosis research. 2012. Kassimis George, et al. PubMed
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Predicting clopidogrel response using DNA samples linked to an electronic health record. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2012. Delaney J T, et al. PubMed
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The gain-of-function variant allele CYP2C19*17: a double-edged sword between thrombosis and bleeding in clopidogrel-treated patients. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2012. Li Y, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics following maintenance doses of prasugrel and clopidogrel in Chinese carriers of CYP2C19 variants. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2012. Kelly Ronan P, et al. PubMed
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Association of cytochrome P450 2C19*2 polymorphism with clopidogrel response variability and cardiovascular events in Koreans treated with drug-eluting stents. Heart (British Cardiac Society). 2012. Oh Il-Young, et al. PubMed
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The influence of CYP2C19*2 and *17 on on-treatment platelet reactivity and bleeding events in patients undergoing elective coronary stenting. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. Harmsze Ankie M, et al. PubMed
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Effect of CYP2C19*2 and *3 loss-of-function alleles on platelet reactivity and adverse clinical events in East Asian acute myocardial infarction survivors treated with clopidogrel and aspirin. Circulation. Cardiovascular interventions. 2011. Jeong Young-Hoon, et al. PubMed
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Influence of paraoxonase-1 Q192R and cytochrome P450 2C19 polymorphisms on clopidogrel response. Clinical pharmacology : advances and applications. 2012. Kreutz Rolf P, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19*2/ABCB1-C3435T polymorphism and risk of cardiovascular events in coronary artery disease patients on clopidogrel: is clinical testing helpful?. Indian heart journal. 2012. Singh Mukesh, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 genotype, clopidogrel metabolism, platelet function, and cardiovascular events: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. 2011. Holmes Michael V, et al. PubMed
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Antiplatelet effects of prasugrel vs. double clopidogrel in patients on hemodialysis and with high on-treatment platelet reactivity. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2011. Alexopoulos D, et al. PubMed
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High on-treatment platelet reactivity by ADP and increased risk of MACE in good clopidogrel metabolizers. Platelets. 2012. Marcucci Rossella, et al. PubMed
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ABCB1 C3435T polymorphism and response to clopidogrel treatment in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients: a meta-analysis. PloS one. 2012. Su Jia, et al. PubMed
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Paraoxonase-1 is not a major determinant of stent thrombosis in a Taiwanese population. PloS one. 2012. Chen Dong-Yi, et al. PubMed
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Dosing Clopidogrel Based on CYP2C19 Genotype and the Effect on Platelet Reactivity in Patients With Stable Cardiovascular Disease. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. 2011. Mega Jessica L, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 But Not PON1 Genetic Variants Influence Clopidogrel Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Clinical Efficacy in Post-Myocardial Infarction Patients. Circulation. Cardiovascular interventions. 2011. Hulot Jean-Sébastien, et al. PubMed
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Effect of paraoxonase-1 polymorphism on clinical outcomes in patients treated with clopidogrel after an acute myocardial infarction. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Simon T, et al. PubMed
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Clinical, angiographic, and genetic factors associated with early coronary stent thrombosis. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. 2011. Cayla Guillaume, et al. PubMed
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Relationship between paraoxonase Q192R gene polymorphism and on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity over time in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2011. Campo G, et al. PubMed
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PharmGKB summary: very important pharmacogene information for CYP1A2. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Thorn Caroline F, et al. PubMed
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PharmGKB summary: very important pharmacogene information for cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily C, polypeptide 19. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Scott Stuart A, et al. PubMed
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Impact of genetic variants on post-clopidogrel platelet reactivity in patients after elective percutaneous coronary intervention. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Rideg Orsolya, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 2C19 polymorphism is associated with reduced clopidogrel response in cerebrovascular disease. Yonsei medical journal. 2011. Lee Jun-Beom, et al. PubMed
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Paraoxonase-1 Q192R polymorphism and antiplatelet effects of clopidogrel in patients undergoing elective coronary stent placement. Circulation. Cardiovascular genetics. 2011. Trenk Dietmar, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphisms and the impact of a higher clopidogrel dose regimen on active metabolite exposure and antiplatelet response in healthy subjects. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Simon T, et al. PubMed
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Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) Gene Variants Are Not Associated With Clopidogrel Response. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Lewis J P, et al. PubMed
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Variability in on-treatment platelet reactivity explained by CYP2C19*2 genotype is modest in clopidogrel pretreated patients undergoing coronary stenting. Heart (British Cardiac Society). 2011. Bouman Heleen J, et al. PubMed
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High on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity: genotyping can help to optimize antiplatelet treatment. Thrombosis research. 2011. Szymezak Jean, et al. PubMed
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Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium Guidelines for Cytochrome P450-2C19 (CYP2C19) Genotype and Clopidogrel Therapy. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Scott S A, et al. PubMed
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Carrying one or two reduced-function CYP2C19 alleles is associated with an increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events in people undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention and treated with clopidogrel. Evidence-based medicine. 2011. Ramirez Andrea H, et al. PubMed
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Evaluation of a CYP2C19 genotype panel on the GenMark eSensor® platform and the comparison to the Autogenomics Infiniti™ and Luminex CYP2C19 panels. Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry. 2011. Lee Christine C, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics: the genetics of variable drug responses. Circulation. 2011. Roden Dan M, et al. PubMed
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No association of paraoxonase-1 Q192R genotypes with platelet response to clopidogrel and risk of stent thrombosis after coronary stenting. European heart journal. 2011. Sibbing Dirk, et al. PubMed
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Cilostazol attenuates on-treatment platelet reactivity in patients with CYP2C19 loss of function alleles receiving dual antiplatelet therapy: a genetic substudy of the CILON-T randomised controlled trial. Heart (British Cardiac Society). 2011. Park Kyung Woo, et al. PubMed
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Platelet inhibition by adjunctive cilostazol versus high maintenance-dose clopidogrel in patients with acute myocardial infarction according to cytochrome P450 2C19 genotype. JACC. Cardiovascular interventions. 2011. Kim In-Suk, et al. PubMed
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Clinical, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacogenetic determinants of clopidogrel resistance in Korean patients with acute coronary syndrome. The Korean journal of laboratory medicine. 2011. Park Kyoung-Jin, et al. PubMed
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The relation between CYP2C19 genotype and phenotype in stented patients on maintenance dual antiplatelet therapy. American heart journal. 2011. Gurbel Paul A, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics: From Bench to Byte- An Update of Guidelines. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Swen J J, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics of the RNA world: structural RNA polymorphisms in drug therapy. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Sadee W, et al. PubMed
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Standard- vs high-dose clopidogrel based on platelet function testing after percutaneous coronary intervention: the GRAVITAS randomized trial. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. 2011. Price Matthew J, et al. PubMed
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Impact of CYP2C19 polymorphism on residual platelet reactivity in patients with coronary heart disease during antiplatelet therapy. Journal of cardiology. 2011. Yamamoto Koichiro, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 2C19 polymorphism is associated with poor clinical outcomes in coronary artery disease patients treated with clopidogrel. Molecular biology reports. 2011. Jin Bo, et al. PubMed
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Very important pharmacogene summary: ABCB1 (MDR1, P-glycoprotein). Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Hodges Laura M, et al. PubMed
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Genomics and drug response. The New England journal of medicine. 2011. Wang Liewei, et al. PubMed
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Identification of CYP2C19*4B: pharmacogenetic implications for drug metabolism including clopidogrel responsiveness. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2011. Scott S A, et al. PubMed
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Differential Impacts of CYP2C19 Gene Polymorphisms on the Antiplatelet Effects of Clopidogrel and Ticlopidine. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Maeda A, et al. PubMed
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From evidence based medicine to mechanism based medicine. Reviewing the role of pharmacogenetics. International journal of clinical pharmacy. 2011. Wilffert Bob, et al. PubMed
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Genetic substudy of the PLATO trial. Lancet. 2011. Hulot Jean-Sébastien, et al. PubMed
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Clinical Events as a Function of Proton Pump Inhibitor Use, Clopidogrel Use, and Cytochrome P450 2C19 Genotype in a Large Nationwide Cohort of Acute Myocardial Infarction: Results From the French Registry of Acute ST-Elevation and Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (FAST-MI) Registry. Circulation. 2011. Simon Tabassome, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics and Clopidogrel Response in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Interventions. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Beitelshees A L, et al. PubMed
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Paraoxonase-1 is a major determinant of clopidogrel efficacy. Nature medicine. 2011. Bouman Heleen J, et al. PubMed
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Practical recommendations for pharmacogenomics-based prescription: 2010 ESF-UB Conference on Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Becquemont Laurent, et al. PubMed
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The cytochrome 2C19*2 and *3 alleles attenuate response to clopidogrel similarly in East Asian patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention. Thrombosis research. 2011. Hwang Seok-Jae, et al. PubMed
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Enhanced Clopidogrel Responsiveness in Smokers. Smokers' Paradox Is Dependent on Cytochrome P450 CYP1A2 Status. Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology. 2010. Park Kyung Woo, et al. PubMed
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Impact of cytochrome P450 2C19*2 polymorphism on intra-stent thrombus after drug-eluting stent implantation in Japanese patients receiving clopidogrel. Circulation journal : official journal of the Japanese Circulation Society. 2010. Sawada Takahiro, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C9*3 alleles are associated with stent thrombosis: a case-control study. European heart journal. 2010. Harmsze Ankie M, et al. PubMed
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The influence of CYP 2C19*2 polymorphism on platelet function testing during single antiplatelet treatment with clopidogrel. Thrombosis journal. 2011. Pettersen Alf-Aage R, et al. PubMed
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National estimates of emergency department visits for hemorrhage-related adverse events from clopidogrel plus aspirin and from warfarin. Archives of internal medicine. 2010. Shehab Nadine, et al. PubMed
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Impact of CYP2C19 polymorphism and smoking on response to clopidogrel in patients with stable coronary artery disease. Chinese medical journal. 2010. Liu Xiao-Li, et al. PubMed
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Pre-procedural platelet reactivity after clopidogrel loading in korean patients undergoing scheduled percutaneous coronary intervention. Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis. 2010. Kang Min-Kyung, et al. PubMed
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Clopidogrel loading dose adjustment according to platelet reactivity monitoring in patients carrying the 2C19*2 loss of function polymorphism. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2010. Bonello Laurent, et al. PubMed
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Systematic review of pharmacoeconomic studies of pharmacogenomic tests. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Beaulieu Mathieu, et al. PubMed
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Letter by Gurbel et al regarding article, "Cytochrome 2C19*17 allelic variant, platelet aggregation, bleeding events, and stent thrombosis in clopidogrel-treated patients with coronary stent placement". Circulation. 2010. Gurbel Paul A, et al. PubMed
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Impact of genetic polymorphisms and drug-drug interactions on clopidogrel and prasugrel response variability. Current drug metabolism. 2010. Ancrenaz V, et al. PubMed
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Pilot study of the antiplatelet effect of increased clopidogrel maintenance dosing and its relationship to CYP2C19 genotype in patients with high on-treatment reactivity. JACC. Cardiovascular interventions. 2010. Barker Colin M, et al. PubMed
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Clopidogrel and the reduced-function CYP2C19 genetic variant: a limited piece of the overall therapeutic puzzle. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. 2010. Fuster Valentin, et al. PubMed
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Reduced-function CYP2C19 genotype and risk of adverse clinical outcomes among patients treated with clopidogrel predominantly for PCI: a meta-analysis. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. 2010. Mega Jessica L, et al. PubMed
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Effect of CYP2C19 and ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms on outcomes of treatment with ticagrelor versus clopidogrel for acute coronary syndromes: a genetic substudy of the PLATO trial. Lancet. 2010. Wallentin Lars, et al. PubMed
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Genetic variants in ABCB1 and CYP2C19 and cardiovascular outcomes after treatment with clopidogrel and prasugrel in the TRITON-TIMI 38 trial: a pharmacogenetic analysis. Lancet. 2010. Mega Jessica L, et al. PubMed
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Effects of CYP2C19 genotype on outcomes of clopidogrel treatment. The New England journal of medicine. 2010. Paré Guillaume, et al. PubMed
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Protective effect of the CYP2C19 *17 polymorphism with increased activation of clopidogrel on cardiovascular events. American heart journal. 2010. Tiroch Klaus A, et al. PubMed
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Responding to the clopidogrel warning by the US food and drug administration: real life is complicated. Circulation. 2010. Roden Dan M, et al. PubMed
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Isolated and interactive impact of common CYP2C19 genetic variants on the antiplatelet effect of chronic clopidogrel therapy. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2010. Sibbing D, et al. PubMed
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PharmGKB summary: very important pharmacogene information for CYP2B6. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Thorn Caroline F, et al. PubMed
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Carriage of cytochrome 2C19 polymorphism is associated with risk of high post-treatment platelet reactivity on high maintenance-dose clopidogrel of 150 mg/day: results of the ACCEL-DOUBLE (Accelerated Platelet Inhibition by a Double Dose of Clopidogrel According to Gene Polymorphism) study. JACC. Cardiovascular interventions. 2010. Jeong Young-Hoon, et al. PubMed
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ACCF/AHA clopidogrel clinical alert: approaches to the FDA "boxed warning": a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Task Force on clinical expert consensus documents and the American Heart Association endorsed by the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2010. Holmes David R, et al. PubMed
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Cardiovascular risk in clopidogrel-treated patients according to cytochrome P450 2C19*2 loss-of-function allele or proton pump inhibitor coadministration: a systematic meta-analysis. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2010. Hulot Jean-Sébastien, et al. PubMed
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Genotyping: one piece of the puzzle to personalize antiplatelet therapy. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2010. Gurbel Paul A, et al. PubMed
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The case for routine genotyping in dual-antiplatelet therapy. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2010. Damani Samir B, et al. PubMed
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Clopidogrel pathway. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Sangkuhl Katrin, et al. PubMed
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Impact of cytochrome P450 2C19 loss-of-function polymorphism and of major demographic characteristics on residual platelet function after loading and maintenance treatment with clopidogrel in patients undergoing elective coronary stent placement. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2010. Hochholzer Willibald, et al. PubMed
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Platelet pharmacogenomics. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2010. Zuern C S, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of CYP2C19: functional and clinical implications of a new variant CYP2C19*17. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2010. Li-Wan-Po Alain, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome 2C19*17 allelic variant, platelet aggregation, bleeding events, and stent thrombosis in clopidogrel-treated patients with coronary stent placement. Circulation. 2010. Sibbing Dirk, et al. PubMed
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Identification of the human cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the two oxidative steps in the bioactivation of clopidogrel to its pharmacologically active metabolite. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2010. Kazui Miho, et al. PubMed
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Relation of CYP2C19 loss-of-function polymorphism to the occurrence of stent thrombosis. Expert opinion on drug metabolism & toxicology. 2010. Giusti Betti, et al. PubMed
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Metabolism and disposition of the thienopyridine antiplatelet drugs ticlopidine, clopidogrel, and prasugrel in humans. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2010. Farid Nagy A, et al. PubMed
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Besides CYP2C19*2, the variant allele CYP2C9*3 is associated with higher on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity in patients on dual antiplatelet therapy undergoing elective coronary stent implantation. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Harmsze Ankie, et al. PubMed
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Impact of genetic and acquired alteration in cytochrome P450 system on pharmacologic and clinical response to clopidogrel. Pharmacology & therapeutics. 2010. Ma Terry K W, et al. PubMed
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Prasugrel compared with high-dose clopidogrel in acute coronary syndrome. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2010. Montalescot Gilles, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 2C19(*)2 polymorphism and cardiovascular recurrences in patients taking clopidogrel: a meta-analysis. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Sofi F, et al. PubMed
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High Maintenance Dosage of Clopidogrel is Associated with a Reduced Risk of Stent Thrombosis in Clopidogrel-Resistant Patients. American journal of cardiovascular drugs : drugs, devices, and other interventions. 2010. Tavassoli Neda, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 2C19 polymorphism, suboptimal reperfusion and all-cause mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Cardiology. 2010. Małek Lukasz A, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics in cardiovascular antithrombotic therapy. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2009. Marín Francisco, et al. PubMed
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Histone deacetylase inhibitors induce a very broad, pleiotropic anticancer drug resistance phenotype in acute myeloid leukemia cells by modulation of multiple ABC transporter genes. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2009. Hauswald Stefanie, et al. PubMed
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Evaluation of individualized clopidogrel therapy after drug-eluting stent implantation in patients with high residual platelet reactivity: design and rationale of the GRAVITAS trial. American heart journal. 2009. Price Matthew J, et al. PubMed
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Review of recent evidence: potential interaction between clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitors. American journal of health-system pharmacy : AJHP : official journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. 2009. Last Esther J, et al. PubMed
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High loading dose of clopidogrel is unable to satisfactorily inhibit platelet reactivity in patients with glycoprotein IIIA gene polymorphism: a genetic substudy of PRAGUE-8 trial. Blood coagulation & fibrinolysis : an international journal in haemostasis and thrombosis. 2009. Motovska Zuzana, et al. PubMed
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Can we override clopidogrel resistance?. Circulation. 2009. Pena Ana, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 genetic polymorphisms and the response to prasugrel: relationship to pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and clinical outcomes. Circulation. 2009. Mega Jessica L, et al. PubMed
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Randomized double-blind assessment of the ONSET and OFFSET of the antiplatelet effects of ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in patients with stable coronary artery disease: the ONSET/OFFSET study. Circulation. 2009. Gurbel Paul A, et al. PubMed
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Impact of CYP2C19 polymorphisms on the antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel in an actual clinical setting in Japan. Circulation journal : official journal of the Japanese Circulation Society. 2009. Jinnai Toshikazu, et al. PubMed
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Common variation in the platelet receptor P2RY12 gene is associated with residual on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary interventions. Circulation. Cardiovascular genetics. 2009. Rudez Goran, et al. PubMed
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The genetics of antiplatelet drug resistance. Clinical genetics. 2009. Feher G, et al. PubMed
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Mechanism-based inhibition of human cytochrome P450 2B6 by ticlopidine, clopidogrel, and the thiolactone metabolite of prasugrel. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2009. Nishiya Yumi, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 2C19 loss-of-function polymorphism and stent thrombosis following percutaneous coronary intervention. European heart journal. 2009. Sibbing Dirk, et al. PubMed
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Genetic variation of CYP2C19 affects both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic responses to clopidogrel but not prasugrel in aspirin-treated patients with coronary artery disease. European heart journal. 2009. Varenhorst Christoph, et al. PubMed
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P2Y(12) inhibitors: differences in properties and mechanisms of action and potential consequences for clinical use. European heart journal. 2009. Wallentin Lars. PubMed
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Recent developments in clopidogrel pharmacology and their relation to clinical outcomes. Expert opinion on drug metabolism & toxicology. 2009. Gurbel Paul A, et al. PubMed
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Frequency of CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 variant alleles in patients receiving clopidogrel that experience repeat acute coronary syndrome. Heart and vessels. 2009. Brackbill Marcia L, et al. PubMed
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Platelet reactivity and clopidogrel resistance are associated with the H2 haplotype of the P2Y12-ADP receptor gene. International journal of cardiology. 2009. Staritz Peter, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic testing for clopidogrel using the rapid INFINITI analyzer: a dose-escalation study. JACC. Cardiovascular interventions. 2009. Gladding Patrick, et al. PubMed
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Association of cytochrome P450 2C19 genotype with the antiplatelet effect and clinical efficacy of clopidogrel therapy. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. 2009. Shuldiner Alan R, et al. PubMed
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Clopidogrel inhibits CYP2C19-dependent hydroxylation of omeprazole related to CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2009. Chen B L, et al. PubMed
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The efficacy and safety of prasugrel with and without a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor in patients with acute coronary syndromes undergoing percutaneous intervention: a TRITON-TIMI 38 (Trial to Assess Improvement in Therapeutic Outcomes by Optimizing Platelet Inhibition With Prasugrel-Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction 38) analysis. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2009. O'Donoghue Michelle, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19*2 polymorphism is not the sole determinant of the response to clopidogrel: implications for its monitoring. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2009. Aleil B, et al. PubMed
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The CYP2C19*17 allele is associated with better platelet response to clopidogrel in patients admitted for non-ST acute coronary syndrome. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2009. Frére C, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 2C19 polymorphism in young patients treated with clopidogrel after myocardial infarction: a cohort study. Lancet. 2009. Collet Jean-Philippe, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacodynamic effect and clinical efficacy of clopidogrel and prasugrel with or without a proton-pump inhibitor: an analysis of two randomised trials. Lancet. 2009. O'Donoghue Michelle L, et al. PubMed
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Antiplatelet drug 'resistance'. Part 1: mechanisms and clinical measurements. Nature reviews. Cardiology. 2009. Sweeny Joseph M, et al. PubMed
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Clopidogrel pharmacogenomics and risk of inadequate platelet inhibition: US FDA recommendations. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Ellis Kyle J, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics and stroke. Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation. 2009. Meschia James F. PubMed
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Relation of cytochrome P450 2C19 loss-of-function polymorphism to occurrence of drug-eluting coronary stent thrombosis. The American journal of cardiology. 2009. Giusti Betti, et al. PubMed
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Relation of genetic polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 gene with clopidogrel resistance after drug-eluting stent implantation in Koreans. The American journal of cardiology. 2009. Lee Jung Myung, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P-450 polymorphisms and response to clopidogrel. The New England journal of medicine. 2009. Taubert Dirk, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome p-450 polymorphisms and response to clopidogrel. The New England journal of medicine. 2009. Mega Jessica L, et al. PubMed
Genetic determinants of response to clopidogrel and cardiovascular events. The New England journal of medicine. 2009. Simon Tabassome, et al. PubMed
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Ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes. The New England journal of medicine. 2009. Wallentin Lars, et al. PubMed
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Variable platelet responsiveness to aspirin and clopidogrel: role of platelet function and genetic polymorphism testing. Translational research : the journal of laboratory and clinical medicine. 2009. Azam Salman M, et al. PubMed
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Decreased susceptibility of the cytochrome P450 2B6 variant K262R to inhibition by several clinically important drugs. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2009. Talakad Jyothi C, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics--tailoring treatment for the outliers. The New England journal of medicine. 2009. Woodcock Janet, et al. PubMed
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Redox regulation of multidrug resistance in cancer chemotherapy: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic opportunities. Antioxidants & redox signaling. 2009. Kuo Macus Tien. PubMed
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Several major antiepileptic drugs are substrates for human P-glycoprotein. Neuropharmacology. 2008. Luna-Tortós Carlos, et al. PubMed
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Functional pharmacogenetics/genomics of human cytochromes P450 involved in drug biotransformation. Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry. 2008. Zanger Ulrich M, et al. PubMed
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Structure, function and regulation of P-glycoprotein and its clinical relevance in drug disposition. Xenobiotica; the fate of foreign compounds in biological systems. 2008. Zhou S-F. PubMed
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Role of glycoprotein Ia gene polymorphisms in determining platelet function in myocardial infarction patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention on dual antiplatelet treatment. Atherosclerosis. 2008. Giusti Betti, et al. PubMed
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Coexisting polymorphisms of P2Y12 and CYP2C19 genes as a risk factor for persistent platelet activation with clopidogrel. Circulation journal : official journal of the Japanese Circulation Society. 2008. Malek Lukasz A, et al. PubMed
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Inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation by clopidogrel is related to CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms. Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology. 2008. Chen Bi-Lian, et al. PubMed
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The effect of CYP2C19 polymorphism on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of clopidogrel: a possible mechanism for clopidogrel resistance. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Kim K A, et al. PubMed
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Effect of ranitidine on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of prasugrel and clopidogrel. Current medical research and opinion. 2008. Small David S, et al. PubMed
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Prasugrel achieves greater and faster P2Y12receptor-mediated platelet inhibition than clopidogrel due to more efficient generation of its active metabolite in aspirin-treated patients with coronary artery disease. European heart journal. 2008. Wallentin Lars, et al. PubMed
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The pharmacogenetics and pharmacodynamics of clopidogrel response: an analysis from the PRINC (Plavix Response in Coronary Intervention) trial. JACC. Cardiovascular interventions. 2008. Gladding Patrick, et al. PubMed
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Effects of the proton pump inhibitor lansoprazole on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of prasugrel and clopidogrel. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2008. Small David S, et al. PubMed
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Quantitative determination of clopidogrel active metabolite in human plasma by LC-MS/MS. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis. 2008. Takahashi Makoto, et al. PubMed
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Calcium-channel blockers reduce the antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2008. Siller-Matula Jolanta M, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 2C19 681G>A polymorphism and high on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity associated with adverse 1-year clinical outcome of elective percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting or bare-metal stents. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2008. Trenk Dietmar, et al. PubMed
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The association of cigarette smoking with enhanced platelet inhibition by clopidogrel. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2008. Bliden Kevin P, et al. PubMed
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The common gene variants of CYP2C19 affect pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in an active metabolite of clopidogrel in healthy subjects. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2008. Umemura K, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 and nongenetic factors predict poor responsiveness to clopidogrel loading dose after coronary stent implantation. Pharmacogenomics. 2008. Geisler Tobias, et al. PubMed
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Effect of atorvastatin on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of prasugrel and clopidogrel in healthy subjects. Pharmacotherapy. 2008. Farid Nagy A, et al. PubMed
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Switching directly to prasugrel from clopidogrel results in greater inhibition of platelet aggregation in aspirin-treated subjects. Platelets. 2008. Payne Christopher D, et al. PubMed
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Effect of cytochrome p450 polymorphisms on platelet reactivity after treatment with clopidogrel in acute coronary syndrome. The American journal of cardiology. 2008. Frere Corinne, et al. PubMed
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Comparison of human cytochrome P450 inhibition by the thienopyridines prasugrel, clopidogrel, and ticlopidine. Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics. 2008. Hagihara Katsunobu, et al. PubMed
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Polymorphisms in the drug transporter gene ABCB1 predict antidepressant treatment response in depression. Neuron. 2008. Uhr Manfred, et al. PubMed
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Citalopram enantiomers in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of ABCB1 genotyped depressive patients and clinical response: a pilot study. Pharmacological research : the official journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society. 2008. Nikisch Georg, et al. PubMed
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Biological effect of increased maintenance dose of clopidogrel in cardiovascular outpatients and influence of the cytochrome P450 2C19*2 allele on clopidogrel responsiveness. Thrombosis research. 2008. Fontana Pierre, et al. PubMed
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Polymorphic CYP2B6: molecular mechanisms and emerging clinical significance. Pharmacogenomics. 2007. Zanger Ulrich M, et al. PubMed
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Variable platelet response to aspirin and clopidogrel in atherothrombotic disease. Circulation. 2007. Maree Andrew O, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 3A inhibition by ketoconazole affects prasugrel and clopidogrel pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics differently. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Farid N A, et al. PubMed
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Common polymorphisms of CYP2C19 and CYP2C9 affect the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic response to clopidogrel but not prasugrel. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2007. Brandt J T, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 gene polymorphisms on clopidogrel responsiveness in healthy subjects. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2007. Fontana P, et al. PubMed
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The greater in vivo antiplatelet effects of prasugrel as compared to clopidogrel reflect more efficient generation of its active metabolite with similar antiplatelet activity to that of clopidogrel's active metabolite. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2007. Sugidachi A, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 2C19 loss-of-function polymorphism, but not CYP3A4 IVS10 + 12G/A and P2Y12 T744C polymorphisms, is associated with response variability to dual antiplatelet treatment in high-risk vascular patients. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2007. Giusti Betti, et al. PubMed
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Oral anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy and peripheral arterial disease. The New England journal of medicine. 2007. Warfarin Antiplatelet Vascular Evaluation Trial Investigators, et al. PubMed
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Prasugrel versus clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes. The New England journal of medicine. 2007. Wiviott Stephen D, et al. PubMed
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The pharmacogenetics of antiplatelet drugs. Current opinion in investigational drugs (London, England : 2000). 2007. Marín Francisco, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphisms of the platelet receptors P2Y(12), P2Y(1) and GP IIIa and response to aspirin and clopidogrel. Thrombosis research. 2007. Lev Eli I, et al. PubMed
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Role of the T744C polymorphism of the P2Y12 gene on platelet response to a 600-mg loading dose of clopidogrel in 597 patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome. Thrombosis research. 2007. Cuisset Thomas, et al. PubMed
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Cobalamin potentiates vinblastine cytotoxicity through downregulation of mdr-1 gene expression in HepG2 cells. Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology. 2007. Marguerite Véronique, et al. PubMed
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Mechanism of inhibition of P-glycoprotein mediated efflux by vitamin E TPGS: influence on ATPase activity and membrane fluidity. Molecular pharmaceutics. 2007. Collnot Eva-Maria, et al. PubMed
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Clopidogrel pharmacogenetics: promising steps towards patient care?. Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology. 2006. Beitelshees Amber L, et al. PubMed
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Contribution of gene sequence variations of the hepatic cytochrome P450 3A4 enzyme to variability in individual responsiveness to clopidogrel. Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology. 2006. Angiolillo Dominick J, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 2C19 loss-of-function polymorphism is a major determinant of clopidogrel responsiveness in healthy subjects. Blood. 2006. Hulot Jean-Sébastien, et al. PubMed
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Gefitinib modulates the function of multiple ATP-binding cassette transporters in vivo. Cancer research. 2006. Leggas Markos, et al. PubMed
Impact of P-glycoprotein on clopidogrel absorption. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Taubert Dirk, et al. PubMed
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Effect of platelet antigen polymorphism on platelet inhibition by aspirin, clopidogrel, or their combination. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2006. Cooke Glen E, et al. PubMed
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P2Y1 gene A1622G dimorphism is not associated with adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet activation and aggregation after administration of a single high dose of clopidogrel. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2006. Sibbing D, et al. PubMed
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Role of the P2Y12 gene polymorphism in platelet responsiveness to clopidogrel in healthy subjects. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2006. Bura A, et al. PubMed
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Antiplatelet drug resistance and drug-drug interactions: Role of cytochrome P450 3A4. Pharmaceutical research. 2006. Lau Wei C, et al. PubMed
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Common sequence variations in the P2Y12 and CYP3A5 genes do not explain the variability in the inhibitory effects of clopidogrel therapy. Platelets. 2006. Smith Simon M G, et al. PubMed
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Antiplatelet agents aspirin and clopidogrel are hydrolyzed by distinct carboxylesterases, and clopidogrel is transesterificated in the presence of ethyl alcohol. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 2006. Tang Man, et al. PubMed
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Polymorphisms of COX-1 and GPVI associate with the antiplatelet effect of aspirin in coronary artery disease patients. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2006. Lepäntalo Aino, et al. PubMed
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Single nucleotide polymorphisms in human P-glycoprotein: its impact on drug delivery and disposition. Expert opinion on drug delivery. 2006. Dey Surajit. PubMed
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P2Y12 gene H2 haplotype is not associated with increased adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet aggregation after initiation of clopidogrel therapy with a high loading dose. Blood coagulation & fibrinolysis : an international journal in haemostasis and thrombosis. 2005. von Beckerath Nicolas, et al. PubMed
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P-selectin (CD62p) and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) polymorphisms: minor phenotypic differences in the formation of platelet-leukocyte aggregates and response to clopidogrel. International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2005. Klinkhardt U, et al. PubMed
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Association of a functional polymorphism in the clopidogrel target receptor gene, P2Y12, and the risk for ischemic cerebrovascular events in patients with peripheral artery disease. Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation. 2005. Ziegler Sophie, et al. PubMed
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Variability in platelet aggregation following sustained aspirin and clopidogrel treatment in patients with coronary heart disease and influence of the 807 C/T polymorphism of the glycoprotein Ia gene. The American journal of cardiology. 2005. Angiolillo Dominick J, et al. PubMed
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Lack of association between the P2Y12 receptor gene polymorphism and platelet response to clopidogrel in patients with coronary artery disease. Thrombosis research. 2005. Angiolillo Dominick J, et al. PubMed
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Influence of lipid lowering fibrates on P-glycoprotein activity in vitro. Biochemical pharmacology. 2004. Ehrhardt Manuela, et al. PubMed
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807 C/T Polymorphism of the glycoprotein Ia gene and pharmacogenetic modulation of platelet response to dual antiplatelet treatment. Blood coagulation & fibrinolysis : an international journal in haemostasis and thrombosis. 2004. Angiolillo Dominick J, et al. PubMed
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PlA polymorphism and platelet reactivity following clopidogrel loading dose in patients undergoing coronary stent implantation. Blood coagulation & fibrinolysis : an international journal in haemostasis and thrombosis. 2004. Angiolillo Dominick J, et al. PubMed
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Contribution of hepatic cytochrome P450 3A4 metabolic activity to the phenomenon of clopidogrel resistance. Circulation. 2004. Lau Wei C, et al. PubMed
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Interactions of human P-glycoprotein with simvastatin, simvastatin acid, and atorvastatin. Pharmaceutical research. 2004. Hochman Jerome H, et al. PubMed
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Polymorphisms in human MDR1 (P-glycoprotein): recent advances and clinical relevance. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2004. Marzolini Catia, et al. PubMed
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Adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet aggregation is associated with P2Y12 gene sequence variations in healthy subjects. Circulation. 2003. Fontana Pierre, et al. PubMed
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The metabolism of clopidogrel is catalyzed by human cytochrome P450 3A and is inhibited by atorvastatin. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2003. Clarke Thomas A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
P2Y12, a new platelet ADP receptor, target of clopidogrel. Seminars in vascular medicine. 2003. Herbert Jean-Marc, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Genetic polymorphisms of the human MDR1 drug transporter. Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology. 2003. Schwab Matthias, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Interaction of omeprazole, lansoprazole and pantoprazole with P-glycoprotein. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's archives of pharmacology. 2001. Pauli-Magnus C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Identification and biological activity of the active metabolite of clopidogrel. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2000. Savi P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
The role of intestinal P-glycoprotein in the interaction of digoxin and rifampin. The Journal of clinical investigation. 1999. Greiner B, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Biochemical, cellular, and pharmacological aspects of the multidrug transporter. Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology. 1999. Ambudkar S V, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
A new genetic defect in human CYP2C19: mutation of the initiation codon is responsible for poor metabolism of S-mephenytoin. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 1998. Ferguson R J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Competitive, non-competitive and cooperative interactions between substrates of P-glycoprotein as measured by its ATPase activity. Biochimica et biophysica acta. 1997. Litman T, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
P-glycoprotein structure and evolutionary homologies. Cytotechnology. 1993. Croop J M. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Importance of hepatic metabolism in the antiaggregating activity of the thienopyridine clopidogrel. Biochemical pharmacology. 1992. Savi P, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

Web Resource:
Wikipedia
National Drug Code Directory:
63653-1171-6
DrugBank:
DB00758
ChEBI:
37941
KEGG Drug:
D00769
PubChem Compound:
60606
PubChem Substance:
196885
46507295
Drugs Product Database (DPD):
2238682
ChemSpider:
54632
Therapeutic Targets Database:
DAP000178
FDA Drug Label at DailyMed:
01b14603-8f29-4fa3-8d7e-9d523f802e0b

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention clopidogrel and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

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Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, Open Eye Scientific Software.