Drug/Small Molecule:
atorvastatin

PharmGKB contains no dosing guidelines for this drug/small molecule. To report known genotype-based dosing guidelines, or if you are interested in developing guidelines, click here.

PharmGKB gathers information regarding PGx on FDA drug labels from the FDA's "Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labels", and from FDA-approved FDA and EMA-approved (European Medicines Agency) EMA labels brought to our attention. Excerpts from the label and downloadable highlighted label PDFs are manually curated by PharmGKB.

Please note that some drugs may have been removed from or added to the FDA's "Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labels" without our knowledge. We periodically check the table for additions to this table and update PharmGKB accordingly.

There is currently no such list for European drug labels - we are working with the EMA to establish a list of European Public Assessment Reports (EPAR)s that contain PGx information. We are constructing this list by initially searching for drugs for which we have PGx-containing FDA drug labels - of these 44 EMA EPARs were identified and are being curated for pgx information.

We welcome any information regarding drug labels containing PGx information approved by the FDA, EMA or other Medicine Agencies around the world - please contact feedback.


last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for atorvastatin and LDLR

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Actionable PGx

Summary

Although the atorvastatin drug label does not specifically mention genetic testing, one of the indications listed is for the treatment of familial hypercholesterolemia, a genetically determined condition caused by mutations in the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), and one of the drug's mechanisms of action is increasing LDLR cell surface expression.

Annotation

Excerpts from the atorvastatin (Lipitor) drug label:

In animal models, LIPITOR lowers plasma cholesterol and lipoprotein levels by inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase and cholesterol synthesis in the liver and by increasing the number of hepatic LDL receptors on the cell surface to enhance uptake and catabolism of LDL; LIPITOR also reduces LDL production and the number of LDL particles. LIPITOR reduces LDL-C in some patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), a population that rarely responds to other lipid-lowering medication(s)...LIPITOR reduces total-C, LDL-C, and apo B in patients with homozygous and heterozygous FH, nonfamilial forms of hypercholesterolemia, and mixed dyslipidemia.

LIPITOR is indicated:
As an adjunct to diet to reduce elevated total-C, LDL-C, apoB, and TG levels and to increase HDL-C in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia (heterozygous familial and non-familial)...

To reduce total-C and LDL-C in patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia as an adjunct to other lipid lowering treatments (e.g., LDL apheresis) or if such treatments are unavailable;

As an adjunct to diet to reduce total-C, LDL-C, and apo B levels in boys and postmenarchal girls, 10 to 17 years of age, with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia...

For the complete drug label text with sections containing pharmacogenetic information highlighted, see the atorvastatin drug label.

*Disclaimer: The contents of this page have not been endorsed by the FDA and are the sole responsibility of PharmGKB.

Full label available at DailyMed

Genes and/or phenotypes found in this label

  • Angina Pectoris
    • Indications & usage section, Warnings section, Adverse reactions section
    • source: PHONT
  • Angina, Unstable
    • Indications & usage section, Warnings section, Adverse reactions section
    • source: PHONT
  • Coronary Artery Disease
    • Indications & usage section, Warnings section, Adverse reactions section
    • source: PHONT
  • Coronary Disease
    • Indications & usage section
    • source: PHONT
  • Death
    • Adverse reactions section
    • source: PHONT
  • Hypercholesterolemia
    • Indications & usage section, Contraindications section
    • source: PHONT
  • Hyperlipidemias
    • Indications & usage section, Adverse reactions section
    • source: PHONT
  • Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II
    • Indications & usage section
    • source: PHONT
  • Hypertension
    • Indications & usage section, Adverse reactions section
    • source: PHONT
  • Muscular Diseases
    • Warnings section, Adverse reactions section
    • source: PHONT
  • Myocardial Infarction
    • Indications & usage section, Warnings section, Adverse reactions section
    • source: PHONT
  • Myositis
    • Adverse reactions section
    • source: PHONT
  • Rhabdomyolysis
    • Warnings section, Adverse reactions section
    • source: PHONT
  • Stroke
    • Indications & usage section, Warnings section, Adverse reactions section
    • source: PHONT
  • CYP3A4
    • Drug interactions section, Pharmacokinetics section, Warnings and precautions section, metabolism/PK
    • source: FDA Label
  • HMGCR
    • Description section, Clinical pharmacology section, Mechanism of action section, other
    • source: FDA Label
  • LDLR
    • Indications & usage section, Dosage & administration section, Pediatric use section, Clinical studies section, Mechanism of action section, Use in specific populations section, other
    • source: FDA Label
  • SLCO1B1
    • Drug interactions section, metabolism/PK
    • source: FDA Label

PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the page.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

? = Mouse-over for quick help

This is a non-comprehensive list of genetic tests with pharmacogenetics relevance, typically submitted by the manufacturer and manually curated by PharmGKB. The information listed is provided for educational purposes only and does not constitute an endorsement of any listed test or manufacturer.

A more complete listing of genetic tests is found at the Genetic Testing Registry (GTR).

PGx Test Variants Assayed Gene?

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page.

Links in the "Gene" column lead to PharmGKB Gene Pages.

Gene ? Variant?
(138)
Alternate Names / Tag SNPs ? Drugs ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available No VIP available VA ABCB1 *1 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA ABCB1 *2 (PMID: 11503014) N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA ABCC2 H2 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA ABCC2 H12 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA APOE E2 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA No VIP available APOE E3 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA APOE E4 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2C19 *1 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2C19 *2 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2C19 *3 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2D6 *4 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA CYP3A4 *1 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA CYP3A4 *1G N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA CYP3A5 *1A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA CYP3A5 *3A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA No VIP available SLCO1B1 *1A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA No VIP available SLCO1B1 *1B N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA SLCO1B1 *15 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA UGT1A3 *1 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA UGT1A3 *2 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1001179 -262, -330C>T, 34400231C>T, 34460231C>T, 4760C>T, CAT -262C > T, CAT:
C > T
5' Flanking
No VIP available CA VA
rs1045642 208920T>A, 208920T>C, 25171488A>G, 25171488A>T, 3435T>A, 3435T>C, 87138645A>G, 87138645A>T, ABCB1*6, ABCB1: 3435C>T, ABCB1: C3435T, ABCB1: c.3435C>T, ABCB1:3435C>T, Ile1145=, Ile1145Ile, MDR1 3435C>T, MDR1 C3435T, PGP C3435T, c.3435C>T, mRNA 3853C>T
A > T
A > G
Synonymous
Ile1145Ile
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs10474433 25211202T>C, 74616843T>C
T > C
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1128503 1236T>C, 167964T>C, 25043506A>G, 87550285A>G, ABCB1 1236C>T, ABCB1*8, ABCB1: c.1236T>C, ABCB1:1236C>T, ABCB1:1236T>C, Gly412=, Gly412Gly, mRNA 1654T>C, p.Gly412Gly
A > G
Not Available
Gly412Gly
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1150226 -256A>G, -489A>G, 113845541A>G, 17407957A>G, 4745A>G
A > G
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs11591147 137G>T, 25477565G>T, 5428G>T, 55505647G>T
G > T
Missense
Arg46Leu
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs11807862 2757900T>A, 298527T>A, 3279268T>A, 439-22448T>A
T > A
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs11887534 -140-289C>G, -429C>G, -429C>T, 22888134G>A, 22888134G>C, 44066247G>A, 44066247G>C, 4712C>G, 4712C>T, 5145G>A, 5145G>C, 55G>A, 55G>C, ABCG8:D19H, Asp19Asn, Asp19His
G > C
G > A
Missense
Asp19His
No VIP available CA VA
rs12003906 107645477G>C, 107645477G>T, 303-39C>A, 303-39C>G, 36810009G>C, 36810009G>T, 49960C>A, 49960C>G
G > T
G > C
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs12487736 2392G>A, 47399679C>T, 47459679C>T, Val798Ile
C > T
Missense
Val798Ile
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs140700 24566G>A, 28543389C>T, 3280383C>T, 838-155G>A
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1440451 154868879G>C, 498245G>C, 741+5529G>C
G > C
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs17161788 *19A>G, 1890A>G, 2130A>G, 3234A>G, 36713A>G, 37278752T>C, 99245909T>C, C31611T; CYP3A5*1D
T > C
Not Available
rs17238540 2298+117T>G, 2457+117T>G, 25249857T>G, 27506T>G, 74655498T>G, HMGCR:SNP 29
T > G
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs17671591 25209380C>T, 74615021C>T
C > T
Not Available
No VIP available CA VA
rs1799752 16457_16458insATACAGTCACTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTGAGACGGAGTCTCGCTCTGTCGCCC, 2306-119_2306-118insATACAGTCACTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTGAGACGGAGTCTCGCTCTGTCGCCC, 26840042_26840043insATACAGTCACTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTGAGACGGAGTCTCGCTCTGTCGCCC, 584-119_584-118insATACAGTCACTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTGAGACGGAGTCTCGCTCTGTCGCCC, 61565890_61565891insATACAGTCACTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTGAGACGGAGTCTCGCTCTGTCGCCC, ACE D/I
- > ATACAGTCACTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTGAGACGGAGTCTCGCTCTGTCGCCC
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs1800591 -101-478G>T, -493 GT, 100495488G>T, 15249G>T, 25043209G>T
G > T
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs1800629 -308, -308G>A, -488G>A, 2828572G>A, 2836669G>A, 2873832G>A, 2885915G>A, 2922737G>A, 3052647A>A, 31483031G>A, 31543031G>A, 4682G>A, 8156G>A, TNF alpha -308G/A, TNF2, TNF:, TNF:-308 G/A, TNF:-308G/A
G > A
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1800775 -656C>A, 10609435C>A, 4402C>A, 56995236C>A, CETP:-629C>A
C > A
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1805054 19992513C>T, 267C>T, 6672601C>T, Tyr89=
C > T
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1805094 194705G>C, 1968G>C, 36047870G>C, 66075952G>C, Lys656Asn
G > C
Missense
Lys656Asn
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1891311 -1188T>C, 4056T>C, 43423080A>G, 92618616A>G
A > G
5' Flanking
No VIP available CA VA
rs1935349 28329G>A, 43398807C>T, 539+22547G>A, 92594343C>T
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2020933 -221+876T>A, 28561755A>T, 3298749A>T, 6200T>A
A > T
Intronic
rs2032582 186947T>A, 186947T>G, 25193461A>C, 25193461A>T, 2677A, 2677G, 2677T, 2677T>A, 2677T>G, 3095G>T/A, 87160618A>C, 87160618A>T, 893 Ala, 893 Ser, 893 Thr, ABCB1*7, ABCB1: 2677G>T/A, ABCB1: 2677T/A>G, ABCB1: A893S, ABCB1: G2677T/A, ABCB1: c.2677G>T/A, ABCB1:2677G>A/T, ABCB1:2677G>T/A, ABCB1:A893T, Ala893Ser/Thr, MDR1, MDR1 G2677T/A, Ser893Ala, Ser893Thr, mRNA 3095G>T/A, p.Ala893Ser/Thr
A > C
A > T
Missense
Ser893Ala
Ser893Thr
No VIP available CA VA
rs20455 2155T>C, 39265078A>G, 39325078A>G, KIF6:Trp719Arg, Trp719Arg
A > G
Missense
Trp719Arg
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2070744 -51-762C>T, -786, -813C>T, 11285702C>T, 150690079C>T, 6933C>T, NOS3 -786T>C, NOS3:, T>C, eNOS -786T>C
C > T
5' Flanking
No VIP available CA VA
rs2231142 13600044G>T, 32689C>A, 421C>A, 89052323G>T, ABCG2: Q141K, ABCG2:421C>A, ABCG2:Q141K, ABCG2:c.421C>A, Gln141Lys, rs2231142
G > T
Missense
Gln141Lys
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2234693 152163335T>C, 156705T>C, 453-397T>C, 56332792T>C, ESR1:PvuII, ESR1:c.454-397T>C, ESR1:rs2234693
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs2276307 113803887A>G, 17366303A>G, 33299A>G, 696+72A>G
A > G
Intronic
rs2306283 14089862A>G, 21329738A>G, 388A>G, 50611A>G, Asn130Asp, SLCO1B1*1B
A > G
Missense
Asn130Asp
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2740574 -392G>A, 37414939C>T, 4713G>A, 5'-flanking region -392A>G, 99382096C>T, CYP3A4*1B, CYP3A4-V, CYP3A4:-392A>G
C > T
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs35599367 20493C>T, 37399159G>A, 522-191C>T, 99366316G>A, CYP3A4*22
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3758987 -381T>C, 113775275T>C, 17337691T>C, 4687T>C
T > C
5' Flanking
No VIP available CA VA
rs3808607 -267C>A, 11277325G>T, 4798C>A, 59412924G>T
G > T
5' Flanking
rs3846662 1564-106A>G, 1722+45A>G, 23092A>G, 25245443A>G, 74651084A>G
A > G
Intronic
VIP No Clinical Annotations available No Variant Annotations available
rs4149015 -910G>A, 14043446G>A, 21283322G>A, 4195G>A, SLCO1B1:11187G>A, SLCO1B1:G-11187A
G > A
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4149036 14087864C>A, 21327740C>A, 359+97C>A, 48613C>A
C > A
Intronic
rs4149056 14091673T>C, 21331549T>C, 521T>C, 52422T>C, SLCO1B1*5, Val174Ala
T > C
Missense
Val174Ala
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4238001 125348263C>T, 2767640C>T, 4G>A, 5257G>A, Gly2Ser, SCARB1: G2S
C > T
Missense
Gly2Ser
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4253728 209-1003G>A, 26000636G>A, 46610067G>A, 68569G>A
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs429358 17680159T>C, 388T>C, 45411941T>C, 7903T>C, APOE:Cys112Arg, ApoE epsilon 4, ApoE4, Cys130Arg
T > C
Missense
Cys130Arg
No VIP available CA VA
rs4693075 18900C>G, 779-1022C>G, 84192168G>C, 8739889G>C
G > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4823613 208+3819A>G, 25988876A>G, 46598307A>G, 56809A>G
A > G
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4986910 1331T>C, 1334 C allele, 1334T>C, 28285T>C, 37391367A>G, 445Thr allele, 99358524A>G, CYP3A4*3, CYP3A4:M445T, Met444Thr, Met445Thr, mRNA 1438T>C
A > G
Missense
Met445Thr
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs5128 *40G>C, 116703640G>C, 20266056G>C, 8017G>C, APOC3: 3238 C>G
G > C
3' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs539748 -147+2217T>C, -238+2217T>C, 113821349T>C, 253681T>C, 7799T>C
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs5888 1050T>C, 125284748A>G, 2704125A>G, 68772T>C, Ala350=
A > G
Synonymous
Ala350Ala
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs60282872 -34delG, 17343539delC, 17740165delC, 5161delG, NC_000017.10:g.17740165delC, NM_001005291.2:c.-34delG, NM_004176.4:c.-34delG, del abolished ApaI restriction site
C > -
5' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs6312 -344G>A, 145G>A, 28450824C>T, 47470824C>T, 5346G>A, Asp49Asn
C > T
Missense
Asp49Asn
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs6318 113965735G>C, 152185G>C, 398067G>C, 68G>C, Cys23Ser, HTR2C:23Ser, HTR2C:Cys23Ser
C > G
Missense
Cys23Ser
No VIP available CA No Variant Annotations available
rs6535454 20037T>C, 84191031A>G, 8738752A>G, 894T>C, Asp298=
A > G
Synonymous
Asp298Asp
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs659734 28415283G>A, 362-25509C>T, 40887C>T, 47435283G>A, 614-25509C>T
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs662 21439A>G, 32970289T>C, 575A>G, 94937446T>C, Gln192Arg
T > C
Missense
Gln192Arg
No VIP available CA VA
rs662799 -620C>T, -644C>T, 116663707G>A, 20226123G>A, 4430C>T
G > A
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs676643 -628C>T, 10201428G>A, 23521340G>A
G > A
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs705379 -108C>T, 32986738G>A, 4990C>T, 94953895G>A
G > A
5' Flanking
No VIP available CA VA
rs708272 10610487G>A, 118+279G>A, 5454G>A, 56996288G>A, A allele = B2 = not cut by TaqI, CETP:Taq1B, G allele = B1 = cut by TaqI
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs717620 -24C>T, 101542578C>T, 5116C>T, 52347042C>T, ABCC2: 5'UTR, ABCC2:(-24)C>T, mRNA 118C>T
C > T
5' UTR
No VIP available CA VA
rs7412 17680297C>T, 45412079C>T, 526C>T, 8041C>T, APOE epsilon 2, ApoE2, Arg176Cys
C > T
Missense
Arg176Cys
rs776746 12083G>A, 219-237G>A, 321-1G>A, 37303382C>T, 581-237G>A, 689-1G>A, 99270539C>T, CYP3A5*1, CYP3A5*3, CYP3A5*3C, CYP3A5:6986A>G, g.6986A>G, intron 3 splicing defect, rs776746 A>G
C > T
Acceptor
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs8014194 76720678T>A, 83-24208A>T, 95720678T>A
T > A
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs854560 12801T>A, 12801T>C, 12801T>G, 12801T>N, 163T>A, 163T>C, 163T>G, 163T>N, 32978927A>C, 32978927A>G, 32978927A>N, 32978927A>T, 94946084A>C, 94946084A>G, 94946084A>N, 94946084A>T, Leu55=, Leu55Met, Leu55Val, Leu55Xaa
A > T
A > C
A > G
A > N
Missense
Leu55Met
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs9340799 152163381A>G, 156751A>G, 453-351A>G, 56332838A>G, ESR1:XbaI, ESR1:c.454-351A>G, ESR1:rs9340799
A > G
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs9462535 2181-1490G>T, 39255792C>A, 39315792C>A
C > A
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs9471077 2428+2743T>C, 39248742A>G, 39308742A>G
A > G
Intronic
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 138
2D structure from PubChem
provided by PubChem

Overview

Generic Names
  • Atorvastatin calcium
Trade Names
  • Atogal
  • Atorpic
  • Cardyl
  • Faboxim
  • Hipolixan
  • Lipitor
  • Lipotropic
  • Lipovastatinklonal
  • Liprimar
  • Lowden
  • Normalip
  • Sincol
  • Sortis
  • Sotis
  • Torvacard
  • Torvast
  • Totalip
  • Tozalip
  • Tulip
  • Vastina
  • Xanator
  • Xarator
  • Xavator
  • Zurinel
Brand Mixture Names

PharmGKB Accession Id:
PA448500

Description

Atorvastatin (Lipitor) is a member of the drug class known as statins. It is used for lowering cholesterol. Atorvastatin is a competitive inhibitor of hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, the rate-determining enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis via the mevalonate pathway. HMG-CoA reductase catalyzes the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate. Atorvastatin acts primarily in the liver. Decreased hepatic cholesterol levels increases hepatic uptake of cholesterol and reduces plasma cholesterol levels.

Source: Drug Bank

Indication

May be used as primary prevention in individuals with multiple risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) and as secondary prevention in individuals with CHD to reduce the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, angina, and revascularization procedures. May be used to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). May be used in the treatment of primary hypercholesterolemia and mixed dyslipidemia, homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, primary dysbetalipoproteinemia, and/or hypertriglyeridemia as an adjunct to dietary therapy to decrease serum total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein B (apoB), and triglyceride concentrations, while increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels.

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

Atorvastatin selectively and competitively inhibits the hepatic enzyme HMG-CoA reductase. As HMG-CoA reductase is responsible for converting HMG-CoA to mevalonate in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, this results in a subsequent decrease in hepatic cholesterol levels. Decreased hepatic cholesterol levels stimulates upregulation of hepatic LDL-C receptors which increases hepatic uptake of LDL-C and reduces serum LDL-C concentrations.

Source: Drug Bank

Pharmacology

Atorvastatin, a selective, competitive HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, is used to lower serum total and LDL cholesterol, apoB, and triglyceride levels while increasing HDL cholesterol. High LDL-C, low HDL-C and high TG concentrations in the plasma are associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. The total cholesterol to HDL-C ratio is a strong predictor of coronary artery disease and high ratios are associated with higher risk of disease. Increased levels of HDL-C are associated with lower cardiovascular risk. By decreasing LDL-C and TG and increasing HDL-C, atorvastatin reduces the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Atorvastatin has a unique structure, long half-life, and hepatic selectivity, explaining its greater LDL-lowering potency compared to other HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors.

Source: Drug Bank

Food Interaction

Avoid alcohol.|Avoid taking grapefruit or grapefruit juice throughout treatment. Grapefruit can significantly increase serum levels of this product.|Take with low fat meal.|Food may decrease maximum plasma levels and area under the curve, but this is clinically inconsequential according to the manufacturer.|Avoid drastic changes in dietary habit.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity

Biotransformation

Atorvastatin is extensively metabolized to ortho- and parahydroxylated derivatives and various beta-oxidation products. In vitro inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase by ortho- and parahydroxylated metabolites is equivalent to that of atorvastatin. Approximately 70% of circulating inhibitory activity for HMG-CoA reductase is attributed to active metabolites.

Source: Drug Bank

Protein Binding

98% bound to plasma proteins

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption

Atorvastatin is rapidly absorbed after oral administration with maximum plasma concentrations achieved in 1 to 2 hours. The absolute bioavailability of atorvastatin (parent drug) is approximately 12% and the systemic availability of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity is approximately 30%. The low systemic bioavailability is due to presystemic clearance by gastrointestinal mucosa and first-pass metabolism in the liver.

Source: Drug Bank

Half-Life

14 hours, but half-life of HMG-CoA inhibitor activity is 20-30 hours due to longer-lived active metabolites

Source: Drug Bank

Toxicity

Generally well-tolerated. Side effects may include myalgia, constipation, asthenia, abdominal pain, and nausea. Other possible side effects include myotoxicity (myopathy, myositis, rhabdomyolysis) and hepatotoxicity. To avoid toxicity in Asian patients, lower doses should be considered.

Source: Drug Bank

Route of Elimination

Eliminated primarily in bile after hepatic and/or extrahepatic metabolism. Does not appear to undergo significant enterohepatic recirculation. Less than 2% of the orally administered dose is recovered in urine.

Source: Drug Bank

Volume of Distribution

  • 381 L

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula

C33H35FN2O5

Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES

CC(C)c1c(c(c(n1CC[C@H](C[C@H](CC(=O)O)O)O)c2ccc(cc2)F)c3ccccc3)C(=O)Nc4ccccc4

Source: OpenEye

Canonical SMILES

CC(C)C1=C(C(=O)NC2=CC=CC=C2)C(=C(N1CC[C@@H](O)C[C@@H]

Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight

558.6398

Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight

558.253000445

Source: Drug Bank

PharmGKB Curated Pathways

Pathways created internally by PharmGKB based primarily on literature evidence.

  1. Atorvastatin/Lovastatin/Simvastatin Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Drug-specific representation of the candidate genes involved in transport, metabolism and clearance.

External Pathways

Links to non-PharmGKB pathways.

PharmGKB contains no links to external pathways for this drug. To report a pathway, click here.

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Curated Information ?

Drug Targets

Gene Description
AGT (source: Drug Bank)
AHR (source: Drug Bank)
APOB (source: Drug Bank)
CCL2 (source: Drug Bank)
CD40LG (source: Drug Bank)
COL13A1 (source: Drug Bank)
CRP (source: Drug Bank)
DPP4 (source: Drug Bank)
HMGCR (source: Drug Bank)
MCM6 (source: Drug Bank)
MCM7 (source: Drug Bank)
PON1 (source: Drug Bank)
PPARA (source: Drug Bank)
PPARG (source: Drug Bank)
RHOA (source: Drug Bank)
SERPINE1 (source: Drug Bank)
TNF (source: Drug Bank)
VEGFA (source: Drug Bank)

Drug Interactions

Drug Description
atorvastatin Amprenavir can possibly increase the statin toxicity (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin Amprenavir can possibly increase the statin toxicity (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin Increases the effect and toxicity of the statin (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin Increases the effect and toxicity of the statin (source: Drug Bank)
amprenavir Amprenavir can possibly increase the statin (source: Drug Bank)
amprenavir Amprenavir can possibly increase the statin (source: Drug Bank)
atazanavir Atazanavir increases the effect and toxicity of the statin (source: Drug Bank)
atazanavir Atazanavir increases the effect and toxicity of the statin (source: Drug Bank)
bezafibrate Increased risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis (source: Drug Bank)
bezafibrate Increased risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis (source: Drug Bank)
bosentan Bosentan could decrease atorvastatin (source: Drug Bank)
bosentan Bosentan could decrease atorvastatin (source: Drug Bank)
carbamazepine Carbamazepine decreases the effect of the statin (source: Drug Bank)
carbamazepine Carbamazepine decreases the effect of the statin (source: Drug Bank)
clarithromycin The macrolide possibly increases the statin toxicity (source: Drug Bank)
clarithromycin The macrolide, clarithromycin, may increase the toxicity of the statin, atorvastatin. (source: Drug Bank)
colchicine Increased risk of rhadbomyolysis with this combination (source: Drug Bank)
colchicine Increased risk of rhadbomyolysis with this combination (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine Possible myopathy and rhabdomyolysis (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine Possible myopathy and rhabdomyolysis (source: Drug Bank)
delavirdine The NNRT inhibitor increases the effect and toxicity of the statin (source: Drug Bank)
delavirdine The NNRT inhibitor increases the effect and toxicity of the statin (source: Drug Bank)
diltiazem Diltiazem increases the effect and toxicity of atorvastatin (source: Drug Bank)
diltiazem Diltiazem increases the effect and toxicity of atorvastatin (source: Drug Bank)
efavirenz The NNRT inhibitor increases the effect and toxicity of the statin (source: Drug Bank)
efavirenz The NNRT inhibitor increases the effect and toxicity of the statin (source: Drug Bank)
erythromycin The macrolide possibly increases the statin toxicity (source: Drug Bank)
erythromycin The macrolide, erythromycin, may increase the toxicity of the statin, atorvastatin. (source: Drug Bank)
fenofibrate Increased risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis (source: Drug Bank)
fenofibrate Increased risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis (source: Drug Bank)
fluconazole Increased risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis (source: Drug Bank)
fluconazole Increased risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis (source: Drug Bank)
fosamprenavir Amprenavir can possibly increase the statin toxicity (source: Drug Bank)
fosamprenavir Amprenavir can possibly increase the statin toxicity (source: Drug Bank)
gemfibrozil Increased risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis (source: Drug Bank)
gemfibrozil Increased risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis (source: Drug Bank)
imatinib Imatinib increases the effect and toxicity of atorvastatin (source: Drug Bank)
imatinib Imatinib increases the effect and toxicity of atorvastatin (source: Drug Bank)
indinavir Indinavir increases the effect and toxicity of atorvastatin (source: Drug Bank)
indinavir Indinavir increases the effect and toxicity of atorvastatin (source: Drug Bank)
itraconazole Increased risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis (source: Drug Bank)
itraconazole Increased risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis (source: Drug Bank)
josamycin The macrolide, josamycin, may increase the toxicity of the statin, atorvastatin. (source: Drug Bank)
ketoconazole Increased risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis (source: Drug Bank)
ketoconazole Increased risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis (source: Drug Bank)
nefazodone Nefazodone increases the effect and toxicity of the statin drug (source: Drug Bank)
nefazodone Nefazodone increases the effect and toxicity of the statin drug (source: Drug Bank)
nelfinavir Nelfinavir increases the effect and toxicity of the statin (source: Drug Bank)
nelfinavir Nelfinavir increases the effect and toxicity of the statin (source: Drug Bank)
nevirapine The NNRT inhibitor increases the effect and toxicity of the statin (source: Drug Bank)
nevirapine The NNRT inhibitor increases the effect and toxicity of the statin (source: Drug Bank)
quinupristin This combination presents an increased risk of toxicity (source: Drug Bank)
rifabutin The rifamycin decreases the effect of the statin drug (source: Drug Bank)
rifabutin The rifamycin decreases the effect of the statin drug (source: Drug Bank)
rifampin The rifamycin decreases the effect of the statin drug (source: Drug Bank)
rifampin The rifamycin decreases the effect of the statin drug (source: Drug Bank)
ritonavir Ritonavir increases the effect and toxicity of the statin (source: Drug Bank)
ritonavir Ritonavir increases the effect and toxicity of the statin (source: Drug Bank)
saquinavir Saquinavir increases the effect and toxicity of atorvastatin (source: Drug Bank)
saquinavir Saquinavir increases the effect and toxicity of atorvastatin (source: Drug Bank)
tacrolimus Tacrolimus increases the effect and toxicity of the statin (source: Drug Bank)
telithromycin Telithromycin may possibly increase statin toxicity (source: Drug Bank)
telithromycin Telithromycin may possibly increase statin toxicity (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Verapamil increases the effect and toxicity of the statin (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil Verapamil increases the effect and toxicity of the statin (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin Bosentan could decrease atorvastatin effect (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin Bosentan could decrease atorvastatin effect (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin Decreases the effect of the statin (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin Decreases the effect of the statin (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin The macrolide possibly increases the statin toxicity (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin The macrolide, clarithromycin, may increase the toxicity of the statin, atorvastatin. (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin Increased risk of rhabdomyolysis with this combination (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin Increased risk of rhabdomyolysis with this combination (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin Possible myopathy and rhabdomyolysis (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin Possible myopathy and rhabdomyolysis (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin The NNRT inhibitor increases the effect and toxicity of the statin (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin The NNRT inhibitor increases the effect and toxicity of the statin (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin Increases the effect and toxicity of atorvastatin (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin Increases the effect and toxicity of atorvastatin (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin The NNRT inhibitor increases the effect and toxicity of the statin (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin The NNRT inhibitor increases the effect and toxicity of the statin (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin The macrolide possibly increases the statin toxicity (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin The macrolide, erythromycin, may increase the toxicity of the statin, atorvastatin. (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin Increased risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin Increased risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin Increased risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin Increased risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin Amprenavir can possibly increase the statin toxicity (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin Amprenavir can possibly increase the statin toxicity (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin Increased risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin Increased risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin Increased risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin Increases the effect and toxicity of atorvastatin (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin Increases the effect and toxicity of atorvastatin (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin Increases the effect and toxicity of atorvastatin (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin Increases the effect and toxicity of atorvastatin (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin Increased risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin Increased risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin Increased risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin Increased risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin Nefazodone increases the effect and toxicity of the statin drug (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin Nefazodone increases the effect and toxicity of the statin drug (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin Nelfinavir increases the effect and toxicity of the statin (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin Nelfinavir increases the effect and toxicity of the statin (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin The NNRT inhibitor increases the effect and toxicity of the statin (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin The NNRT inhibitor increases the effect and toxicity of the statin (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin This combination presents an increased risk of toxicity (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin The rifamycin decreases the effect of the statin drug (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin The rifamycin decreases the effect of the statin drug (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin The rifamycin decreases the effect of the statin drug (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin The rifamycin decreases the effect of the statin drug (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin Telithromycin may possibly increase statin toxicity (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin Telithromycin may reduce clearance of Atorvastatin. Concomitant therapy is contraindicated. (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin Tipranavir, co-administered with Ritonavir, increases the adverse/toxic effects of Atorvastatin. Concomitant therapy should be avoided. (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin The p-glycoprotein inhibitor, Atorvastatin, may increase the bioavailability of oral Topotecan. A clinically significant effect is also expected with IV Topotecan. Concomitant therapy should be avoided. (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin Verapamil, a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of Atorvastatin by decreasing its metabolism. Avoid concurrent use if possible or reduce lovastatin dose during concomitant therapy. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Atorvastatin if Verapamil is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin Voriconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of atorvastatin by decreasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of atorvastatin if voriconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)

Curated Information ?

Relationships from National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT)

May Treat
May Prevent
Contraindicated With

Publications related to atorvastatin: 138

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Relationship between statin type and responsiveness to clopidogrel in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention: a subgroup analysis of the CILON-T trial. Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis. 2014. Suh Jung-Won, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
The SLCO1B1 c.521T>C polymorphism is associated with dose decrease or switching during statin therapy in the Rotterdam Study. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. de Keyser Catherine E, et al. PubMed
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Characterization of Statin Dose-response within Electronic Medical Records. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2013. Wei Wei-Qi, et al. PubMed
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Clinical and pharmacogenetic predictors of circulating atorvastatin and rosuvastatin concentrations in routine clinical care. Circulation. Cardiovascular genetics. 2013. DeGorter Marianne K, et al. PubMed
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SLCO1B1 Genetic Variant Associated With Statin-Induced Myopathy: A Proof of Concept Study Using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2013. Carr Daniel F, et al. PubMed
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Genetic variation in the PPARA gene is associated with simvastatin-mediated cholesterol reduction in the Rotterdam Study. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. de Keyser Catherine E, et al. PubMed
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Lack of association between SLCO1B1 polymorphism and the lipid-lowering effects of atorvastatin and simvastatin in Chinese individuals. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Fu Qiang, et al. PubMed
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Challenges in pharmacogenetics. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Cascorbi Ingolf, et al. PubMed
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Impact of OATP1B1, MDR1, and CYP3A4 Expression in Liver and Intestine on Interpatient Pharmacokinetic Variability of Atorvastatin in Obese Subjects. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2013. Ulvestad M, et al. PubMed
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CYP3A4/5 combined genotype analysis for predicting statin dose requirement for optimal lipid control. Drug metabolism and drug interactions. 2013. Kitzmiller Joseph Paul, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Amlodipine - Not a Significant Contributor to Clopidogrel Non-Response?. Heart (British Cardiac Society). 2013. Kreutz Rolf P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP3A4*22: promising newly identified CYP3A4 variant allele for personalizing pharmacotherapy. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Elens Laure, et al. PubMed
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PharmGKB summary: very important pharmacogene information for CYP3A5. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. Lamba Jatinder, et al. PubMed
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The UGT1A3*2 polymorphism affects atorvastatin lactonization and lipid-lowering effect in healthy volunteers. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. Cho Sung Kweon, et al. PubMed
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Interactions between CYP7A1 A-204C and ABCG8 C1199A polymorphisms on lipid lowering with atorvastatin. Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. 2011. Wei K-K, et al. PubMed
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Genetic variation in the ABCC2 gene is associated with dose decreases or switches to other cholesterol-lowering drugs during simvastatin and atorvastatin therapy. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2011. Becker M L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Effect of cytochrome P450 3A5 genotype on atorvastatin pharmacokinetics and its interaction with clarithromycin. Pharmacotherapy. 2011. Shin Jaekyu, et al. PubMed
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SLCO1B1 haplotypes are not associated with atorvastatin-induced myalgia in Brazilian patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2011. Santos Paulo Caleb Junior Lima, et al. PubMed
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Differentially expressed genes in human peripheral blood as potential markers for statin response. Journal of molecular medicine (Berlin, Germany). 2011. Won Hong-Hee, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics: the genetics of variable drug responses. Circulation. 2011. Roden Dan M, et al. PubMed
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Effect of HMGCR Variant Alleles on Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol-Lowering Response to Atorvastatin in Healthy Korean Subjects. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2011. Chung Jae Yong, et al. PubMed
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Very important pharmacogene summary: ABCB1 (MDR1, P-glycoprotein). Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Hodges Laura M, et al. PubMed
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High dose atorvastatin decreases cellular markers of immune activation without affecting HIV-1 RNA levels: results of a double-blind randomized placebo controlled clinical trial. The Journal of infectious diseases. 2011. Ganesan Anuradha, et al. PubMed
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PharmGKB summary: methotrexate pathway. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Mikkelsen Torben S, et al. PubMed
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PharmGKB: very important pharmacogene--HMGCR. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Medina Marisa Wong, et al. PubMed
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Genetic variants in the KIF6 region and coronary event reduction from statin therapy. Human genetics. 2011. Li Yonghong, et al. PubMed
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Practical recommendations for pharmacogenomics-based prescription: 2010 ESF-UB Conference on Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Becquemont Laurent, et al. PubMed
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Differential effect of the rs4149056 variant in SLCO1B1 on myopathy associated with simvastatin and atorvastatin. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2011. Brunham L R, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of OATP Transporters Reveals That SLCO1B1 c.388A>G Variant Is Determinant of Increased Atorvastatin Response. International journal of molecular sciences. 2011. Rodrigues Alice C, et al. PubMed
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The C3435T polymorphism in ABCB1 influences atorvastatin efficacy and muscle symptoms in a high-risk vascular cohort. Journal of clinical lipidology. 2011. Hoenig Michel R, et al. PubMed
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Systematic review of pharmacoeconomic studies of pharmacogenomic tests. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Beaulieu Mathieu, et al. PubMed
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Effects of lipid-lowering drugs on reverse cholesterol transport gene expressions in peripheral blood mononuclear and HepG2 cells. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Genvigir Fabiana Dalla Vecchia, et al. PubMed
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KIF6 Trp719Arg polymorphism and the effect of statin therapy in elderly patients: results from the PROSPER study. European journal of cardiovascular prevention and rehabilitation : official journal of the European Society of Cardiology, Working Groups on Epidemiology & Prevention and Cardiac Rehabilitation and Exercise Physiology. 2010. Iakoubova Olga A, et al. PubMed
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Genetic involvement in statins induced myopathy. Preliminary data from an observational case-control study. Atherosclerosis. 2010. Puccetti Luca, et al. PubMed
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Influence of SCARB1 polymorphisms on serum lipids of hypercholesterolemic individuals treated with atorvastatin. Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry. 2010. Cerda Alvaro, et al. PubMed
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Influence of genetic variation in CYP3A4 and ABCB1 on dose decrease or switching during simvastatin and atorvastatin therapy. Pharmacoepidemiology and drug safety. 2010. Becker Matthijs L, et al. PubMed
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Effect of pravastatin therapy on coronary events in carriers of the KIF6 719Arg allele from the cholesterol and recurrent events trial. The American journal of cardiology. 2010. Shiffman Dov, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics of membrane transporters: past, present and future. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Yee Sook Wah, et al. PubMed
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Intronic polymorphism in CYP3A4 affects hepatic expression and response to statin drugs. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Wang D, et al. PubMed
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PharmGKB very important pharmacogene: SLCO1B1. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Oshiro Connie, et al. PubMed
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Common sequence variants in pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic pathway-related genes conferring LDL cholesterol response to statins. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Chien Kuo-Liong, et al. PubMed
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Transporter pharmacogenetics and statin toxicity. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Niemi M. PubMed
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UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) polymorphisms affect atorvastatin lactonization in vitro and in vivo. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Riedmaier S, et al. PubMed
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Effects of SLCO1B1 and ABCB1 genotypes on the pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin and 2-hydroxyatorvastatin in healthy Korean subjects. International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Lee Y J, et al. PubMed
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Effect of genetic variant (rs11887534) in ABCG8 gene in coronary artery disease and response to atorvastatin therapy. Disease markers. 2010. Srivastava Anshika, et al. PubMed
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Genome-wide association of lipid-lowering response to statins in combined study populations. PloS one. 2010. Barber Mathew J, et al. PubMed
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Population analyses of atorvastatin clearance in patients living in the community and in nursing homes. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Schwartz J B, et al. PubMed
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The pharmacogenetics of statin therapy: when the body aches, the mind will follow. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2009. Rossi Joseph S, et al. PubMed
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Identification of genetic variants associated with response to statin therapy. Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology. 2009. Mega Jessica L, et al. PubMed
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Rifampicin alters atorvastatin plasma concentration on the basis of SLCO1B1 521T>C polymorphism. Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry. 2009. He Yi-Jing, et al. PubMed
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Histone deacetylase inhibitors induce a very broad, pleiotropic anticancer drug resistance phenotype in acute myeloid leukemia cells by modulation of multiple ABC transporter genes. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2009. Hauswald Stefanie, et al. PubMed
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ABCA1 expression and statins: inhibitory effect in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Genvigir Fabiana D V, et al. PubMed
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Statin regulation of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 expression. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Willrich Maria Alice Vieira, et al. PubMed
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ABCG2 polymorphism markedly affects the pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin and rosuvastatin. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Keskitalo J E, et al. PubMed
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The SLCO1B1*5 genetic variant is associated with statin-induced side effects. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2009. Voora Deepak, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Common genetic variation in the ABCB1 gene is associated with the cholesterol-lowering effect of simvastatin in males. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Becker Matthijs L, et al. PubMed
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Impact of apolipoprotein A5 variants on statin treatment efficacy. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Hubacek Jaroslav A, et al. PubMed
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Genetic determinants of response to clopidogrel and cardiovascular events. The New England journal of medicine. 2009. Simon Tabassome, et al. PubMed
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Comprehensive whole-genome and candidate gene analysis for response to statin therapy in the Treating to New Targets (TNT) cohort. Circulation. Cardiovascular genetics. 2009. Thompson John F, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
eNOS T-786C polymorphism affects atorvastatin-induced changes in erythrocyte membrane fluidity. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2009. Nagassaki S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
An association study between catalase -262C>T gene polymorphism, sodium-lithium countertransport activity, insulin resistance, blood lipid parameters and their response to atorvastatin, in Greek dyslipidaemic patients and normolipidaemic controls. Free radical research. 2009. Kosmidou Maria, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Regulation of leukemic cell differentiation and retinoid-induced gene expression by statins. Molecular cancer therapeutics. 2009. Sassano Antonella, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Effects of vitamin D supplementation in atorvastatin-treated patients: a new drug interaction with an unexpected consequence. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Schwartz J B. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Redox regulation of multidrug resistance in cancer chemotherapy: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic opportunities. Antioxidants & redox signaling. 2009. Kuo Macus Tien. PubMed
ABCB1 and ABCC1 expression in peripheral mononuclear cells is influenced by gene polymorphisms and atorvastatin treatment. Biochemical pharmacology. 2009. Rebecchi Ivanise Marina Moretti, et al. PubMed
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CYP3A53A allele is associated with reduced lowering-lipid response to atorvastatin in individuals with hypercholesterolemia. Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry. 2008. Willrich Maria Alice V, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Atorvastatin and BMD in coronary syndrome. Role of Lys656Asn polymorphism of leptin receptor gene. Endocrine journal. 2009. Pérez-Castrillón José Luis, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Several major antiepileptic drugs are substrates for human P-glycoprotein. Neuropharmacology. 2008. Luna-Tortós Carlos, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
A paucimorphic variant in the HMG-CoA reductase gene is associated with lipid-lowering response to statin treatment in diabetes: a GoDARTS study. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2008. Donnelly Louise A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Effect of atorvastatin on paraoxonase1 (PON1) and oxidative status. Pharmacological reports : PR. 2009. Nagila Amar, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Functional pharmacogenetics/genomics of human cytochromes P450 involved in drug biotransformation. Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry. 2008. Zanger Ulrich M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic variation at the LDL receptor and HMG-CoA reductase gene loci, lipid levels, statin response, and cardiovascular disease incidence in PROSPER. Atherosclerosis. 2008. Polisecki Eliana, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Atorvastatin effects on SREBF1a and SCAP gene expression in mononuclear cells and its relation with lowering-lipids response. Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry. 2008. Arazi Simone Sorkin, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Structure, function and regulation of P-glycoprotein and its clinical relevance in drug disposition. Xenobiotica; the fate of foreign compounds in biological systems. 2008. Zhou S-F. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Xenobiotic transporters of the human organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATP) family. Xenobiotica; the fate of foreign compounds in biological systems. 2008. Hagenbuch B, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Variation in the 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme a reductase gene is associated with racial differences in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol response to simvastatin treatment. Circulation. 2008. Krauss Ronald M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetic predictors of statin-mediated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction and dose response. Circulation. Cardiovascular genetics. 2008. Voora Deepak, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
ABCB1 haplotypes differentially affect the pharmacokinetics of the acid and lactone forms of simvastatin and atorvastatin. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Keskitalo J E, et al. PubMed
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CYP3A4*1G polymorphism is associated with lipid-lowering efficacy of atorvastatin but not of simvastatin. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2008. Gao Yuan, et al. PubMed
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Polymorphism of the hepatic influx transporter organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 is associated with increased cholesterol synthesis rate. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2008. Pasanen Marja K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Association of the Trp719Arg polymorphism in kinesin-like protein 6 with myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease in 2 prospective trials: the CARE and WOSCOPS trials. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2008. Iakoubova Olga A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Polymorphism in KIF6 gene and benefit from statins after acute coronary syndromes: results from the PROVE IT-TIMI 22 study. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2008. Iakoubova Olga A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Polymorphisms in the drug transporter gene ABCB1 predict antidepressant treatment response in depression. Neuron. 2008. Uhr Manfred, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Citalopram enantiomers in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of ABCB1 genotyped depressive patients and clinical response: a pilot study. Pharmacological research : the official journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society. 2008. Nikisch Georg, et al. PubMed
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Effect of the TNFalpha-308 G/A polymorphism on the changes produced by atorvastatin in bone mineral density in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Annals of nutrition & metabolism. 2008. Pérez-Castrillón José Luis, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Epithelial neutrophil-activating peptide (ENA-78), acute coronary syndrome prognosis, and modulatory effect of statins. PloS one. 2008. Zineh Issam, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic analysis of fluvastatin response and dyslipidemia in renal transplant recipients. Journal of lipid research. 2007. Singer Jonathan B, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Zetia: inhibition of Niemann-Pick C1 Like 1 (NPC1L1) to reduce intestinal cholesterol absorption and treat hyperlipidemia. Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis. 2007. Davis Harry R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Anti-inflammatory effects of atorvastatin: modulation by the T-786C polymorphism in the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene. Atherosclerosis. 2007. Souza-Costa Débora C, et al. PubMed
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Different effects of SLCO1B1 polymorphism on the pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin and rosuvastatin. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Pasanen M K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
effect of OATP1B transporter inhibition on the pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin in healthy volunteers. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Lau Y Y, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetic study of cholesteryl ester transfer protein gene and simvastatin treatment in hypercholesterolaemic subjects. Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy. 2007. Anagnostopoulou Katherine, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Effect of HMGCoA reductase inhibitors on cytochrome P450 expression in endothelial cell line. Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology. 2007. Bertrand-Thiebault Céline, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Physiogenomic association of statin-related myalgia to serotonin receptors. Muscle & nerve. 2007. Ruaño Gualberto, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2D6*4 polymorphism is associated with statin-induced muscle effects. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2007. Frudakis Tony N, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Tolerability of statins is not linked to CYP450 polymorphisms, but reduced CYP2D6 metabolism improves cholesteraemic response to simvastatin and fluvastatin. Pharmacological research : the official journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society. 2007. Zuccaro Piergiorgio, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Effects of torcetrapib in patients at high risk for coronary events. The New England journal of medicine. 2007. Barter Philip J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Cobalamin potentiates vinblastine cytotoxicity through downregulation of mdr-1 gene expression in HepG2 cells. Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology. 2007. Marguerite Véronique, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic determinants of statin intolerance. Lipids in health and disease. 2007. Oh Jisun, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Mechanism of inhibition of P-glycoprotein mediated efflux by vitamin E TPGS: influence on ATPase activity and membrane fluidity. Molecular pharmaceutics. 2007. Collnot Eva-Maria, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic risk factors associated with lipid-lowering drug-induced myopathies. Muscle & nerve. 2006. Vladutiu Georgirene D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Gefitinib modulates the function of multiple ATP-binding cassette transporters in vivo. Cancer research. 2006. Leggas Markos, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Drug interactions with lipid-lowering drugs: mechanisms and clinical relevance. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Neuvonen Pertti J, et al. PubMed
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Impact of P-glycoprotein on clopidogrel absorption. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Taubert Dirk, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Organic anion transporting polypeptide 2B1 is a high-affinity transporter for atorvastatin and is expressed in the human heart. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Grube Markus, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
eNOS gene T-786C polymorphism modulates atorvastatin-induced increase in blood nitrite. Free radical biology & medicine. 2006. Nagassaki Sabrina, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Single nucleotide polymorphisms in human P-glycoprotein: its impact on drug delivery and disposition. Expert opinion on drug delivery. 2006. Dey Surajit. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
A promoter polymorphism in cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase interacts with apolipoprotein E genotype in the LDL-lowering response to atorvastatin. Atherosclerosis. 2005. Kajinami Kouji, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Gender-specific effects of estrogen receptor alpha gene haplotype on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol response to atorvastatin: interaction with apolipoprotein AI gene polymorphism. Atherosclerosis. 2005. Kajinami Kouji, et al. PubMed
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TaqIB polymorphism in CETP gene: the influence on incidence of cardiovascular disease in statin-treated patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. European journal of human genetics : EJHG. 2005. Mohrschladt Martina F, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
The effect of statin therapy on plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels is modified by paraoxonase-1 in patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia. Journal of internal medicine. 2005. Himbergen T M, et al. PubMed
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Functional characterization of SLCO1B1 (OATP-C) variants, SLCO1B1*5, SLCO1B1*15 and SLCO1B1*15+C1007G, by using transient expression systems of HeLa and HEK293 cells. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2005. Kameyama Yoshio, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic and environmental factors affecting the response to statin therapy in patients with molecularly defined familial hypercholesterolaemia. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2005. Miltiadous George, et al. PubMed
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Influence of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein promoter polymorphism -493 GT on fasting plasma triglyceride values and interaction with treatment response to atorvastatin in subjects with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2005. García-García Ana B, et al. PubMed
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Relative impact of CYP3A genotype and concomitant medication on the severity of atorvastatin-induced muscle damage. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2005. Wilke Russell A, et al. PubMed
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The angiotensin-converting enzyme gene insertion/deletion polymorphism and effects of quinapril and atorvastatin on haemostatic parameters in patients with coronary artery disease. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2005. Potaczek Daniel P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Differential interaction of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coa reductase inhibitors with ABCB1, ABCC2, and OATP1B1. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2005. Chen Cuiping, et al. PubMed
An association study of 43 SNPs in 16 candidate genes with atorvastatin response. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2005. Thompson J F, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetic study of statin therapy and cholesterol reduction. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. 2004. Chasman Daniel I, et al. PubMed
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Interactions between common genetic polymorphisms in ABCG5/G8 and CYP7A1 on LDL cholesterol-lowering response to atorvastatin. Atherosclerosis. 2004. Kajinami Kouji, et al. PubMed
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Influence of lipid lowering fibrates on P-glycoprotein activity in vitro. Biochemical pharmacology. 2004. Ehrhardt Manuela, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors up-regulate anti-aging klotho mRNA via RhoA inactivation in IMCD3 cells. Cardiovascular research. 2004. Narumiya Hiromichi, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Interactions of human P-glycoprotein with simvastatin, simvastatin acid, and atorvastatin. Pharmaceutical research. 2004. Hochman Jerome H, et al. PubMed
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Lipid-lowering response to statins is affected by CYP3A5 polymorphism. Pharmacogenetics. 2004. Kivistö Kari T, et al. PubMed
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Polymorphisms in human MDR1 (P-glycoprotein): recent advances and clinical relevance. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2004. Marzolini Catia, et al. PubMed
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The discovery of ezetimibe: a view from outside the receptor. Journal of medicinal chemistry. 2004. Clader John W. PubMed
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Common cholesteryl ester transfer protein gene polymorphisms and the effect of atorvastatin therapy in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes care. 2003. van Venrooij Francine V, et al. PubMed
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The metabolism of clopidogrel is catalyzed by human cytochrome P450 3A and is inhibited by atorvastatin. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2003. Clarke Thomas A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Genetic polymorphisms of the human MDR1 drug transporter. Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology. 2003. Schwab Matthias, et al. PubMed
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Allelic polymorphism -491A/T in apo E gene modulates the lipid-lowering response in combined hyperlipidemia treatment. European journal of clinical investigation. 2002. García-Otín A-L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Interaction of omeprazole, lansoprazole and pantoprazole with P-glycoprotein. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's archives of pharmacology. 2001. Pauli-Magnus C, et al. PubMed
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Atorvastatin upregulates type III nitric oxide synthase in thrombocytes, decreases platelet activation, and protects from cerebral ischemia in normocholesterolemic mice. Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation. 2000. Laufs U, et al. PubMed
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Equally potent inhibitors of cholesterol synthesis in human hepatocytes have distinguishable effects on different cytochrome P450 enzymes. Biopharmaceutics & drug disposition. 2000. Cohen L H, et al. PubMed
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The role of intestinal P-glycoprotein in the interaction of digoxin and rifampin. The Journal of clinical investigation. 1999. Greiner B, et al. PubMed
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A novel human hepatic organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP2). Identification of a liver-specific human organic anion transporting polypeptide and identification of rat and human hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitor transporters. The Journal of biological chemistry. 1999. Hsiang B, et al. PubMed
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Biochemical, cellular, and pharmacological aspects of the multidrug transporter. Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology. 1999. Ambudkar S V, et al. PubMed
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Competitive, non-competitive and cooperative interactions between substrates of P-glycoprotein as measured by its ATPase activity. Biochimica et biophysica acta. 1997. Litman T, et al. PubMed
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P-glycoprotein structure and evolutionary homologies. Cytotechnology. 1993. Croop J M. PubMed

LinkOuts

Web Resource:
Wikipedia
National Drug Code Directory:
0071-0155-23
DrugBank:
DB01076
PDB:
117
ChEBI:
2910
KEGG Compound:
C06834
PubChem Compound:
60823
PubChem Substance:
205162
46506188
Drugs Product Database (DPD):
2243097
BindingDB:
22164
ChemSpider:
54810
HET:
117
Therapeutic Targets Database:
DAP000553
FDA Drug Label at DailyMed:
c6e131fe-e7df-4876-83f7-9156fc4e8228

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention atorvastatin and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

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Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, Open Eye Scientific Software.