Drug/Small Molecule:
allopurinol

Available Guidelines

  1. CPIC Dosing Guideline for allopurinol and HLA-B
  2. Professional Society Guideline for allopurinol and HLA-B

last updated 10/17/2012

CPIC Dosing Guideline for allopurinol and HLA-B

Summary

Allopurinol is contraindicated in individuals with the HLA-B*58:01 variant allele ("HLA-B*58:01-positive") due to significantly increased risk of allopurinol-induced SCAR.

Annotation

February 2013

Advanced online publication December 2012

  • Guidelines regarding the use of pharmacogenomic tests in dosing for allopurinol have been published in Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics by the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC).
  • These guidelines are applicable to:
    • adults
  • Excerpt from the 2013 allopurinol dosing guidelines:
    • "Allopurinol is the most commonly used drug for the treatment of hyperuricemia and gout; however, allopurinol is also one of the most common causes of severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCAR), which includes drug hypersensitivity syndrome, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). A variant allele of the human leukocyte antigen-B, HLA-B*5801, associates strongly with allopurinol-induced SCAR. We have summarized evidence from the published literatures and develop peer-reviewed guidelines for allopurinol use based on HLA-B genotype."
  • Download and read:

Table 1: Recommended dosing of allopurinol based on HLA-B genotype

Likely Phenotype Genotypes Examples of diplotypes Implications for phenotypic measures Recommendations for allopurinol therapy Classification of recommendation for allopurinol therapy
Low or reduced risk of allopurinol SCAR Absence of *58:01 alleles (reported as "negative" on a genotyping test) *X/*X a Low or reduced risk of allopurinol SCAR Use allopurinol per standard dosing guidelines Strong
Significantly increased risk of allopurinol SCAR Presence of at least one *58:01 allele (reported as "positive" on a genotyping test) *58:01/*X a *58:01/*58:01 Significantly increased risk of allopurinol SCAR Allopurinol is contraindicated Strong

Adapted from Table 2 of the 2013 Guideline Manuscript

a *X = any HLA-B genotype other than *58:01.
HLA-B = human leukocyte antigen B


last updated 10/01/2012

Professional Society Guideline for allopurinol and HLA-B

Summary

HLA-B*58:01-positive individuals (those with the HLA-B*58:01 variant allele) should be prescribed an alternative drug to allopurinol.

Annotation

The American College of Rheumatology guidelines for the management of gout include the following statement about pharmacogenomic testing for HLA-B*58:01 and allopurinol:

Those with HLA-B*5801 and of Korean descent with stage 3 or worse CKD (HLA-B*5801 allele frequency ~12%), or of Han Chinese or Thai extraction irrespective of renal function (HLA-B*5801 allele frequency ~6-8%), have been highlighted in the literature as prime examples of subjects at high risk for AHS, marked by HLA-B*5801 hazard ratios of several hundred. Such high-risk individuals were recommended to be prescribed an alternative to allopurinol if HLA-B*5801 positive.

excerpted from 2012 American College of Rheumatology Guidelines for the Management of Gout. Part1


PharmGKB has no annotated drug labels with pharmacogenomic information for this drug/small molecule. If you know of a drug label with PGx, send us a message.

Links to Unannotated Labels

These links are to labels associated with allopurinol that have not been annotated by PharmGKB.

  1. DailyMed - DrugLabel PA166105065

Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria, manually curated by PharmGKB, are shown below.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the page.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

? = Mouse-over for quick help

This is a non-comprehensive list of genetic tests with pharmacogenetics relevance, typically submitted by the manufacturer and manually curated by PharmGKB. The information listed is provided for educational purposes only and does not constitute an endorsement of any listed test or manufacturer.

A more complete listing of genetic tests is found at the Genetic Testing Registry (GTR).

PGx Test Variants Assayed Gene?
HLA-B*5801 Typing (Allopurinol hypersensitivity) HLA-B*58:01:01 , rs9263726
HLA-B*5801 for Allopurinol Induced Stevens-Johnson Syndrome Risk HLA-B*58:01:01 , rs9263726
Identification of drug hypersensitivity related HLA genes, Including HLA-B*5801 with Allopurinol HLA-B*58:01:01 , rs9263726
Pharmigene HLA-B*5801 Detection HLA-B*58:01:01 , rs9263726

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page.

Links in the "Gene" column lead to PharmGKB Gene Pages.

Gene ? Variant?
(138)
Alternate Names / Tag SNPs ? Drugs ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available No VIP available VA HLA-A *33:01:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA HLA-A *33:03:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA HLA-B *48:01:01 N/A N/A N/A
VIP CA VA HLA-B *58:01:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA HLA-C *03:02:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA HLA-C *08:01:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA HLA-DRB1 *09:01:02 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA HLA-DRB1 *14:01:01 N/A N/A N/A
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 138
2D structure from PubChem
provided by PubChem

Overview

Generic Names
  • Allopurinol Sodium
  • Allopurinolum [INN-Latin]
  • Alopurinol [INN-Spanish]
Trade Names
  • 7HP
  • Adenock
  • Ailural
  • Allo-Puren
  • Allohexal
  • Allopur
  • Allozym
  • Allural
  • Aloprim
  • Aloral
  • Alositol
  • Aluline
  • Anoprolin
  • Anzief
  • Apo-Allopurinol
  • Apulonga
  • Apurin
  • Apurol
  • Atisuril
  • Bleminol
  • Bloxanth
  • Caplenal
  • Cellidrin
  • Cosuric
  • Dabrosin
  • Dabroson
  • Dura Al
  • Embarin
  • Epidropal
  • Epuric
  • Foligan
  • Geapur
  • Gichtex
  • Gotax
  • HPP
  • Hamarin
  • Hexanuret
  • Ketanrift
  • Ketobun-A
  • Ledopur
  • Lopurin
  • Lysuron
  • Milurit
  • Miniplanor
  • Monarch
  • Nektrohan
  • Progout
  • Purinol
  • Remid
  • Riball
  • Sigapurol
  • Suspendol
  • Takanarumin
  • Urbol
  • Uricemil
  • Uriprim
  • Uripurinol
  • Uritas
  • Urobenyl
  • Urolit
  • Urosin
  • Urtias
  • Urtias 100
  • Xanturat
  • Zyloprim
  • Zyloric
Brand Mixture Names

PharmGKB Accession Id:
PA448320

Description

A xanthine oxidase inhibitor that decreases uric acid production. It also acts as an antimetabolite on some simpler organisms.

Source: Drug Bank

Indication

For the treatment of hyperuricemia associated with primary or secondary gout. Also indicated for the treatment of primary or secondary uric acid nephropathy, with or without the symptoms of gout, as well as chemotherapy-induced hyperuricemia and recurrent renal calculi.

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

Allopurinol and its active metabolite, oxypurinol, inhibits the enzyme xanthine oxidase, blocking the conversion of the oxypurines hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid. Elevated concentrations of oxypurine and oxypurine inhibition of xanthine oxidase through negative feedback results in a decrease in the concentrations of uric acid in the serum and urine. Allopurinol also facilitates the incorporation of hypoxanthine and xanthine into DNA and RNA, leading to a feedback inhibition of de novo purin synthesis and a decrease in serum uric acid concentrations as a result of an increase in nucleotide concentration.

Source: Drug Bank

Pharmacology

Allopurinol, a structural analog of the natural purine base hypoxanthine, is used to prevent gout and renal calculi due to either uric acid or calcium oxalate and to treat uric acid nephropathy, hyperuricemia, and some solid tumors.

Source: Drug Bank

Food Interaction

Avoid alcohol.|Take with a full glass of water.|Take with food.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity

Biotransformation

Hepatic

Source: Drug Bank

Protein Binding

Allopurinol and oxypurinol are not bound to plasma proteins

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption

Approximately 80-90% absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.

Source: Drug Bank

Half-Life

1-3 hours

Source: Drug Bank

Toxicity

LD 50=214 mg/kg (in mice)

Source: Drug Bank

Route of Elimination

Approximately 20% of the ingested allopurinol is excreted in the feces.

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula

C5H4N4O

Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES

c1c2c([nH]n1)ncnc2O

Source: OpenEye

Canonical SMILES

O=C1N=CN=C2NNC=C12

Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight

136.1115

Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight

136.03851077

Source: Drug Bank

PharmGKB Curated Pathways

Pathways created internally by PharmGKB based primarily on literature evidence.

  1. Uric Acid-Lowering Drugs Pathway, Pharmacodynamics
    A stylized diagram showing the drugs that act to prevent uric acid formation or enhance its excretion, and adverse reactions associated with these drugs.

External Pathways

Links to non-PharmGKB pathways.

PharmGKB contains no links to external pathways for this drug. To report a pathway, click here.

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Curated Information ?

Drug Targets

Gene Description
XDH (source: Drug Bank)

Drug Interactions

Drug Description
acenocoumarol Increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
acenocoumarol Allopurinol may increase the anticoagulant effect of acenocoumarol. (source: Drug Bank)
anisindione Allopurinol may increase the anticoagulant effect of anisindione. (source: Drug Bank)
azathioprine Allopurinol increases the effect of thiopurine (source: Drug Bank)
azathioprine Allopurinol increases the effect of thiopurine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine Allopurinol increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine Allopurinol increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
dicumarol Allopurinol increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
dicumarol Allopurinol may increase the anticoagulant effect of dicumarol. (source: Drug Bank)
mercaptopurine Allopurinol increases the effect of thiopurine (source: Drug Bank)
mercaptopurine Allopurinol increases the effect of thiopurine (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Allopurinol increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin Allopurinol may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
allopurinol Allopurinol increases the effect of thiopurine (source: Drug Bank)
allopurinol Allopurinol increases the effect of thiopurine (source: Drug Bank)
allopurinol Allopurinol increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
allopurinol Allopurinol increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
allopurinol Allopurinol increases the effect of thiopurine (source: Drug Bank)
allopurinol The ACE inhibitor, Trandolapril, may increase the risk of hypersensitivity reactions to Allopurinol. (source: Drug Bank)
allopurinol Allopurinol may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. Monitor for changes in prothrombin times and therapeutic effects of warfarin if allopurinol is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)

Curated Information ?

Relationships from National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT)

May Treat
May Prevent
Contraindicated With

Publications related to allopurinol: 42

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PharmGKB summary: uric acid-lowering drugs pathway, pharmacodynamics. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2014. McDonagh Ellen M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Why Do Most Human Liver Cytosol Preparations Lack Xanthine Oxidase Activity?. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2014. Barr John, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
HLA-DR9 and DR14 Are Associated with the Allopurinol-Induced Hypersensitivity in Hematologic Malignancy. The Tohoku journal of experimental medicine. 2014. Jung Jae-Woo, et al. PubMed
HLA-B*58:01 is a risk factor for allopurinol-induced DRESS and Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis in a Portuguese population. The British journal of dermatology. 2013. Gonçalo M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
HLA-B*58:01 strongly associates with allopurinol-induced adverse drug reactions in a Japanese sample population. Journal of dermatological science. 2013. Niihara Hiroyuki, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
HLA-B*5801 should be used to screen for risk of Stevens-Johnson syndrome in family members of Han Chinese patients commencing allopurinol therapy. The Journal of rheumatology. 2013. Lee Ming-Han Hugo, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Allopurinol-induced drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms mimicking acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis. The Journal of dermatology. 2012. Huang Yu Chen, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) associated drug hypersensitivity: consequences of drug binding to HLA. Allergy. 2012. Yun J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Cutaneous adverse drug reactions to allopurinol: 10 year observational survey of the dermatology department--Cagliari University (Italy). Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV. 2012. Atzori L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
2012 American College of Rheumatology guidelines for management of gout. Part 1: systematic nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic therapeutic approaches to hyperuricemia. Arthritis care & research. 2012. Khanna Dinesh, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium Guidelines for Human Leukocyte Antigen-B Genotype and Allopurinol Dosing. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2012. Hershfield M S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Optimising outcome on thiopurines in inflammatory bowel disease by co-prescription of allopurinol. Journal of Crohn's & colitis. 2012. Smith Melissa A, et al. PubMed
HLA-B*58:01 allele is associated with augmented risk for both mild and severe cutaneous adverse reactions induced by allopurinol in Han Chinese. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Cao Zhi-Hao, et al. PubMed
Association between HLA-B*58:01 allele and severe cutaneous adverse reactions with allopurinol in Han Chinese in Hong Kong. The British journal of dermatology. 2012. Chiu M L S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Drug hypersensitivity and human leukocyte antigens of the major histocompatibility complex. Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology. 2012. Bharadwaj Mandvi, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Allopurinol pharmacogenetics: assessment of potential clinical usefulness. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Zineh Issam, et al. PubMed
A whole-genome association study of major determinants for allopurinol-related Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis in Japanese patients. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2011. Tohkin M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
A study of HLA class I and class II 4-digit allele level in Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. International journal of immunogenetics. 2011. Cristallo A F, et al. PubMed
Initiating allopurinol therapy: do we need to know the patient's HLA status?. Internal medicine journal. 2011. Lee Ming-Han H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genome-Wide Association study of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis in Europe. Orphanet journal of rare diseases. 2011. Genin Emmanuelle, et al. PubMed
HLA-B58 can help the clinical decision on starting allopurinol in patients with chronic renal insufficiency. Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association. 2011. Jung Jae-Woo, et al. PubMed
Positive and negative associations of HLA class I alleles with allopurinol-induced SCARs in Koreans. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Kang Hye-Ryun, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genome-wide association study of serious blistering skin rash caused by drugs. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2011. Shen Y, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association of HLA-B*5801 allele and allopurinol-induced Stevens Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC medical genetics. 2011. Somkrua Ratchadaporn, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Low-dose azathioprine or mercaptopurine in combination with allopurinol can bypass many adverse drug reactions in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics. 2010. Ansari A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Effect of allopurinol versus urate oxidase on methotrexate pharmacokinetics in children with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Cancer. 2010. Crews Kristine R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Warfarin interactions with substances listed in drug information compendia and in the FDA-approved label for warfarin sodium. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Anthony M, et al. PubMed
Strong association between HLA-B*5801 and allopurinol-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis in a Thai population. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2009. Tassaneeyakul Wichittra, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Human leukocyte antigen-related risk factors for toxic epidermal necrosis. The Pediatric infectious disease journal. 2009. Kemen Christoph, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Initial clinical experience with allopurinol-thiopurine combination therapy in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease. Inflammatory bowel diseases. 2008. Rahhal Riad M, et al. PubMed
HLA-B locus in Japanese patients with anti-epileptics and allopurinol-related Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Pharmacogenomics. 2008. Kaniwa Nahoko, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Long-term outcome of using allopurinol co-therapy as a strategy for overcoming thiopurine hepatotoxicity in treating inflammatory bowel disease. Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics. 2008. Ansari A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Functional characterization of human xanthine oxidase allelic variants. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2008. Kudo Mutsumi, et al. PubMed
A European study of HLA-B in Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis related to five high-risk drugs. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2008. Lonjou Christine, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetic information derived from analysis of HLA alleles. Pharmacogenomics. 2008. Gatanaga Hiroyuki, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis: assessment of medication risks with emphasis on recently marketed drugs. The EuroSCAR-study. The Journal of investigative dermatology. 2008. Mockenhaupt Maja, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Human leukocyte antigens and drug hypersensitivity. Current opinion in allergy and clinical immunology. 2007. Chung Wen-Hung, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Stevens-Johnson syndrome, drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis caused by allopurinol in patients with a common HLA allele: what causes the diversity?. Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland). 2007. Dainichi Teruki, et al. PubMed
HLA-B*5801 allele as a genetic marker for severe cutaneous adverse reactions caused by allopurinol. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2005. Hung Shuen-Iu, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Aldehyde oxidase-catalysed oxidation of methotrexate in the liver of guinea-pig, rabbit and man. The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology. 1999. Jordan C G, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
An in vitro study on methotrexate hydroxylation in rat and human liver. Physiological research / Academia Scientiarum Bohemoslovaca. 1997. Chládek J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
High plasma concentrations of desmethylclomipramine after chronic administration of clomipramine to a poor metabolizer. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 1987. Balant-Gorgia A E, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

Web Resource:
Wikipedia
National Drug Code Directory:
55111-729-01
DrugBank:
DB00437
PDB:
7HP
ChEBI:
40279
KEGG Drug:
D00224
PubChem Compound:
2094
PubChem Substance:
152626
46508516
Drugs Product Database (DPD):
555681
BindingDB:
50241255
ChemSpider:
2010
HET:
7HP
Therapeutic Targets Database:
DAP000773
FDA Drug Label at DailyMed:
19a138b8-d225-03e6-f762-abe71560204b

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention allopurinol and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

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Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, Open Eye Scientific Software.