Drug/Small Molecule:
salbutamol

PharmGKB contains no dosing guidelines for this drug/small molecule. To report known genotype-based dosing guidelines, or if you are interested in developing guidelines, click here.

PharmGKB gathers information regarding PGx on FDA drug labels from the FDA's "Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labels", and from FDA-approved FDA and EMA-approved (European Medicines Agency) EMA labels brought to our attention. Excerpts from the label and downloadable highlighted label PDFs are manually curated by PharmGKB.

Please note that some drugs may have been removed from or added to the FDA's "Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labels" without our knowledge. We periodically check the table for additions to this table and update PharmGKB accordingly.

There is currently no such list for European drug labels - we are working with the EMA to establish a list of European Public Assessment Reports (EPAR)s that contain PGx information. We are constructing this list by initially searching for drugs for which we have PGx-containing FDA drug labels - of these 44 EMA EPARs were identified and are being curated for pgx information.

We welcome any information regarding drug labels containing PGx information approved by the FDA, EMA or other Medicine Agencies around the world - please contact feedback.



PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the page.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

? = Mouse-over for quick help

This is a non-comprehensive list of genetic tests with pharmacogenetics relevance, typically submitted by the manufacturer and manually curated by PharmGKB. The information listed is provided for educational purposes only and does not constitute an endorsement of any listed test or manufacturer.

A more complete listing of genetic tests is found at the Genetic Testing Registry (GTR).

PGx Test Variants Assayed Gene?

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page.

Links in the "Gene" column lead to PharmGKB Gene Pages.

Gene ? Variant?
(138)
Alternate Names / Tag SNPs ? Drugs ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
rs1042713 148206440G>A, 148206440G>G, 46A>A, 46A>G, 46G>A, 5285A>A, 5285A>G, 9369367G>A, 9369367G>G, ADRB2:16Arg>Gly, ADRB2:Arg16Gly, ADRB2:Gly16Arg, Arg16, Arg16=
G > A
Missense
Arg16Gly
VIP No Clinical Annotations available No Variant Annotations available
rs1042714 148206473G>C, 148206473G>G, 318C>G, 5318C>G, 79C>G, 9369400G>C, 9369400G>G, ADRB2:27Glu>Gln, ADRB2:79C>G, ADRB2:Gln27Glu, Gln27
G > C
Missense
Gln27Glu
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs10511905 32338024A>G, 32348024A>G
A > G
Not Available
No VIP available CA VA
rs11252394 4180870G>A, 4240870G>A
G > A
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs115501901 *547C>T, 157108C>T, 16478800C>T, 46282708C>T
C > T
3' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs116551936
G > A
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1419555 125569441C>T, 63602284C>T
C > T
Not Available
No VIP available CA VA
rs1423515 32656903G>A, 82062544G>A
G > A
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs144315541 4131522G>A, 4191522G>A
G > A
Not Available
No VIP available CA VA
rs1522113 3671654G>A, 439-1799C>T, 56331771G>A
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1663330 47443496A>G, 66443496A>G
A > G
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1663332 47444344C>T, 66444344C>T
C > T
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs17495520 11451178C>T, 166639905C>T
C > T
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs17701271 142711243C>A, 67258964C>A
C > A
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1799983 11291734T>G, 12965T>G, 150696111T>G, 894T>G, Asp298Glu, NOS3:894G>T
T > G
Missense
Asp298Glu
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2070744 -51-762C>T, -786, -813C>T, 11285702C>T, 150690079C>T, 6933C>T, NOS3 -786T>C, NOS3:, T>C, eNOS -786T>C
C > T
5' Flanking
No VIP available CA VA
rs2267715 187+5444C>T, 229+5444C>T, 28633C>T, 30706087G>A, 30716087G>A, 310+5444C>T
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs2284220 187+3428C>T, 229+3428C>T, 26617C>T, 30708103G>A, 30718103G>A, 310+3428C>T
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs255100 -260-8T>A, 15812T>A, 30718908A>T, 30728908A>T, 91-8T>A
A > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs295114 -23+1399C>T, 201195602C>T, 51405020C>T
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs295137 201150040C>T, 51359458C>T
C > T
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3752120 -266G>A, 24820239C>T, 52552021C>T
C > T
5' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs518350 27657544C>T, 7048113C>T
C > T
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs6002674 22084789T>C, 42694220T>C
T > C
Not Available
No VIP available CA VA
rs6988229 139884509C>T, 53158058C>T, 658+5484G>A
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs73294475 30691596T>C, 30701596T>C, 43124A>G, 716+176A>G, 755+176A>G, 758+176A>G, 839+176A>G
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs74973995 524468A>G, 96962052A>G
A > G
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs77149876 121668T>C, 14025131T>C, 14085131T>C, 480-11761T>C
T > C
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs77441273 1562G>A, 1697G>A, 1754G>A, 175933G>A, 73959857G>A, 92959857G>A, Arg521Gln, Arg566Gln, Arg585Gln
G > A
Missense
Arg585Gln
No VIP available CA VA
rs7793837 -166-546T>A, 17943T>A, 184+2030T>A, 30716777A>T, 30726777A>T, CRHR2: Intronic, downstream of exon beta 1b
A > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs77977790 176695479T>C, 268173T>C, 28184121T>C, 3799-13283T>C
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs8191725 -661T>C, 160429357A>G, 290-685A>G, 44227A>G, 64598814A>G
A > G
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs881152 -600C>T, 17009828G>A, 172198555G>A, DUSP1 rs881152 G>A
G > A
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs892940 24478838A>G, 24538838A>G, 2476T>C, 406-2185A>G
A > G
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs9552679 23231920T>C, 4211920T>C
T > C
Not Available
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 138
2D structure from PubChem
provided by PubChem

Overview

Generic Names
  • Albuterol
  • Albuterol Sulfate
  • Albuterol Sulphate
  • Levalbuterol
  • Salbutamol Sulfate
  • Salbutamol Sulphate
Trade Names
  • Accuneb
  • Aerolin
  • Airomir
  • Asmaven
  • Asmol
  • Asthalin
  • Asthavent
  • Broncovaleas
  • Buventol
  • Cetsim
  • Cobutolin
  • Ecovent
  • Loftan
  • ProAir
  • ProAir HFA
  • Proventil
  • Proventil HFA
  • Rotahaler
  • Salamol
  • Salbulin
  • Salbutard
  • Salbutine
  • Salbuvent
  • Solbutamol
  • Sultanol
  • Venetlin
  • Ventalin Inhaler
  • Ventolin
  • Ventolin HFA
  • Ventolin Inhaler
  • Ventolin Rotacaps
  • Volma
  • Volmax
  • Xopenex
  • Xopenex HFA
Brand Mixture Names
  • Combivent (Ipratropium Bromide + Salbutamol Sulfate)
  • Gen-Combo Sterinebs (Ipratropium Bromide + Salbutamol Sulfate)

PharmGKB Accession Id:
PA448068

Description

Salbutamol is a short-acting, selective beta2-adrenergic receptor agonist used in the treatment of asthma and COPD. It is 29 times more selective for beta2 receptors than beta1 receptors giving it higher specificity for pulmonary beta receptors versus beta1-adrenergic receptors located in the heart. Salbutamol is formulated as a racemic mixture of the R- and S-isomers. The R-isomer has 150 times greater affinity for the beta2-receptor than the S-isomer and the S-isomer has been associated with toxicity. This lead to the development of levalbuterol, the single R-isomer of salbutamol. However, the high cost of levalbuterol compared to salbutamol has deterred wide-spread use of this enantiomerically pure version of the drug. Salbutamol is generally used for acute episodes of bronchospasm caused by bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis and other chronic bronchopulmonary disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD). It is also used prophylactically for exercise-induced asthma.

Source: Drug Bank

Indication

For symptomatic relief and prevention of bronchospasm due to bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis, and other chronic bronchopulmonary disorders such as COPD.

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

Salbutamol is a beta(2)-adrenergic agonist and thus it stimulates beta(2)-adrenergic receptors. Binding of albuterol to beta(2)-receptors in the lungs results in relaxation of bronchial smooth muscles. It is believed that salbutamol increases cAMP production by activating adenylate cyclase, and the actions of salbutamol are mediated by cAMP. Increased intracellular cyclic AMP increases the activity of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A, which inhibits the phosphorylation of myosin and lowers intracellular calcium concentrations. A lowered intracellular calcium concentration leads to a smooth muscle relaxation and bronchodilation. In addition to bronchodilation, salbutamol inhibits the release of bronchoconstricting agents from mast cells, inhibits microvascular leakage, and enhances mucociliary clearance.

Source: Drug Bank

Pharmacology

Salbutamol (INN) or albuterol (USAN), a moderately selective beta(2)-receptor agonist similar in structure to terbutaline, is widely used as a bronchodilator to manage asthma and other chronic obstructive airway diseases. The R-isomer, levalbuterol, is responsible for bronchodilation while the S-isomer increases bronchial reactivity. The R-enantiomer is sold in its pure form as Levalbuterol. The manufacturer of levalbuterol, Sepracor, has implied (although not directly claimed) that the presence of only the R-enantiomer produces fewer side-effects.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity

Biotransformation

Hydrolyzed by esterases in tissue and blood to the active compound colterol. The drug is also conjugatively metabolized to salbutamol 4'-O-sulfate.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption

Systemic absorption is rapid following aerosol administration.

Source: Drug Bank

Half-Life

1.6 hours

Source: Drug Bank

Toxicity

LD 50=1100 mg/kg (orally in mice)

Source: Drug Bank

Route of Elimination

Approximately 72% of the inhaled dose is excreted in the urine within 24 hours, 28% as unchanged drug and 44% as metabolite.

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula

C13H21NO3

Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES

CC(C)(C)NC[C@@H](C1=CC(=C(C=C1)O)CO)O

Source: Drug Bank

CC(C)(C)NCC(O)C1=CC(CO)=C(O)C=C1

Source: Drug Bank

Canonical SMILES

CC(C)(C)NCC(O)C1=CC(CO)=C(O)C=C1

Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight

239.3107

Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight

239.152143543

Source: Drug Bank

PharmGKB Curated Pathways

Pathways created internally by PharmGKB based primarily on literature evidence.

  1. Beta-agonist/Beta-blocker Pathway, Pharmacodynamics
    Simplified pharmacodynamic pathway of drug action on beta 2 adrenergic receptor in a stylized airway cell.
  1. Sympathetic Nerve Pathway (Neuroeffector Junction)
    Simplified diagram of a sympathetic neuroeffector junction displaying genes which may be involved.

External Pathways

Links to non-PharmGKB pathways.

PharmGKB contains no links to external pathways for this drug. To report a pathway, click here.

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Curated Information ?

Drug Targets

Gene Description
ADRB1 (source: Drug Bank)
ADRB2 (source: Drug Bank)
IL8 (source: Drug Bank)

Drug Interactions

Drug Description
salbutamol The tricyclic increases the sympathomimetic effect (source: Drug Bank)
salbutamol The tricyclic antidepressant, amitriptyline, increases the sympathomimetic effect of salbutamol. (source: Drug Bank)
salbutamol The tricyclic increases the sympathomimetic effect (source: Drug Bank)
salbutamol The tricyclic antidepressant, amoxapine, increases the sympathomimetic effect of salbutamol. (source: Drug Bank)
salbutamol Antagonism (source: Drug Bank)
salbutamol Antagonism (source: Drug Bank)
salbutamol Antagonism (source: Drug Bank)
salbutamol Antagonism (source: Drug Bank)
salbutamol Antagonism (source: Drug Bank)
salbutamol Antagonism (source: Drug Bank)
salbutamol The tricyclic increases the sympathomimetic effect (source: Drug Bank)
salbutamol The tricyclic antidepressant, clomipramine, increases the sympathomimetic effect of salbutamol. (source: Drug Bank)
salbutamol The tricyclic increases the sympathomimetic effect (source: Drug Bank)
salbutamol The tricyclic antidepressant, desipramine, increases the sympathomimetic effect of salbutamol. (source: Drug Bank)
salbutamol The tricyclic increases the sympathomimetic effect (source: Drug Bank)
salbutamol The tricyclic antidepressant, doxepin, increases the sympathomimetic effect of salbutamol. (source: Drug Bank)
salbutamol Antagonism (source: Drug Bank)
salbutamol Antagonism (source: Drug Bank)
salbutamol The tricyclic increases the sympathomimetic effect (source: Drug Bank)
salbutamol The tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, increases the sympathomimetic effect of salbutamol. (source: Drug Bank)
salbutamol Increased arterial pressure (source: Drug Bank)
salbutamol Increased arterial pressure (source: Drug Bank)
salbutamol Increased arterial pressure (source: Drug Bank)
salbutamol Increased arterial pressure (source: Drug Bank)
salbutamol Antagonism (source: Drug Bank)
salbutamol Possible increase of arterial pressure (source: Drug Bank)
salbutamol Possible increase of arterial pressure (source: Drug Bank)
salbutamol Antagonism (source: Drug Bank)
salbutamol Antagonism (source: Drug Bank)
salbutamol Increased arterial pressure (source: Drug Bank)
salbutamol Moclobemide increases the sympathomimetic effect (source: Drug Bank)
salbutamol Moclobemide increases the sympathomimetic effect of salbutamol. (source: Drug Bank)
salbutamol Antagonism (source: Drug Bank)
salbutamol Antagonism (source: Drug Bank)
salbutamol The tricyclic increases the sympathomimetic effect (source: Drug Bank)
salbutamol The tricyclic antidepressant, nortriptyline, increases the sympathomimetic effect of salbutamol. (source: Drug Bank)
salbutamol Antagonism (source: Drug Bank)
salbutamol Antagonism (source: Drug Bank)
salbutamol Increased arterial pressure (source: Drug Bank)
salbutamol Increased arterial pressure (source: Drug Bank)
salbutamol Antagonism (source: Drug Bank)
salbutamol Antagonism (source: Drug Bank)
salbutamol Antagonism (source: Drug Bank)
salbutamol Antagonism (source: Drug Bank)
salbutamol Increased arterial pressure (source: Drug Bank)
salbutamol Increased arterial pressure (source: Drug Bank)
salbutamol Increased arterial pressure (source: Drug Bank)
salbutamol Antagonism (source: Drug Bank)
salbutamol Antagonism (source: Drug Bank)

Curated Information ?

EvidenceDisease
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Asthma

Publications related to salbutamol: 43

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Arg16 ADRB2 genotype increases the risk of asthma exacerbation in children with a reported use of long-acting beta2-agonists: results of the pacman cohort. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Zuurhout Miranda Jl, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Inhaled corticosteroid treatment modulates ZNF432 gene variant's effect on bronchodilator response in asthmatics. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 2013. Wu Ann Chen, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
A genome-wide association study of bronchodilator response in Latinos implicates rare variants. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 2013. Drake Katherine A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Hizawa Nobuyuki. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Role of interactions in pharmacogenetic studies: leukotrienes in asthma. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Via Marc, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
A genome-wide association study of bronchodilator response in asthmatics. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2013. Duan Q L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Effect of eNOS polymorphisms on salbutamol evoked endothelium dependent vasodilation in South Indian healthy subjects. Indian journal of pharmacology. 2013. Kumar Srinivasamurthy Suresh, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Tailored second line therapy in asthmatic children with the arginine-16 genotype. Clinical science (London, England : 1979). 2012. Lipworth Brian J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Integrative systems biology approaches in asthma pharmacogenomics. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Dahlin Amber, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genome-Wide Association Analysis in Asthma Subjects Identifies SPATS2L as a Novel Bronchodilator Response Gene. PLoS genetics. 2012. Himes Blanca E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
A polymorphism in the thyroid hormone receptor gene is associated with bronchodilator response in asthmatics. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2012. Duan Q L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pediatric pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic studies: the current state and future perspectives. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2011. Russo Roberta, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Influence of gene-gene interactions on response to albuterol therapy. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Moore Paul E. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
KCNH2 pharmacogenomics summary. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Oshiro Connie, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Dual-specificity phosphatase 1 as a pharmacogenetic modifier of inhaled steroid response among asthmatic patients. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 2010. Jin Ying, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
In utero smoke exposure and impaired response to inhaled corticosteroids in children with asthma. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 2010. Cohen Robyn T, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
GSNO reductase and beta2-adrenergic receptor gene-gene interaction: bronchodilator responsiveness to albuterol. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Choudhry Shweta, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Development of a Pharmacogenetic Predictive Test in asthma: proof of concept. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Wu Ann Chen, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Very important pharmacogene summary ADRB2. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Litonjua Augusto A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Adrenergic beta(2)-receptor genotype predisposes to exacerbations in steroid-treated asthmatic patients taking frequent albuterol or salmeterol. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 2009. Basu Kaninika, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Effect of beta2-adrenergic receptor polymorphism on response to longacting beta2 agonist in asthma (LARGE trial): a genotype-stratified, randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Lancet. 2009. Wechsler Michael E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Predicting response to short-acting bronchodilator medication using Bayesian networks. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Himes Blanca E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic ancestry modifies pharmacogenetic gene-gene interaction for asthma. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2009. Corvol Harriet, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ARG1 is a novel bronchodilator response gene: screening and replication in four asthma cohorts. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 2008. Litonjua Augusto A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Influence of beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphisms on the response to chronic use of albuterol in asthmatic children. Pediatric pulmonology. 2008. Giubergia Verónica, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor-2 genetic variants with acute bronchodilator response in asthma. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2008. Poon Audrey H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetic response to albuterol among asthmatics. Pharmacogenomics. 2008. Corvol Harriet, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Effect of ADRB2 polymorphisms on response to longacting beta2-agonist therapy: a pharmacogenetic analysis of two randomised studies. Lancet. 2007. Bleecker Eugene R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Arginine-16 beta2 adrenoceptor genotype predisposes to exacerbations in young asthmatics taking regular salmeterol. Thorax. 2006. Palmer C N A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
beta-Adrenergic receptor polymorphisms and response to salmeterol. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 2006. Wechsler Michael E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenomic data submissions to the FDA: clinical pharmacology case studies. Pharmacogenomics. 2004. Ruaño Gualberto, et al. PubMed
Use of regularly scheduled albuterol treatment in asthma: genotype-stratified, randomised, placebo-controlled cross-over trial. Lancet. 2004. Israel Elliot, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The Ile164 beta(2)-adrenoceptor polymorphism alters salmeterol exosite binding and conventional agonist coupling to G(s). European journal of pharmacology. 2001. Green S A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Association of asthma with beta(2)-adrenergic receptor gene polymorphism and cigarette smoking. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 2001. Wang Z, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Effect of polymorphism of the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor on response to regular use of albuterol in asthma. International archives of allergy and immunology. 2001. Israel E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Complex promoter and coding region beta 2-adrenergic receptor haplotypes alter receptor expression and predict in vivo responsiveness. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2000. Drysdale C M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Asthma exacerbations during long term beta agonist use: influence of beta(2) adrenoceptor polymorphism. Thorax. 2000. Taylor D R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The effect of polymorphisms of the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor on the response to regular use of albuterol in asthma. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 2000. Israel E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Tolerance to beta-agonists during acute bronchoconstriction. The European respiratory journal : official journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology. 1999. Hancox R J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
beta-2 Adrenergic receptor variants affect resting blood pressure and agonist-induced vasodilation in young adult Caucasians. Hypertension. 1999. Gratze G, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Impact of genetic polymorphisms of the beta2-adrenergic receptor on albuterol bronchodilator pharmacodynamics. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 1999. Lima J J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Effects of gender and race on albuterol pharmacokinetics. Pharmacotherapy. 1999. Mohamed M H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Association between genetic polymorphisms of the beta2-adrenoceptor and response to albuterol in children with and without a history of wheezing. The Journal of clinical investigation. 1997. Martinez F D, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

Web Resource:
Wikipedia
National Drug Code Directory:
0085-0614-02
DrugBank:
DB01001
ChEBI:
2549
KEGG Drug:
D02147
PubChem Compound:
2083
PubChem Substance:
171517
46505312
IUPHAR Ligand:
558
Drugs Product Database (DPD):
790419
BindingDB:
25769
ChemSpider:
1999
Therapeutic Targets Database:
DNC000873
FDA Drug Label at DailyMed:
5f06a992-93ae-461d-b605-9962249daeba

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention salbutamol and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

Common Searches

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Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, Open Eye Scientific Software.