Drug/Small Molecule:
acetylcholine

PharmGKB contains no dosing guidelines for this drug/small molecule. To report known genotype-based dosing guidelines, or if you are interested in developing guidelines, click here.

PharmGKB contains no drug labels with pharmacogenomic information for this drug/small molecule. To report a drug label with PGx, click here.

PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the page.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

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This is a non-comprehensive list of genetic tests with pharmacogenetics relevance, typically submitted by the manufacturer and manually curated by PharmGKB. The information listed is provided for educational purposes only and does not constitute an endorsement of any listed test or manufacturer.

A more complete listing of genetic tests is found at the Genetic Testing Registry (GTR).

PGx Test Variants Assayed Gene?

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page.

Links in the "Gene" column lead to PharmGKB Gene Pages.

Gene ? Variant?
(138)
Alternate Names / Tag SNPs ? Drugs ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available CA VA
rs1799752 16457_16458insATACAGTCACTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTGAGACGGAGTCTCGCTCTGTCGCCC, 2306-119_2306-118insATACAGTCACTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTGAGACGGAGTCTCGCTCTGTCGCCC, 26840042_26840043insATACAGTCACTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTGAGACGGAGTCTCGCTCTGTCGCCC, 584-119_584-118insATACAGTCACTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTGAGACGGAGTCTCGCTCTGTCGCCC, 61565890_61565891insATACAGTCACTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTGAGACGGAGTCTCGCTCTGTCGCCC, ACE D/I
- > ATACAGTCACTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTGAGACGGAGTCTCGCTCTGTCGCCC
Intronic
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 138
2D structure from PubChem
provided by PubChem

Overview

Generic Names
  • acetylcholine chloride
Trade Names
Brand Mixture Names

PharmGKB Accession Id:
PA448031

Description

A neurotransmitter. Acetylcholine in vertebrates is the major transmitter at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system. It is generally not used as an administered drug because it is broken down very rapidly by cholinesterases, but it is useful in some ophthalmological applications.

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula

C7H16NO2

Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES

CC(=O)OCC[N+](C)(C)C

Source: OpenEye

Canonical SMILES

CC(=O)OCC[N+](C)(C)C

Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight

146.2074

Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight

146.118103761

Source: Drug Bank

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Curated Information ?

EvidenceGene
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
ACE

Drug Targets

Gene Description
ACHE (source: Drug Bank)

Drug Interactions

Drug Description
acetylcholine The acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, Tacrine, may increase the adverse/toxic effects of Acetylcholine, a cholinergic agonist. Monitor for increased cholinergic effects and toxicity. (source: Drug Bank)

Relationships from National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT)

Contraindicated With

Publications related to acetylcholine: 11

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonism improves endothelial dysfunction in patients with Crohn's disease. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Schinzari F, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
A novel genetic marker for coronary spasm in women from a genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism analysis. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2007. Suzuki Satoru, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Coupling of human nicotinic acetylcholine receptors alpha 7 to calcium channels in GH3 cells. Neuropharmacology. 2005. Feuerbach Dominik, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Choline is transported by vesicular acetylcholine transporter. Journal of neurochemistry. 2004. Bravo Dawn T, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Regulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor channel function by acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in rat hippocampal CA1 interneurons. Molecular pharmacology. 2004. Fayuk Dmitriy, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
A choline-evoked [Ca2+]c signal causes catecholamine release and hyperpolarization of chromaffin cells. The FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. 2004. Fuentealba Jorge, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Synergistic interaction of T-786-->C polymorphism in the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene and smoking for an enhanced risk for coronary spasm. Pharmacogenetics. 2003. Nakayama Masafumi, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Relationships between cholinergic phenotype and acetyl-CoA level in hybrid murine neuroblastoma cells of septal origin. Journal of neuroscience research. 2003. Bielarczyk Hanna, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in autonomic ganglia. Autonomic neuroscience : basic & clinical. 2002. Skok Vladimir I. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
In-vivo effects of Glu298Asp endothelial nitric oxide synthase polymorphism. Pharmacogenetics. 2001. Sofowora G, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
DD angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphism is associated with endothelial dysfunction in normal humans. Hypertension. 1999. Butler R, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

DrugBank:
DB03128
PDB:
ACH
ChEBI:
15355
KEGG Compound:
C01996
PubChem Compound:
187
PubChem Substance:
46504484
5093
IUPHAR Ligand:
294

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention acetylcholine and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

Common Searches

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Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, Open Eye Scientific Software.