Drug/Small Molecule:
abacavir

last updated 02/28/2014

CPIC Dosing Guideline for abacavir and HLA-B

Summary

In individuals with the HLA-B*57:01 variant allele ("HLA-B*57:01-positive"), abacavir is not recommended and should be considered only under exceptional circumstances.

Annotation

Please see below for full details of these guidelines, with supporting evidence and disclaimers.

Guidelines regarding the use of pharmacogenomic tests in dosing for abacavir were published in April 2012 in Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics by the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) and have been updated in February 2014. CPIC extensively reviewed the literature and concluded no changes were required to the therapeutic recommendations of the abacavir dosing guideline based on HLA-B genotype since the original publication in 2012.

Download updated guideline: article and supplement.
Download original guideline: article and supplement.

Excerpt from the abacavir dosing guidelines:

We agree with others* that HLA-B*57:01 screening should be performed in all abacavir-naive individuals before initiation of abacavir-containing therapy (see Table 1 below); this is consistent with the recommendations of the FDA, the US Department of Health and Human Services, and the European Medicines Agency. In abacavir-naive individuals who are HLA-B*57:01-positive, abacavir is not recommended and should be considered only under exceptional circumstances when the potential benefit, based on resistance patterns and treatment history, outweighs the risk.

*[Articles:18826546, 19640227, 21174626, 21412232] Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents (PDF)

Table 1: Recommended therapeutic use of abacavir based on HLA-B genotype

Likely phenotype Genotypes Examples of diplotypes Implications for phenotypic measures Recommendations for abacavir therapy Classification of recommendation for abacavir therapy a
Very low risk of hypersensitivity (constitutes ~94% b of patients) Absence of *57:01 alleles (reported as "negative" on a genotyping test) *X/*X c Low or reduced risk of abacavir hypersensitivity Use abacavir per standard dosing guidelines Strong
High risk of hypersensitivity (~6% of patients) Presence of at least one *57:01 allele (reported as "positive" on a genotyping test) *57:01/*X c *57:01/*57:01 Significantly increased risk of abacavir hypersensitivity Abacavir is not recommended Strong

a Rating scheme described in the supplementary data

b See the supplementary data for estimates of genotype frequencies among different ethnic/geographic groups

c *X = any HLA-B genotype other than *57:01.
HLA-B = human leukocyte antigen B

Listen to an interview with the lead author: podcast


last updated 08/10/2011

Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for abacavir and HLA-B

Summary

An alternate to abacavir should be selected for patients who have the HLA-B*57:01 allele (patients who are "HLA-B*57:01-positive").

Annotation

The Royal Dutch Pharmacists Association - Pharmacogenetics Working Group has evaluated therapeutic dose recommendations for abacavir based on HLA-B*57:01 (PMID:21412232). They conclude that an alternate drug should be selected for patients who are HLA-B*57:01 positive.

Genotype Therapeutic Dose Recommendation Level of Evidence Clinical Relevance
HLA-B*57:01 Select alternative drug Published controlled studies of good quality* relating to phenotyped and/or genotyped patients or healthy volunteers, and having relevant pharmacokinetic or clinical endpoints. Clinical effect (S): Failure of lifesaving therapy e.g. anticipated myelosuppression; prevention of breast cancer relapse; arrhythmia; neutropenia < 0.5x109/l; leucopenia < 1.0x109/l; thrombocytopenia < 25x109/l; life-threatening complications from diarrhea.

PharmGKB gathers information regarding PGx on FDA drug labels from the FDA's "Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labels", and from FDA-approved FDA and EMA-approved (European Medicines Agency) EMA labels brought to our attention. Excerpts from the label and downloadable highlighted label PDFs are manually curated by PharmGKB.

Please note that some drugs may have been removed from or added to the FDA's "Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labels" without our knowledge. We periodically check the table for additions to this table and update PharmGKB accordingly.

There is currently no such list for European drug labels - we are working with the EMA to establish a list of European Public Assessment Reports (EPAR)s that contain PGx information. We are constructing this list by initially searching for drugs for which we have PGx-containing FDA drug labels - of these 44 EMA EPARs were identified and are being curated for pgx information.

We welcome any information regarding drug labels containing PGx information approved by the FDA, EMA or other Medicine Agencies around the world - please contact feedback.


last updated 10/25/2013

FDA Label for abacavir and HLA-B

This label is on the FDA Biomarker List
Genetic testing recommended

Summary

The FDA-approved label for abacavir recommends genetic testing for the HLA-B*5701 allele prior to initiating or reinitiating treatment with abacavir in patients of unknown HLA-B*5701 status, and due to a high risk of hypersensitivity reaction abacavir is not recommended in individuals carrying this allele.

Annotation

Excerpt from the abacavir drug label:

Patients who carry the HLA-B*5701 allele are at high risk for experiencing a hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir. Prior to initiating therapy with abacavir, screening for the HLA-B*5701 allele is recommended; this approach has been found to decrease the risk of hypersensitivity reaction. Screening is also recommended prior to reinitiation of abacavir in patients of unknown HLA-B*5701 status who have previously tolerated abacavir. HLA-B*5701-negative patients may develop a suspected hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir; however, this occurs significantly less frequently than in HLA-B*5701-positive patients.

In the CNA106030 (PREDICT-1) study of 1650 HIV-infected adults, it was found that pre-screening for the HLA-B*5701 allele reduced the incidence of suspected hypersensitivity reactions from 7.8% to 3.4%. Based on this study, it is estimated that 61% of patients carrying the HLA-B*5701 allele will develop a hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir, vs. 4% of patients who do not have this allele.

For the complete drug label text with sections containing pharmacogenetic information highlighted, see the Abacavir drug label PDF.

*Disclaimer: The contents of this page have not been endorsed by the FDA and are the sole responsibility of PharmGKB.

Full label available at DailyMed

Genes and/or phenotypes found in this label

  • Acidosis, Lactic
    • Boxed warning section, Warnings section, Adverse reactions section, Warnings and precautions section
    • source: FDA Label
  • Hepatomegaly
    • Boxed warning section, Warnings section, Adverse reactions section, Warnings and precautions section
    • source: FDA Label
  • HIV Infections
    • Indications & usage section
    • source: FDA Label
  • Hypersensitivity
    • Indications & usage section, Contraindications section, Warnings section, Adverse reactions section
    • source: PHONT
  • HLA-B
    • Boxed warning section, Warnings and precautions section, toxicity
    • source: FDA Label

European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for abacavir and HLA-B

Genetic testing required

Summary

The EMA European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) states screening for the HLA-B*5701 allele should be carried out prior to initiating abacavir treatment and recommends screening in patients of unknown HLA-B*5701 allele status who are reinitiating treatment with abacavir. Due to a high risk of hypersensitivity reaction abacavir is not recommended in individuals carrying this allele.

Annotation

Excerpt from the abacavir (Ziagen) EPAR:

Before initiating treatment with abacavir, screening for carriage of the HLA-B*5701 allele should be performed in any HIV-infected patient, irrespective of racial origin. Screening is also recommended prior to re-initiation of abacavir in patients of unknown HLA-B*5701 status who have previously tolerated abacavir (see "Management after an interruption of Ziagen therapy"). Abacavir should not be used in patients known to carry the HLA-B*5701 allele, unless no other therapeutic option is available in these patients, based on the treatment history and resistance testing (see section 4.4 and 4.8).


Screening for carriage of the HLA B*5701 allele is recommended prior to re-initiation of abacavir in patients of unknown HLA-B*5701 status who have previously tolerated abacavir. Re-initiation of abacavir in such patients who test positive for the HLA B*5701 allele is not recommended and should be considered only under exceptional circumstances where potential benefit outweighs the risk and with close medical supervision.

Screening for the HLA-B*5701 allele is highlighted in the following sections:
Therapeutic Indications, Contraindications, Special warnings and precautions for use, Undesirable effects.

For the complete EPAR text with sections containing pharmacogenetic information highlighted, see the Ziagen EPAR PDF

*Disclaimer: The contents of this page have not been endorsed by the EMA and are the sole responsibility of PharmGKB.

Genes and/or phenotypes found in this label

  • HLA-B
    • Indications & usage section, Information for patients section, Warnings and precautions section, toxicity
    • source: European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label

Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria, manually curated by PharmGKB, are shown below.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the page.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

? = Mouse-over for quick help

This is a non-comprehensive list of genetic tests with pharmacogenetics relevance, typically submitted by the manufacturer and manually curated by PharmGKB. The information listed is provided for educational purposes only and does not constitute an endorsement of any listed test or manufacturer.

A more complete listing of genetic tests is found at the Genetic Testing Registry (GTR).

PGx Test Variants Assayed Gene?
HLA-B*5701 Test rs2395029 , HLA-B*5701

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page.

Links in the "Gene" column lead to PharmGKB Gene Pages.

Gene ? Variant?
(138)
Alternate Names / Tag SNPs ? Drugs ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available CA VA HLA-B *57:01:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA HLA-DQB1 *03:03:03 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA HLA-DRB1 *07:01:01:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2395029 2762550T>G, 2941434T>G, 31371780T>G, 31431780T>G, 733T>G, tagging SNP for HLA-B*5701
T > G
Not Available
No VIP available CA No Variant Annotations available
rs3093726 2832330C>C, 2840429T>C, 2861507T>C, 2877590T>C, 2889673T>C, 2926495T>C, 3056405T>C, 31486789T>C, 31546789T>C, 8440T>C
T > C
Not Available
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 138
2D structure from PubChem
provided by PubChem

Overview

Generic Names
  • ABC
  • abacavir
Trade Names
  • Epzicom
  • Ziagen
Brand Mixture Names
  • Kivexa (Abacavir Sulfate + Lamivudine)
  • Trizivir (Abacavir Sulfate + Lamivudine + Zidovudine)

PharmGKB Accession Id:
PA448004

Description

Abacavir (ABC) is a powerful nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) used to treat HIV and AIDS. Wikipedia

Source: Drug Bank

Indication

For the treatment of HIV-1 infection, in combination with other antiretroviral agents.

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

Abacavir is a carbocyclic synthetic nucleoside analogue. Intracellularly, abacavir is converted by cellular enzymes to the active metabolite carbovir triphosphate, an analogue of deoxyguanosine-5'-triphosphate (dGTP). Carbovir triphosphate inhibits the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) both by competing with the natural substrate dGTP and by its incorporation into viral DNA.

Source: Drug Bank

Pharmacology

Abacavir is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) with activity against Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1). Abacavir is phosphorylated to active metabolites that compete for incorporation into viral DNA. They inhibit the HIV reverse transcriptase enzyme competitively and act as a chain terminator of DNA synthesis. The lack of a 3'-OH group in the incorporated nucleoside analogue prevents the formation of the 5' to 3' phosphodiester linkage essential for DNA chain elongation, and therefore, the viral DNA growth is terminated.

Source: Drug Bank

Food Interaction

Alcohol significantly increases abacavir's area under the curve (about 41%).|Avoid alcohol.|Take without regard to meals.|Abacavir is partly metabolised through the alcohol-dehydrogenase enzyme system.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity

Biotransformation

Hepatic, by alcohol dehydrogenase and glucuronosyltransferase to a 5'-carboxylic acid metabolite and 5'-glucuronide metabolite, respectively. These metabolites have no antiviral activity. Abacavir is not significantly metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes.

Source: Drug Bank

Protein Binding

Moderate (approximately 50%)

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption

Rapid and extensive after oral administration (83% bioavailability)

Source: Drug Bank

Half-Life

1.54 +/- 0.63 hours

Source: Drug Bank

Toxicity

Some myocardial degeneration has been noticed in rats and mice

Source: Drug Bank

Route of Elimination

Elimination of abacavir was quantified in a mass balance study following administration of a 600-mg dose of 14C-abacavir: 99% of the radioactivity was recovered, 1.2% was excreted in the urine as abacavir, 30% as the 5'-carboxylic acid metabolite, 36% as the 5'-glucuronide metabolite, and 15% as unidentified minor metabolites in the urine. Fecal elimination accounted for 16% of the dose. Fecal elimination accounted for 16% of the dose. Renal excretion of unchanged abacavir is a minor route of elimination in humans.

Source: Drug Bank

Volume of Distribution

  • 0.86 ± 0.15 L/kg

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula

C14H18N6O

Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES

C1CC1NC2=C3C(=NC(=N2)N)N(C=N3)[C@H]4C[C@H](C=C4)CO

Source: Drug Bank

NC1=NC2=C(N=CN2[C@@H]2C[C@H](CO)C=C2)C(NC2CC2)=N1

Source: Drug Bank

Canonical SMILES

NC1=NC2=C(N=CN2[C@@H]2C[C@H]

Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight

286.3323

Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight

286.154209228

Source: Drug Bank

PharmGKB Curated Pathways

Pathways created internally by PharmGKB based primarily on literature evidence.

  1. Abacavir Pathway, Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics
    Schematic representation of abacavir metabolism and mechanism of action. The potential mechanism of an abacavir hypersensitivity reaction is also shown.

External Pathways

Links to non-PharmGKB pathways.

PharmGKB contains no links to external pathways for this drug. To report a pathway, click here.

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Curated Information ?

Drug Interactions

Drug Description
amprenavir The serum concentration of Abacavir may be decreased by protease inhibitors such as Amprenavir. The antiviral response should be closely monitored. (source: Drug Bank)
amprenavir The serum concentration of Abacavir may be decreased by protease inhibitors such as Amprenavir. The antiviral response should be closely monitored. (source: Drug Bank)
atazanavir The serum concentration of Abacavir may be decreased by protease inhibitors such as Atazanavir. The antiviral response should be closely monitored. (source: Drug Bank)
atazanavir The serum concentration of Abacavir may be decreased by protease inhibitors such as Atazanavir. The antiviral response should be closely monitored. (source: Drug Bank)
darunavir The serum concentration of Abacavir may be decreased by protease inhibitors such as Darunavir. The antiviral response should be closely monitored. (source: Drug Bank)
darunavir The serum concentration of Abacavir may be decreased by protease inhibitors such as Darunavir. The antiviral response should be closely monitored. (source: Drug Bank)
ethanol Partly metabolized through the alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme system. Alcohol increases the area under the curve (about 41%) of Abacavir. (source: Drug Bank)
ethanol Abacavir is partly metabolized through the alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme system. Alcohol increases the area under the curve (about 41%) of Abacavir. Interaction does not appear to be clinically significant. (source: Drug Bank)
fosamprenavir The serum concentration of Abacavir may be decreased by protease inhibitors such as Fosamprenavir. The antiviral response should be closely monitored. (source: Drug Bank)
fosamprenavir The serum concentration of Abacavir may be decreased by protease inhibitors such as Fosamprenavir. The antiviral response should be closely monitored. (source: Drug Bank)
ganciclovir The adverse/toxic effects of reverse transcriptase inhibitors (nucleoside), such as Abacavir, may be enhanced by Ganciclovir. There is a risk of hematologic toxicity. Diligent monitoring during concomitant therapy is required. (source: Drug Bank)
ganciclovir The adverse/toxic effects of reverse transcriptase inhibitors (nucleoside), such as Abacavir, may be enhanced by Ganciclovir. There is a risk of hematologic toxicity. Diligent monitoring during concomitant therapy is required. (source: Drug Bank)
indinavir The serum concentration of Abacavir may be decreased by protease inhibitors such as Indinavir. The antiviral response should be closely monitored. (source: Drug Bank)
indinavir The serum concentration of Abacavir may be decreased by protease inhibitors such as Indinavir. The antiviral response should be closely monitored. (source: Drug Bank)
lopinavir The serum concentration of Abacavir may be decreased by protease inhibitors such as Lopinavir. The antiviral response should be closely monitored. (source: Drug Bank)
lopinavir The serum concentration of Abacavir may be decreased by protease inhibitors such as Lopinavir. The antiviral response should be closely monitored. (source: Drug Bank)
nelfinavir The serum concentration of Abacavir may be decreased by protease inhibitors such as Nelfinavir. The antiviral response should be closely monitored. (source: Drug Bank)
nelfinavir The serum concentration of Abacavir may be decreased by protease inhibitors such as Nelfinavir. The antiviral response should be closely monitored. (source: Drug Bank)
ribavirin Ribavirin may increase the hepatotoxicity of reverse transcriptase inhibitors (nucleoside) such as Abacavir. Lactic acidosis may occur. Consider modifying therapy. (source: Drug Bank)
ribavirin Ribavirin Monophosphate may increase the hepatotoxicity of reverse transcriptase inhibitors (nucleoside) such as Abacavir. Lactic acidosis may occur. Consider modifying therapy. (source: Drug Bank)
ritonavir The serum concentration of Abacavir may be decreased by protease inhibitors such as Ritonavir. The antiviral response should be closely monitored. (source: Drug Bank)
ritonavir The serum concentration of Abacavir may be decreased by protease inhibitors such as Ritonavir. The antiviral response should be closely monitored. (source: Drug Bank)
saquinavir The serum concentration of Abacavir may be decreased by protease inhibitors such as Saquinavir. The antiviral response should be closely monitored. (source: Drug Bank)
saquinavir The serum concentration of Abacavir may be decreased by protease inhibitors such as Saquinavir. The antiviral response should be closely monitored. (source: Drug Bank)
tipranavir The serum concentration of Abacavir may be decreased by protease inhibitors such as Tipranavir. The antiviral response should be closely monitored. (source: Drug Bank)
tipranavir The serum concentration of Abacavir may be decreased by protease inhibitors such as Tipranavir. The antiviral response should be closely monitored. (source: Drug Bank)
valganciclovir The adverse/toxic effects of reverse transcriptase inhibitors (nucleoside), such as Abacavir, may be enhanced by Valganciclovir. There is a risk of hematologic toxicity. Diligent monitoring during concomitant therapy is recommended. (source: Drug Bank)
valganciclovir The adverse/toxic effects of reverse transcriptase inhibitors (nucleoside), such as Abacavir, may be enhanced by Valganciclovir. There is a risk of hematologic toxicity. Diligent monitoring during concomitant therapy is recommended. (source: Drug Bank)
abacavir Tipranavir decreases the concentration of Abacavir. (source: Drug Bank)
abacavir The adverse/toxic effects of reverse transcriptase inhibitors (nucleoside), such as Abacavir, may be enhanced by Valganciclovir. There is a risk of hematologic toxicity. Diligent monitoring during concomitant therapy is recommended. (source: Drug Bank)
abacavir The adverse/toxic effects of reverse transcriptase inhibitors (nucleoside), such as Abacavir, may be enhanced by Valganciclovir. There is a risk of hematologic toxicity. Diligent monitoring during concomitant therapy is recommended. (source: Drug Bank)

Curated Information ?

Relationships from National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT)

May Treat
Contraindicated With

Publications related to abacavir: 31

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PharmGKB summary: abacavir pathway. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2014. Barbarino Julia M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Challenges in pharmacogenetics. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Cascorbi Ingolf, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) associated drug hypersensitivity: consequences of drug binding to HLA. Allergy. 2012. Yun J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Potential effect of pharmacogenetics on maternal, fetal and infant antiretroviral drug exposure during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Olagunju Adeniyi, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The Dual Role of Pharmacogenetics in HIV Treatment: Mutations and Polymorphisms Regulating Antiretroviral Drug Resistance and Disposition. Pharmacological reviews. 2012. Michaud Veronique, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium Guidelines for HLA-B Genotype and Abacavir Dosing. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2012. Martin M A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and pharmacogenetics: screening for HLA-B*57:01 among human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients from southern Alberta. Human immunology. 2012. Berka Noureddine, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Drug hypersensitivity and human leukocyte antigens of the major histocompatibility complex. Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology. 2012. Bharadwaj Mandvi, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Prospective-retrospective biomarker analysis for regulatory consideration: white paper from the industry pharmacogenomics working group. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Patterson Scott D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenomics: the genetics of variable drug responses. Circulation. 2011. Roden Dan M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Association of the genetic marker for abacavir hypersensitivity HLA-B*5701 with HCP5 rs2395029 in Mexican Mestizos. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Sanchez-Giron Francisco, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics: From Bench to Byte- An Update of Guidelines. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Swen J J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genomics and drug response. The New England journal of medicine. 2011. Wang Liewei, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Practical recommendations for pharmacogenomics-based prescription: 2010 ESF-UB Conference on Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Becquemont Laurent, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Systematic review of pharmacoeconomic studies of pharmacogenomic tests. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Beaulieu Mathieu, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Drug transporter pharmacogenetics in nucleoside-based therapies. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Errasti-Murugarren Ekaitz, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenomics: role in medicines approval and clinical use. Public health genomics. 2010. Novelli G, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
A highly annotated whole-genome sequence of a Korean individual. Nature. 2009. Kim Jong-Il, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Abacavir pharmacokinetics during chronic therapy in HIV-1-infected adolescents and young adults. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Sleasman J W, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics--tailoring treatment for the outliers. The New England journal of medicine. 2009. Woodcock Janet, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genome-wide approaches to identify pharmacogenetic contributions to adverse drug reactions. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2009. Nelson M R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The HCP5 single-nucleotide polymorphism: a simple screening tool for prediction of hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir. The Journal of infectious diseases. 2008. Colombo Sara, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Diagnosis and management of HIV drug hypersensitivity. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 2008. Davis Carla M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetic information derived from analysis of HLA alleles. Pharmacogenomics. 2008. Gatanaga Hiroyuki, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
HLA-B*5701 screening for hypersensitivity to abacavir. The New England journal of medicine. 2008. Mallal Simon, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
HLA-B*5701 clinical testing: early experience in the United States. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2007. Faruki Hawazin, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Human leukocyte antigens and drug hypersensitivity. Current opinion in allergy and clinical immunology. 2007. Chung Wen-Hung, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
A high-resolution HLA and SNP haplotype map for disease association studies in the extended human MHC. Nature genetics. 2006. de Bakker Paul I W, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Overview of the pharmacogenetics of HIV therapy. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2006. Rodríguez-Nóvoa S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Cost-effectiveness analysis of HLA B*5701 genotyping in preventing abacavir hypersensitivity. Pharmacogenetics. 2004. Hughes Dyfrig A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association between presence of HLA-B*5701, HLA-DR7, and HLA-DQ3 and hypersensitivity to HIV-1 reverse-transcriptase inhibitor abacavir. Lancet. 2002. Mallal S, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

Web Resource:
Wikipedia
National Drug Code Directory:
0173-0661-01
DrugBank:
DB01048
ChEBI:
2360
KEGG Compound:
C07624
KEGG Drug:
D07057
PubChem Compound:
441300
65140
PubChem Substance:
208126
46505718
Drugs Product Database (DPD):
2240358
ChemSpider:
58649
Therapeutic Targets Database:
DAP000704
FDA Drug Label at DailyMed:
6a3b10fc-4b2a-45e3-16a1-ef79187a6dfb

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention abacavir and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

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Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, Open Eye Scientific Software.