Drug/Small Molecule:
lindane

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PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

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This is a non-comprehensive list of genetic tests with pharmacogenetics relevance, typically submitted by the manufacturer and manually curated by PharmGKB. The information listed is provided for educational purposes only and does not constitute an endorsement of any listed test or manufacturer.

A more complete listing of genetic tests is found at the Genetic Testing Registry (GTR).

PGx Test Variants Assayed Gene?
2D structure from PubChem
provided by PubChem

Overview

Generic Names
  • gamma-benzene hexachloride
  • gamma-bhc
  • gamma-hch
  • gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane
  • gamma-hexachlorzyklohexan
  • gamma-lindane
  • lindan
Trade Names
  • Aalindan
  • Aficide
  • Agrocide
  • Agrocide III
  • Agrocide WP
  • Ameisenmittel merck
  • Ameisentod
  • Aparasin
  • Aphtiria
  • Aplidal
  • Arbitex
  • Atlas steward
  • BBH
  • Ben-Hex
  • Bentox 10
  • Benzene hexachloride
  • Bexol
  • Celanex
  • Chloresene
  • Codechine
  • DBH
  • Detmol-Extrakt
  • Devoran
  • Dol Granule
  • Drilltox-Spezial Aglukon
  • Entomoxan
  • Esoderm
  • Fumite lindane
  • Gamacid
  • Gamene
  • Gamma-BHC dust
  • Gamma-Col
  • Gamma-HCH dust
  • Gammalin
  • Gammalin 20
  • Gammasan
  • Gammaterr
  • Gammexane
  • Gexane
  • HCCH
  • HCH
  • HGI
  • Heclotox
  • Hexa
  • Hexachloran
  • Hexachlorane
  • Hexachlorocyclohexane
  • Hexatox
  • Hexaverm
  • Hexicide
  • Hexit
  • Hexyclan
  • Hortex
  • Indane
  • Isotox
  • Jacutin
  • Kokotine
  • Kwell
  • Lendine
  • Lentox
  • Lidenal
  • Lindafor
  • Lindatox
  • Lindex
  • Lindosep
  • Lintox
  • Linvur
  • Lorexane
  • Milbol 49
  • Mszycol
  • Murfume grain store smoke
  • Neo-Scabicidol
  • New kotol
  • Nexen FB
  • Nexit
  • Nexit-Stark
  • Nexol-E
  • Nicochloran
  • Omnitox
  • Ovadziak
  • Owadziak
  • PMS Lindane
  • Pedraczak
  • Pflanzol
  • Quellada
  • Sang-«gamma»
  • Scabene
  • Scabene lotion
  • Spritz-Rapidin
  • Spruehpflanzol
  • Streunex
  • TAP 85
  • Thionex
  • Tri-6
  • Viton
  • beta-BHC
  • beta-Hexachlorocyclohexane
  • beta-Lindane
Brand Mixture Names
  • Dermadex Crm (Benzoic Acid + Benzyl Benzoate + Lindane + Salicylic Acid + Zinc Oxide + Zinc Undecylenate)

PharmGKB Accession Id:
PA164754914

Description

An organochlorine insecticide that has been used as a pediculicide and a scabicide. Lindane has been banned in California, United Kingdom, Australia, and many western countries due to concerns about neurotoxicity and adverse effects on the environment. In Canada, Lindane is not recommmended as a first-line therapy due to reports of resistance, neurotoxicity, and bone marrow suppression, but has been approved by the FDA as a second-line therapy for topical treatment of pediculosis capitis (head lice), pediculosis pubis (pubic lice), or scabies in patients greater than two years of age who cannot tolerate or have failed first-line treatment.

Source: Drug Bank

Indication

For the treatment of patients infested with Sarcoptes scabiei or pediculosis capitis who have either failed to respond to adequate doses, or are intolerant of other approved therapies.

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

Lindane is an organochloride insecticide that has similar neurotoxic protperties to DDT. It exerts its parasiticidal action by being directly absorbed through the parasite's exoskeleton (primarily lice, or scabies) and their ova. The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA(1)) receptor/chloride ionophore complex is the primary site of action for lindane, and other insecticides such as endosulfan, and fipronil. Blockage of the GABA-gated chloride channel reduces neuronal inhibition, which leads to hyperexcitation of the central nervous system. This results in paralysis, convulsions, and death. Lindane has very low ovicidal activity.

Source: Drug Bank

Pharmacology

Scabies is a common, highly pruritic infestation of the skin caused by Sarcoptes scabiei (lice). It is a very contagious condition with specific lesions, such as burrows, and nonspecific lesions, such as papules, vesicles and excoriations. The typical areas of the body it affects are finger webs, scalp (hair), wrists, axillary folds, abdomen, buttocks, inframammary folds and genitalia (males). It is characterized by intense night-time itching. Scabies is spread through close personal contact (relatives, sexual partners, schoolchildren, chronically ill patients and crowded communities). Scabies infestations and the corresponding symptoms can be eliminated by killing the scabies with topical insecticides or scabicides. Lindane is a scabicide that is essentially an organochloride insecticide.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity

Biotransformation

Primarily hepatic through dechlorination leading to 2-chlorophenol, 0-chlorophenol, chlorocyclohexane, chlorocyclohexanol.

Source: Drug Bank

Protein Binding

91%

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption

Lindane is absorbed significantly through the skin. A mean peak blood concentration of 28 nanograms per mL occurred in infants and children 6 hours after total body application of lindane lotion for scabies.

Source: Drug Bank

Half-Life

18 hours

Source: Drug Bank

Toxicity

Lindane is a moderately toxic compound via oral exposure, with a reported oral LD 50 of 88 to 190 mg/kg in rats. Gamma-HCH (which constitutes 99% of lindane) is generally considered to be the most acutely toxic of the isomers following single administration. It is moderately toxic via the dermal route as well, with reported dermal LD 50 values of 500 to 1000 mg/kg in rats, 300 mg/kg in mice, 400 mg/kg in guinea pigs, and 300 mg/kg in rabbits. Acute exposure to lindane may lead to central nervous system stimulation (usually developing within 1 hour), mental/motor impairment, excitation, clonic (intermittent) and tonic (continuous) convulsion. Other adverse reactions include central nervous system toxicity, as well as skin and gastrointestinal changes.

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula

C6H6Cl6

Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES

[C@@H]1([C@@H]([C@@H]([C@H]([C@@H]([C@@H]1Cl)Cl)Cl)Cl)Cl)Cl

Source: OpenEye

Canonical SMILES

Cl[C@H]1[C@H]

Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight

290.83

Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight

287.860066434

Source: Drug Bank

LinkOuts

Web Resource:
Wikipedia
National Drug Code Directory:
45068-100-01
DrugBank:
DB00431
ChEBI:
32888
KEGG Compound:
C06988
C07075
KEGG Drug:
D00360
PubChem Compound:
727
PubChem Substance:
46508542
9201
Drugs Product Database (DPD):
703605
ChemSpider:
707
Therapeutic Targets Database:
DAP001036
FDA Drug Label at DailyMed:
56158fc4-590f-4e8c-bf94-610a3cfc11c1

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention lindane and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

Common Searches

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Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, Open Eye Scientific Software.