Drug/Small Molecule:
fluocinolone acetonide

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PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

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This is a non-comprehensive list of genetic tests with pharmacogenetics relevance, typically submitted by the manufacturer and manually curated by PharmGKB. The information listed is provided for educational purposes only and does not constitute an endorsement of any listed test or manufacturer.

A more complete listing of genetic tests is found at the Genetic Testing Registry (GTR).

PGx Test Variants Assayed Gene?
2D structure from PubChem
provided by PubChem

Overview

Generic Names
  • Fluocinolonacetonidum
  • Fluocinolone acetonide [DCIT]
  • Fluocinoloni acetonidum [INN-Latin]
  • flucinolone
Trade Names
  • Coriphate
  • Derma-smoothe/fs
  • Dermalar
  • FS Shampoo
  • Flucinar
  • Flucort
  • Fluocet
  • Fluonid
  • Fluotrex
  • Fluovitif
  • Flupollon
  • Jellin
  • Localyn
  • Localyn Syntex
  • Medidur
  • Neo-Synalar
  • Omniderm
  • Percutina
  • Radiocin
  • Retisert
  • Sinalar
  • Synalar
  • Synalar-HP
  • Synamol
  • Synandone
  • Synandrone
  • Synemol
  • Synotic
  • Synsac
  • Tefunote
Brand Mixture Names
  • Neosynalar Crm Vet (Fluocinolone Acetonide + Neomycin Sulfate)
  • Synalar Bi-Otic Solution (Fluocinolone Acetonide + Neomycin (Neomycin Sulfate) + Polymyxin B Sulfate)
  • Synotic Otic Solution (Dimethyl Sulfoxide + Fluocinolone Acetonide)

PharmGKB Accession Id:
PA164754912

Description

A glucocorticoid derivative used topically in the treatment of various skin disorders. It is usually employed as a cream, gel, lotion, or ointment. It has also been used topically in the treatment of inflammatory eye, ear, and nose disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p732). It is also being investigatied by pSivida and Alimera, under the brand name Medidur, as a sustained release intraocular implant for the treatment of diabetic macular edema.

Source: Drug Bank

Indication

For the relief of the inflammatory and pruritic manifestations of corticosteroid-responsive dermatoses. Also for the treatment of chronic non-infectious uveitis affecting the posterior segment of the eye (Retisert).

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

Fluocinolone Acetonide is a corticosteroid that binds to the cytosolic glucocorticoid receptor. After binding the receptor the newly formed receptor-ligand complex translocates itself into the cell nucleus, where it binds to many glucocorticoid response elements (GRE) in the promoter region of the target genes. The DNA bound receptor then interacts with basic transcription factors, causing the increase in expression of specific target genes. The anti-inflammatory actions of corticosteroids are thought to involve lipocortins, phospholipase A2 inhibitory proteins which, through inhibition arachidonic acid, control the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and leukotrienes. Specifically glucocorticoids induce lipocortin-1 (annexin-1) synthesis, which then binds to cell membranes preventing the phospholipase A2 from coming into contact with its substrate arachidonic acid. This leads to diminished eicosanoid production. Cyclooxygenase (both COX-1 and COX-2) expression is also suppressed, potentiating the effect. In another words, the two main products in inflammation Prostaglandins and Leukotrienes are inhibited by the action of Glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoids also stimulate the lipocortin-1 escaping to the extracellular space, where it binds to the leukocyte membrane receptors and inhibits various inflammatory events: epithelial adhesion, emigration, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, respiratory burst and the release of various inflammatory mediators (lysosomal enzymes, cytokines, tissue plasminogen activator, chemokines etc.) from neutrophils, macrophages and mastocytes. Additionally the immune system is suppressed by corticosteroids due to a decrease in the function of the lymphatic system, a reduction in immunoglobulin and complement concentrations, the precipitation of lymphocytopenia, and interference with antigen-antibody binding. Like other glucocorticoid agents Fluocinolone acetonide acts as a physiological antagonist to insulin by decreasing glycogenesis (formation of glycogen). It also promotes the breakdown of lipids (lipolysis), and proteins, leading to the mobilization of extrahepatic amino acids and ketone bodies. This leads to increased circulating glucose concentrations (in the blood). There is also decreased glycogen formation in the liver.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity

Biotransformation

Primarily hepatic, corticosteroids are metabolized primarily in the liver and are then excreted by the kidneys.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption

Rapidly absorbed (15 minutes)

Source: Drug Bank

Half-Life

1.3-1.7 hours

Source: Drug Bank

Route of Elimination

Corticosteroids are metabolized primarily in the liver and are then excreted by the kidneys. Some of the topical corticosteroids and their metabolites are also excreted into the bile.

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula

C24H30F2O6

Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES

C[C@]12C[C@@H]([C@]3([C@H]([C@@H]1C[C@@H]4[C@]2(OC(O4)(C)C)C(=O)CO)C[C@@H](C5=CC(=O)C=C[C@@]53C)F)F)O

Source: Drug Bank

[H][C@@]12C[C@@]3([H])[C@]4([H])C[C@]([H])(F)C5=CC(=O)C=C[C@]5(C)[C@@]4(F)[C@@H](O)C[C@]3(C)[C@@]1(OC(C)(C)O2)C(=O)CO

Source: Drug Bank

Canonical SMILES

CC1(C)O[C@@H]2C[C@H]

Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight

452.4882

Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight

452.201045102

Source: Drug Bank

LinkOuts

Web Resource:
Wikipedia
National Drug Code Directory:
0168-0064-15
DrugBank:
DB00591
KEGG Drug:
D01825
PubChem Compound:
6215
PubChem Substance:
46506244
7848887
Drugs Product Database (DPD):
716812
ChemSpider:
5980
Therapeutic Targets Database:
DAP000813
FDA Drug Label at DailyMed:
49552e29-7813-4726-b15d-63bd975b6588

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention fluocinolone acetonide and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

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Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, Open Eye Scientific Software.