Drug/Small Molecule:
trihexyphenidyl

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PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

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The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

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This is a non-comprehensive list of genetic tests with pharmacogenetics relevance, typically submitted by the manufacturer and manually curated by PharmGKB. The information listed is provided for educational purposes only and does not constitute an endorsement of any listed test or manufacturer.

A more complete listing of genetic tests is found at the Genetic Testing Registry (GTR).

PGx Test Variants Assayed Gene?

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page.

Links in the "Gene" column lead to PharmGKB Gene Pages.

Gene ? Variant?
(138)
Alternate Names / Tag SNPs ? Drugs ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
VIP No Clinical Annotations available No Variant Annotations available
rs4680 1-5G>A, 19951271G>A, 27009G>A, 3103421G>A, 322G>A, 472G>A, COMP: Val158Met, COMT:Val108Met, Val108Met, Val158Met
G > A
5' Flanking
Val158Met
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 138
2D structure from PubChem
provided by PubChem

Overview

Generic Names
  • Trihexifenidilo [INN-Spanish]
  • Trihexylphenidyl
  • Trihexylphenidyle
  • Trihexylphenizyl
  • Trihexyphenidyl HCl
  • Trihexyphenidyle
  • Trihexyphenidyle [INN-French]
  • Trihexyphenidylum [INN-Latin]
  • Triphenidyl
Trade Names
  • Apo-Trihex
  • Artane
  • Artane Sequels
  • Benzhexol
  • Benzhexolum
  • PMS Trihexyphenidyl
  • Parkinane Retard
  • Tremin
  • Trihexane
  • Trihexy
Brand Mixture Names

PharmGKB Accession Id:
PA164747026

Description

One of the centrally acting muscarinic antagonists used for treatment of parkinsonian disorders and drug-induced extrapyramidal movement disorders and as an antispasmodic.

Source: Drug Bank

Indication

Indicated for the treatment of parkinson's disease and extrapyramidal reactions caused by drugs.

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

Trihexyphenidyl is a selective M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist. It is able to discriminate between the M1 (cortical or neuronal) and the peripheral muscarinic subtypes (cardiac and glandular). Trihexyphenidyl partially blocks cholinergic activity in the CNS, which is responsible for the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. It is also thought to increase the availability of dopamine, a brain chemical that is critical in the initiation and smooth control of voluntary muscle movement.

Source: Drug Bank

Pharmacology

Trihexyphenidyl is an anticholinergic used in the symptomatic treatment of all etiologic groups of parkinsonism and drug induced extrapyramidal reactions (except tardive dyskinesia). Trihexyphenidyl possesses both anticholinergic and antihistaminic effects, although only the former has been established as therapeutically significant in the management of parkinsonism.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity

Absorption

Trihexyphenidyl is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.

Source: Drug Bank

Half-Life

3.3-4.1 hours

Source: Drug Bank

Toxicity

Symptoms of overdose include mydriasis, dryness of mucous membranes, red face, atonic states of bowels and bladder, and hyperthermia in high doses. Central consequences are agitation, confusion, and hallucinations. An untreated overdose may be fatal, particular in children. Premortal signs are respiratory depression and cardiac arrest.

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula

C20H31NO

Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES

C1CCC(CC1)[C@@](CCN2CCCCC2)(C3=CC=CC=C3)O

Source: Drug Bank

OC(CCN1CCCCC1)(C1CCCCC1)C1=CC=CC=C1

Source: Drug Bank

Canonical SMILES

OC(CCN1CCCCC1)(C1CCCCC1)C1=CC=CC=C1

Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight

301.4662

Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight

301.240564619

Source: Drug Bank

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Drug Targets

Gene Description
CHRM1 (source: Drug Bank)
CHRM2 (source: Drug Bank)
CHRM3 (source: Drug Bank)
CHRM4 (source: Drug Bank)
CHRM5 (source: Drug Bank)

Drug Interactions

Drug Description
trihexyphenidyl Possible antagonism of action (source: Drug Bank)
trihexyphenidyl Possible antagonism of action (source: Drug Bank)
trihexyphenidyl The anticholinergic increases the risk of psychosis and tardive dyskinesia (source: Drug Bank)
trihexyphenidyl The anticholinergic increases the risk of psychosis and tardive dyskinesia (source: Drug Bank)
trihexyphenidyl The therapeutic effects of the central acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, Tacrine, and/or the anticholinergic, Trihexyphenidyl, may be reduced due to antagonism. The interaction may be beneficial when the anticholinergic action is a side effect. Monitor for decreased efficacy of both agents. (source: Drug Bank)
donepezil Possible antagonism of action (source: Drug Bank)
galantamine Possible antagonism of action (source: Drug Bank)
haloperidol The anticholinergic increases the risk of psychosis and tardive dyskinesia (source: Drug Bank)
potassium The ulcerative effects of solid oral dosage forms of KCl may be enhanced by Trihexyphenidyl, an anticholinergic. Anticholinergics slow gastric emptying, increasing the contact time between the gastrointestinal mucosa and KCl. Prolonged exposure to KCl increases the risk of gastric and intestinal irritation and ulceration. Solid oral dosage forms of KCl should be avoided; alternatives include liquid or effervescent potassium preparations. (source: Drug Bank)
pramlintide The anticholinergic effects of Trihexyphenidyl may be enhanced by Pramlintide. Additive effects of reduced GI motility may occur. Pramlintide slows gastic emptying and should not be used with drugs that alter GI motility (e.g. anticholinergics). Consider alternative treatments or use caution during concomitant therapy. (source: Drug Bank)
rivastigmine Possible antagonism of action (source: Drug Bank)
secretin The stimulatory effect of Secretin may be reduced by anticholinergics such as Trihexyphenidyl. Concomitant use of Secretin and drugs with substantial anticholinergic effects should be avoided. If combination therapy must be used, Secretin efficacy should be closely monitored. (source: Drug Bank)
trihexyphenidyl Trimethobenzamide and Trihexyphenidyl, two anticholinergics, may cause additive anticholinergic effects and enhance their adverse/toxic effects. Monitor for enhanced anticholinergic effects. (source: Drug Bank)
trihexyphenidyl Triprolidine and Trihexyphenidyl, two anticholinergics, may cause additive anticholinergic effects and enhance their adverse/toxic effects. Monitor for enhanced anticholinergic effects. (source: Drug Bank)
trihexyphenidyl Triprolidine and Trihexyphenidyl, two anticholinergics, may cause additive anticholinergic effects and enhance their adverse/toxic effects. Monitor for enhanced anticholinergic effects. (source: Drug Bank)
trihexyphenidyl Trospium and Trihexyphenidyl, two anticholinergics, may cause additive anticholinergic effects and enhanced adverse/toxic effects. Monitor for enhanced anticholinergic effects. (source: Drug Bank)

Publications related to trihexyphenidyl: 2

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Anti-Parkinson's disease drugs and pharmacogenetic considerations. Expert opinion on drug metabolism & toxicology. 2013. AgĂșndez JosĂ© A G, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Medications and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: an evidence-based review. Drug safety : an international journal of medical toxicology and drug experience. 2010. Youngster Ilan, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

Web Resource:
Wikipedia
National Drug Code Directory:
61748-054-36
DrugBank:
DB00376
KEGG Compound:
C07171
PubChem Compound:
5572
PubChem Substance:
46507717
9380
Drugs Product Database (DPD):
726265
ChemSpider:
5371
Therapeutic Targets Database:
DAP001532

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention trihexyphenidyl and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

Common Searches

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Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, Open Eye Scientific Software.