Drug/Small Molecule:
albendazole

PharmGKB contains no dosing guidelines for this drug/small molecule. To report known genotype-based dosing guidelines, or if you are interested in developing guidelines, click here.

PharmGKB contains no drug labels with pharmacogenomic information for this drug/small molecule. To report a drug label with PGx, click here.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

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This is a non-comprehensive list of genetic tests with pharmacogenetics relevance, typically submitted by the manufacturer and manually curated by PharmGKB. The information listed is provided for educational purposes only and does not constitute an endorsement of any listed test or manufacturer.

A more complete listing of genetic tests is found at the Genetic Testing Registry (GTR).

PGx Test Variants Assayed Gene?
2D structure from PubChem
provided by PubChem

Overview

Generic Names
Trade Names
  • Albenza
  • Eskazole
  • Valbazen
  • Zentel
Brand Mixture Names

PharmGKB Accession Id:
PA164746058

Description

A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to mebendazole that is effective against many diseases. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p38)

Source: Drug Bank

Indication

For the treatment of parenchymal neurocysticercosis due to active lesions caused by larval forms of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium and for the treatment of cystic hydatid disease of the liver, lung, and peritoneum, caused by the larval form of the dog tapeworm, Echinococcus granulosus.

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

Albendazole causes degenerative alterations in the tegument and intestinal cells of the worm by binding to the colchicine-sensitive site of tubulin, thus inhibiting its polymerization or assembly into microtubules. The loss of the cytoplasmic microtubules leads to impaired uptake of glucose by the larval and adult stages of the susceptible parasites, and depletes their glycogen stores. Degenerative changes in the endoplasmic reticulum, the mitochondria of the germinal layer, and the subsequent release of lysosomes result in decreased production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is the energy required for the survival of the helminth. Due to diminished energy production, the parasite is immobilized and eventually dies.

Source: Drug Bank

Pharmacology

Albendazole is a broad-spectrum anthelmintic. The principal mode of action for albendazole is by its inhibitory effect on tubulin polymerization which results in the loss of cytoplasmic microtubules.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity

Biotransformation

Hepatic. Rapidly converted in the liver to the primary metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide, which is further metabolized to albendazole sulfone and other primary oxidative metabolites that have been identified in human urine.

Source: Drug Bank

Protein Binding

70% bound to plasma protein

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption

Poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract due to its low aqueous solubility. Oral bioavailability appears to be enhanced when coadministered with a fatty meal (estimated fat content 40 g)

Source: Drug Bank

Half-Life

Terminal elimination half-life ranges from 8 to 12 hours (single dose, 400mg).

Source: Drug Bank

Toxicity

Symptoms of overdose include elevated liver enzymes, headaches, hair loss, low levels of white blood cells (neutropenia), fever, and itching.

Source: Drug Bank

Route of Elimination

Albendazole is rapidly converted in the liver to the primary metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide, which is further metabolized to albendazole sulfone and other primary oxidative metabolites that have been identified in human urine. Urinary excretion of albendazole sulfoxide is a minor elimination pathway with less than 1% of the dose recovered in the urine. Biliary elimination presumably accounts for a portion of the elimination as evidenced by biliary concentrations of albendazole sulfoxide similar to those achieved in plasma.

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula

C12H15N3O2S

Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES

CCCSc1ccc2c(c1)nc([nH]2)NC(=O)OC

Source: OpenEye

Canonical SMILES

CCCSC1=CC2=C(C=C1)N=C(NC(=O)OC)N2

Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight

265.331

Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight

265.088497429

Source: Drug Bank

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Curated Information ?

EvidenceGene
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
CYP1A2

Drug Targets

Gene Description
TUBA1A (source: Drug Bank)
TUBB4B (source: Drug Bank)
No related drugs are available.

Publications related to albendazole: 2

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
PharmGKB summary: very important pharmacogene information for CYP1A2. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Thorn Caroline F, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Omeprazole transactivates human CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 expression through the common regulatory region containing multiple xenobiotic-responsive elements. Biochemical pharmacology. 2008. Yoshinari Kouichi, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

Web Resource:
Wikipedia
National Drug Code Directory:
0007-5500-40
DrugBank:
DB00518
PDB:
ALW
ChEBI:
16664
KEGG Compound:
C01779
KEGG Drug:
D00134
PubChem Compound:
2082
PubChem Substance:
46506472
4909
Drugs Product Database (DPD):
1904779
BindingDB:
50241293
ChemSpider:
1998
HET:
ALW
Therapeutic Targets Database:
DAP000951
FDA Drug Label at DailyMed:
24c6007b-ac07-4086-c3ad-9ca8ec6c48a8

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention albendazole and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

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Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, Open Eye Scientific Software.