Drug/Small Molecule:
quinacrine

PharmGKB contains no dosing guidelines for this drug/small molecule. To report known genotype-based dosing guidelines, or if you are interested in developing guidelines, click here.

PharmGKB has no annotated drug labels with pharmacogenomic information for this drug/small molecule. If you know of a drug label with PGx, send us a message.

PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

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This is a non-comprehensive list of genetic tests with pharmacogenetics relevance, typically submitted by the manufacturer and manually curated by PharmGKB. The information listed is provided for educational purposes only and does not constitute an endorsement of any listed test or manufacturer.

A more complete listing of genetic tests is found at the Genetic Testing Registry (GTR).

PGx Test Variants Assayed Gene?
2D structure from PubChem
provided by PubChem

Overview

Generic Names
  • Quinacrine Dihydrochloride
Trade Names
  • Acrichine
  • Acrinamine
  • Acriquine
  • Akrichin
  • Antimalarina
  • Atabrine
  • Atebrin
  • Atebrine
  • Erion
  • Erion Hydrochloride
  • Haffkinine
  • Italchine
  • Mepacrine
  • Quinactine
Brand Mixture Names

PharmGKB Accession Id:
PA164745551

Description

An acridine derivative formerly widely used as an antimalarial but superseded by chloroquine in recent years. It has also been used as an anthelmintic and in the treatment of giardiasis and malignant effusions. It is used in cell biological experiments as an inhibitor of phospholipase A2.

Source: Drug Bank

Indication

For the treatment of giardiasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis and the management of malignant effusions.

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

The exact mechanism of antiparasitic action is unknown; however, quinacrine binds to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in vitro by intercalation between adjacent base pairs, inhibiting transcription and translation to ribonucleic acid (RNA). Quinacrine does not appear to localize to the nucleus of Giaridia trophozoites, suggesting that DNA binding may not be the primary mechanism of its antimicrobial action. Fluorescence studies using Giardia suggest that the outer membranes may be involved. Quinacrine inhibits succinate oxidation and interferes with electron transport. In addition, by binding to nucleoproteins, quinacrine suppress the lupus erythematous cell factor and acts as a strong inhibitor of cholinesterase.

Source: Drug Bank

Pharmacology

Quinacrine has been used as an antimalarial drug and as an antibiotic. It is used to treat giardiasis, a protozoal infection of the intestinal tract, and certain types of lupus erythematosus, an inflammatory disease that affects the joints, tendons, and other connective tissues and organs. Quinacrine may be injected into the space surrounding the lungs to prevent reoccurrence of pneumothorax. The exact way in which quinacrine works is unknown. It appears to interfere with the parasite's metabolism.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity

Protein Binding

80-90%

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption

Absorbed rapidly from the gastrointestinal tract following oral administration.

Source: Drug Bank

Half-Life

5 to 14 days

Source: Drug Bank

Toxicity

Oral, rat: LD 50 = 900 mg/kg; Oral, mouse: LD 50 = 1000 mg/kg. Symptoms of overdose include seizures, hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias, and cardiovascular collapse.

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula

C23H30ClN3O

Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES

CCN(CC)CCCC(C)Nc1c2ccc(cc2nc3c1cc(cc3)OC)Cl

Source: OpenEye

Canonical SMILES

CCN(CC)CCCC(C)NC1=C2C=C(OC)C=CC2=NC2=C1C=CC(Cl)=C2

Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight

399.957

Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight

399.207740304

Source: Drug Bank

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Drug Targets

Gene Description
ABCB1 (source: Drug Bank)
ALOX5 (source: Drug Bank)
CHRM1 (source: Drug Bank)
PLA2G4A (source: Drug Bank)
PLA2G6 (source: Drug Bank)
PLCL1 (source: Drug Bank)

Drug Interactions

Drug Description
quinacrine The CYP2D6 inhibitor could increase the effect and toxicity of atomoxetine (source: Drug Bank)

Publications related to quinacrine: 3

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Medications and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: an evidence-based review. Drug safety : an international journal of medical toxicology and drug experience. 2010. Youngster Ilan, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Lancet. 2008. Cappellini M D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
G6PD deficiency: the genotype-phenotype association. Blood reviews. 2007. Mason Philip J, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

Web Resource:
Wikipedia
DrugBank:
DB01103
PDB:
QUM
ChEBI:
8711
KEGG Compound:
C07339
PubChem Compound:
237
PubChem Substance:
46507828
9546
ChemSpider:
232
HET:
QUM
Therapeutic Targets Database:
DNC001181

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention quinacrine and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

Common Searches

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Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, Open Eye Scientific Software.