Drug/Small Molecule:

PharmGKB contains no dosing guidelines for this drug/small molecule. To report known genotype-based dosing guidelines, or if you are interested in developing guidelines, click here.

PharmGKB has no annotated drug labels with pharmacogenomic information for this drug/small molecule. If you know of a drug label with PGx, send us a message.

PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the page.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

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This is a non-comprehensive list of genetic tests with pharmacogenetics relevance, typically submitted by the manufacturer and manually curated by PharmGKB. The information listed is provided for educational purposes only and does not constitute an endorsement of any listed test or manufacturer.

A more complete listing of genetic tests is found at the Genetic Testing Registry (GTR).

PGx Test Variants Assayed Gene?

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page.

Links in the "Gene" column lead to PharmGKB Gene Pages.

Gene ? Variant?
Alternate Names / Tag SNPs ? Drugs ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
No VIP available CA VA
rs9274407 122A>A, 122T>A, 32572832A>T, 32632832A>T, 3864927T>T, 3967118T>T, 4078473T>T, 4088493T>T, 6639A>A, Phe41Tyr, Tyr41=
T > A
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 138
2D structure from PubChem
provided by PubChem


Generic Names
  • Clavulanic Acid
Trade Names
Brand Mixture Names
  • Amoksiklav (potassium clavulanate + amoxicillin)
  • Augmentin (potassium clavulanate + amoxicillin)
  • Ciblor (potassium clavulanate + amoxicillin)
  • Klavocin (potassium clavulanate + amoxicillin)
  • Neo-Duplamox (potassium clavulanate + amoxicillin)

PharmGKB Accession Id:


Clavulanic acid and its salts and esters. The acid is a suicide inhibitor of bacterial beta-lactamase enzymes from Streptomyces clavuligerus. Administered alone, it has only weak antibacterial activity against most organisms, but given in combination with beta-lactam antibiotics prevents antibiotic inactivation by microbial lactamase.

Source: Drug Bank


For use with Amoxicillin, clavulanic acid is suitable for the treatment of infections with Staph. aureus and Bacteroides fragilis, or with beta-lactamase producing H. influenzae and E. coli.

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

Clavulanic acid competitively and irreversibly inhibits a wide variety of beta-lactamases, commonly found in microorganisms resistant to penicillins and cephalosporins. Binding and irreversibly inhibiting the beta-lactamase results in a restauration of the antimicrobial activity of beta-lactam antibiotics against lactamase-secreting-resistant bacteria. By inactivating beta-lactamase (the bacterial resistance protein), the accompanying penicillin/cephalosporin drugs may be made more potent as well.

Source: Drug Bank


Clavulanic acid, produced by the fermentation of Streptomyces Clavuligerus, is a beta-lactam structurally related to the penicillins. Clavulanic acid is used in conjunction with amoxicillin for the treatment of bronchitis and urinary tract, skin, and soft tissue infections caused by beta-lactamase producing organisms.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity



Source: Drug Bank

Protein Binding

Low (22 to 30%)

Source: Drug Bank



Source: Drug Bank


1.0 hour

Source: Drug Bank


Gastrointestinal symptoms including stomach and abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea. Rash, hyperactivity, or drowsiness have also been observed in a small number of patients

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula


Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES


Source: Drug Bank


Source: Drug Bank

Canonical SMILES


Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight


Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight


Source: Drug Bank

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Curated Information ?

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available

Drug Interactions

Drug Description
demeclocycline Possible antagonism of action (source: Drug Bank)
doxycycline Possible antagonism of action (source: Drug Bank)
mestranol This anti-infectious agent could decrease the effect of the oral contraceptive (source: Drug Bank)
methacycline Possible antagonism of action (source: Drug Bank)
methotrexate The penicillin increases the effect and toxicity of methotrexate (source: Drug Bank)
minocycline Possible antagonism of action (source: Drug Bank)
oxytetracycline Possible antagonism of action (source: Drug Bank)
rolitetracycline Possible antagonism of action (source: Drug Bank)
tetracycline Possible antagonism of action (source: Drug Bank)
clavulanate Possible antagonism of action (source: Drug Bank)
clavulanate Possible antagonism of action (source: Drug Bank)
clavulanate This anti-infectious agent could decrease the effect of the oral contraceptive (source: Drug Bank)
clavulanate Possible antagonism of action (source: Drug Bank)
clavulanate Possible antagonism of action (source: Drug Bank)

Curated Information ?

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Drug Toxicity

Relationships from National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT)

Contraindicated With

Publications related to clavulanate: 2

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Susceptibility to amoxicillin-clavulanate-induced liver injury is influenced by multiple HLA class I and II alleles. Gastroenterology. 2011. Lucena M Isabel, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Glutathione S-transferase m1 and t1 null genotypes increase susceptibility to idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury. Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.). 2008. Lucena M Isabel, et al. PubMed


Web Resource:
KEGG Compound:
PubChem Compound:
PubChem Substance:
Therapeutic Targets Database:

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention clavulanate and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

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Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, Open Eye Scientific Software.