Drug/Small Molecule:
gemifloxacin

PharmGKB contains no dosing guidelines for this drug/small molecule. To report known genotype-based dosing guidelines, or if you are interested in developing guidelines, click here.

PharmGKB contains no drug labels with pharmacogenomic information for this drug/small molecule. To report a drug label with PGx, click here.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

? = Mouse-over for quick help

This is a non-comprehensive list of genetic tests with pharmacogenetics relevance, typically submitted by the manufacturer and manually curated by PharmGKB. The information listed is provided for educational purposes only and does not constitute an endorsement of any listed test or manufacturer.

A more complete listing of genetic tests is found at the Genetic Testing Registry (GTR).

PGx Test Variants Assayed Gene?
2D structure from PubChem
provided by PubChem

Overview

Generic Names
  • Gemifloxacin mesilate
  • gemifloxacin mesylate
Trade Names
  • Factive
Brand Mixture Names

PharmGKB Accession Id:
PA10088

Description

Gemifloxacin is an oral broad-spectrum quinolone antibacterial agent used in the treatment of acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis and mild-to-moderate pneumonia. Gemifloxacin acts by inhibiting DNA synthesis through the inhibition of both DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV, which are essential for bacterial growth.

Source: Drug Bank

Indication

For the treatment of bacterial infection caused by susceptible strains such as S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, H. parainfluenzae, or M. catarrhalis, S. pneumoniae (including multi-drug resistant strains MDRSP), M. pneumoniae, C. pneumoniae, or K. pneumoniae.

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

The bactericidal action of gemifloxacin results from inhibition of the enzymes topoisomerase II (DNA gyrase) and topoisomerase IV, which are required for bacterial DNA replication, transcription, repair, and recombination.

Source: Drug Bank

Pharmacology

Gemifloxacin is a quinolone/fluoroquinolone antibiotic. Gemifloxacin is bactericidal and its mode of action depends on blocking of bacterial DNA replication by binding itself to an enzyme called DNA gyrase, which allows the untwisting required to replicate one DNA double helix into two. Notably the drug has 100 times higher affinity for bacterial DNA gyrase than for mammalian. Gemifloxacin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that is active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

Source: Drug Bank

Food Interaction

Take without regard to meals.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity

Biotransformation

Gemifloxacin is metabolized to a limited extent by the liver. All metabolites formed are minor (<10% of the administered oral dose); the principal ones are N-acetyl gemifloxacin, the E-isomer of gemifloxacin and the carbamyl glucuronide of gemifloxacin.

Source: Drug Bank

Protein Binding

60-70%

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption

Rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. The absolute bioavailability averages approximately 71%.

Source: Drug Bank

Half-Life

7 (+/- 2) hours

Source: Drug Bank

Clearance

Source: Drug Bank

Route of Elimination

Gemifloxacin and its metabolites are excreted via dual routes of excretion.Following oral administration of gemifloxacin to healthy subjects, a mean (± SD) of 61 ± 9.5% of the dose was excreted in the feces and 36 ± 9.3% in the urine as unchanged drug and metabolites. The mean (± SD) renal clearance following repeat doses of 320 mg was approximately 11.6 ± 3.9 L/hr (range 4.6-6 L/hr), which indicates active secretion is involved in the renal excretion of gemifloxacin.

Source: Drug Bank

Volume of Distribution

  • 1.66 to 12.12 L/kg

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula

C18H20FN5O4

Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES

CO/N=C\1/CN(C[C@H]1CN)C2=C(C=C3C(=O)C(=CN(C3=N2)C4CC4)C(=O)O)F

Source: Drug Bank

CO\N=C1\CN(CC1CN)C1=NC2=C(C=C1F)C(=O)C(=CN2C1CC1)C(O)=O

Source: Drug Bank

Canonical SMILES

CO\N=C1/CN(CC1CN)C1=NC2=C(C=C1F)C(=O)C(=CN2C1CC1)C(O)=O

Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight

389.3809

Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight

389.149932358

Source: Drug Bank

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

No related genes are available.

Drug Interactions

Drug Description
aluminium Formation of non-absorbable complexes (source: Drug Bank)
iron Formation of non-absorbable complexes (source: Drug Bank)
iron Formation of non-absorbable complexes (source: Drug Bank)
Magnesium Formation of non-absorbable complexes (source: Drug Bank)
Magnesium Formation of non-absorbable complexes (source: Drug Bank)
magnesium oxide Formation of non-absorbable complexes (source: Drug Bank)
salicylate-magnesium Formation of non-absorbable complexes (source: Drug Bank)
sucralfate Formation of non-absorbable complexes (source: Drug Bank)
sucralfate Formation of non-absorbable complexes (source: Drug Bank)
zinc Formation of non-absorbable complexes (source: Drug Bank)
zinc Formation of non-absorbable complexes (source: Drug Bank)
gemifloxacin Formation of non-absorbable complexes (source: Drug Bank)
gemifloxacin Formation of non-absorbable complexes (source: Drug Bank)
gemifloxacin Formation of non-absorbable complexes (source: Drug Bank)

Publications related to gemifloxacin: 1

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Assessment of the impact of renal impairment on systemic exposure of new molecular entities: evaluation of recent new drug applications. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Zhang Y, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

Web Resource:
Wikipedia
National Drug Code Directory:
67707-320-05
DrugBank:
DB01155
ChEBI:
101853
KEGG Drug:
D02471
PubChem Compound:
5464436
PubChem Substance:
610685
Therapeutic Targets Database:
DAP000851
FDA Drug Label at DailyMed:
a51dc88f-c298-402e-b204-618609a4721c

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention gemifloxacin and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

Common Searches

Search PubMed
Search Medline Plus
Search PubChem
Search CTD

Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, Open Eye Scientific Software.