Disease:
Pain

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page.

Gene ? Variant?
(138)
Alternate Names / Tag SNPs ? Drugs ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available CA No VIP available CYP2D6 *1 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA No VIP available CYP2D6 *1XN N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA No VIP available CYP2D6 *2 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA No VIP available CYP2D6 *2XN N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA No VIP available CYP2D6 *3 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA No VIP available CYP2D6 *4 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA No VIP available CYP2D6 *5 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA No VIP available CYP2D6 *6 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA No VIP available CYP2D6 *10 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA No VIP available CYP2D6 *17 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA No VIP available CYP2D6 *40 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA No VIP available CYP2D6 *41 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
CYP2D6 poor metabolizer genotype N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
CYP2D6 ultra-metabolizer genotype N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA
rs1045642 208920T>A, 208920T>C, 25171488A>G, 25171488A>T, 3435T>A, 3435T>C, 87138645A>G, 87138645A>T, ABCB1*6, ABCB1: 3435C>T, ABCB1: C3435T, ABCB1: c.3435C>T, ABCB1:3435C>T, Ile1145=, Ile1145Ile, MDR1 3435C>T, MDR1 C3435T, PGP C3435T, c.3435C>T, mRNA 3853C>T
A > T
A > G
Synonymous
Ile1145Ile
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1051730 1146C>T, 24299C>T, 49684896G>A, 645C>T, 78894339G>A, CHRNA3:Gly394Gly, Tyr215=
G > A
Not Available
Tyr215Tyr
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1128503 1236T>C, 167964T>C, 25043506A>G, 87550285A>G, ABCB1 1236C>T, ABCB1*8, ABCB1: c.1236T>C, ABCB1:1236C>T, ABCB1:1236T>C, Gly412=, Gly412Gly, mRNA 1654T>C, p.Gly412Gly
A > G
Not Available
Gly412Gly
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs16969968 1192G>A, 30064G>A, 49673482G>A, 78882925G>A, CHRNA5:Asp398Asn
G > A
Missense
Asp398Asn
No VIP available CA VA
rs1799971 -11+28644A>G, 118A>G, 154360797A>G, 34162A>G, 397A>G, 47+29103A>G, 58530254A>G, Asn133Asp, Asn40Asp, OPRM1: A118G
A > G
Missense
Asn40Asp
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1801133 11856378G>A, 14783C>T, 665C>T, 677C>T, 7861110G>A, A222V, Ala222Val, C677T, MTHFR: c.677C>T, MTHFR:667C>T, p.A222V
G > A
Missense
Ala222Val
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1801394 -172-1823T>C, 1-1823T>C, 147A>G, 66A>G, 6757A>G, 7860973A>G, 7870973A>G, Ile22Met, Ile49Met, MTRR 66A>G, MTRR:66A>G
A > G
Missense
Ile22Met
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2032582 186947T>A, 186947T>G, 25193461A>C, 25193461A>T, 2677A, 2677G, 2677T, 2677T>A, 2677T>G, 3095G>T/A, 87160618A>C, 87160618A>T, 893 Ala, 893 Ser, 893 Thr, ABCB1*7, ABCB1: 2677G>T/A, ABCB1: 2677T/A>G, ABCB1: A893S, ABCB1: G2677T/A, ABCB1: c.2677G>T/A, ABCB1:2677G>A/T, ABCB1:2677G>T/A, ABCB1:A893T, Ala893Ser/Thr, MDR1, MDR1 G2677T/A, Ser893Ala, Ser893Thr, mRNA 3095G>T/A, p.Ala893Ser/Thr
A > C
A > T
Missense
Ser893Ala
Ser893Thr
No VIP available CA VA
rs2070995 206732A>G, 24748836T>C, 39086965T>C, 495A>G, Pro165=
T > C
Synonymous
Pro165Pro
No VIP available CA No Variant Annotations available
rs4633 -1041C>T, 186C>T, 19950235C>T, 25973C>T, 3102385C>T, 36C>T, COMT: His62His, His12=, His62=
C > T
5' Flanking
His62His
No VIP available CA VA
rs4680 1-5G>A, 19951271G>A, 27009G>A, 3103421G>A, 322G>A, 472G>A, COMP: Val158Met, COMT:Val108Met, Val108Met, Val158Met
G > A
5' Flanking
Val158Met
No VIP available CA No Variant Annotations available
rs4818 -69C>G, -69C>T, 19951207C>G, 19951207C>T, 258C>G, 258C>T, 26945C>G, 26945C>T, 3103357C>G, 3103357C>T, 408C>G, 408C>T, COMT: Leu136Leu, Leu136=, Leu86=
C > G
C > T
5' Flanking
Leu136Leu
No VIP available CA No Variant Annotations available
rs6269 -1324A>G, -248A>G, 1-98A>G, 19949952A>G, 25690A>G, 3102102A>G
A > G
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs6318 113965735G>C, 152185G>C, 398067G>C, 68G>C, Cys23Ser, HTR2C:23Ser, HTR2C:Cys23Ser
C > G
Missense
Cys23Ser
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs660652 *1114T>C, *2237A>G, 1390-2299T>C, 2083+1050T>C, 30806T>C, 34971A>G, 49678389A>G, 78887832A>G
A > G
3' Flanking
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 138

Overview

Alternate Names: 
Synonym
Ache; Aches; Burning Pain; Burning Pains; Crushing Pain; Crushing Pains; Dolor; Migratory Pain; Migratory Pains; Pain observations; Pain, Burning; Pain, Crushing; Pain, Migratory; Pain, NOS; Pain, Radiating; Pain, Splitting; Painful; Pains, Burning; Pains, Crushing; Pains, Migratory; Pains, Radiating; Pains, Splitting; Part hurts; Physical Suffering; Physical Sufferings; Radiating Pain; Radiating Pains; Splitting Pain; Splitting Pains; Suffering, Physical; Sufferings, Physical
PharmGKB Accession Id: PA445208
External Vocabularies

Curated Information ?

Curated Information ?

Relationships from National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT)

May Treat
May Prevent
No related diseases are available

Publications related to Pain: 99

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetics of pain perception, COMT and postoperative pain management in children. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Sadhasivam Senthilkumar, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The impact of CYP2D6 polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of codeine and its metabolites in Mongolian Chinese subjects. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Wu Xiujun, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genotypes of the MTHFR C677T and MTRR A66G genes act independently to reduce migraine disability in response to vitamin supplementation. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. Menon Saras, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Catechol-O-methyltransferase gene polymorphism and chronic human pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. Tammimäki Anne, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
More codeine fatalities after tonsillectomy in North American children. Pediatrics. 2012. Kelly Lauren E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Prediction of codeine toxicity in infants and their mothers using a novel combination of maternal genetic markers. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2012. Sistonen J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Do CYP2D6 genotypes reflect oxycodone requirements for cancer patients treated for cancer pain? A cross-sectional multicentre study. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2012. Andreassen Trine Naalsund, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics of drugs withdrawn from the market. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Zhang Wei, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
A candidate gene study of serotonergic pathway genes and pain relief during treatment with escitalopram in patients with neuropathic pain shows significant association to serotonin receptor2C (HTR2C). European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2011. Brasch-Andersen Charlotte, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Two novel SCN9A gene heterozygous mutations may cause partial deletion of pain perception. Pain medicine (Malden, Mass.). 2011. Yuan Ruimei, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Near-fatal tramadol cardiotoxicity in a CYP2D6 ultrarapid metabolizer. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2011. Elkalioubie Ahmed, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2D6 polymorphisms and codeine analgesia in postpartum pain management: a pilot study. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2011. VanderVaart Sondra, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenomics of the RNA world: structural RNA polymorphisms in drug therapy. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Sadee W, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Lack of Association of OPRM1 and ABCB1 Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms to Oxycodone Response in Postoperative Pain. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2011. Zwisler Stine T, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Methylxanthines and pain. Handbook of experimental pharmacology. 2011. Sawynok Jana. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes on chromosome 15q25.1 are associated with nicotine and opioid dependence severity. Human genetics. 2010. Erlich Porat M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
PharmGKB summary: very important pharmacogene information for PTGS2. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Thorn Caroline F, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Systematic review of pharmacoeconomic studies of pharmacogenomic tests. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Beaulieu Mathieu, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Mu-opioid receptors are not necessary for nortriptyline treatment of neuropathic allodynia. European journal of pain (London, England). 2010. Bohren Yohann, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
A genome-wide study identifies HLA alleles associated with lumiracoxib-related liver injury. Nature genetics. 2010. Singer Jonathan B, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic polymorphisms and drug interactions modulating CYP2D6 and CYP3A activities have a major effect on oxycodone analgesic efficacy and safety. British journal of pharmacology. 2010. Samer C F, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Personalized therapy in pain management: where do we stand?. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Stamer Ulrike M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
OPRM1 SNP (A118G): involvement in disease development, treatment response, and animal models. Drug and alcohol dependence. 2010. Mague Stephen D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
A KCNJ6 (Kir3.2, GIRK2) gene polymorphism modulates opioid effects on analgesia and addiction but not on pupil size. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Lötsch Jörn, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Relationship of CYP2D6 genetic polymorphisms and the pharmacokinetics of tramadol in Chinese volunteers. Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. 2010. Li Q, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Influence of the CYP2D6 polymorphism and hemodialysis on codeine disposition in patients with end-stage renal disease. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2010. Molanaei Hadi, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Impact of the CYP2D6 genotype on post-operative intravenous oxycodone analgesia. Acta anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. 2010. Zwisler S T, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic modulation of the pharmacological treatment of pain. Pharmacology & therapeutics. 2009. Lötsch Jörn, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Role of inflammation gene polymorphisms on pain severity in lung cancer patients. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology. 2009. Reyes-Gibby Cielito C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Mu-opioid receptor (A118G) single-nucleotide polymorphism affects alfentanil requirements for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic study. British journal of anaesthesia. 2009. Ginosar Y, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
O-demethylation of codeine to morphine inhibited by low-dose levomepromazine. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2009. Vevelstad M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Codeine, ultrarapid-metabolism genotype, and postoperative death. The New England journal of medicine. 2009. Ciszkowski Catherine, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Can extremely low or high morphine formation from codeine be predicted prior to therapy initiation?. Pain. 2009. Lötsch Jörn, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Codeine and morphine pathway. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2009. Thorn Caroline F, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Utilization of pharmacogenomics and therapeutic drug monitoring for opioid pain management. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Jannetto Paul J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Cross-sectional analysis of the influence of currently known pharmacogenetic modulators on opioid therapy in outpatient pain centers. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2009. Lötsch Jörn, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Beta2-adrenoceptors are essential for desipramine, venlafaxine or reboxetine action in neuropathic pain. Neurobiology of disease. 2009. Yalcin Ipek, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The hypoalgesic effect of oxycodone in human experimental pain models in relation to the CYP2D6 oxidation polymorphism. Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology. 2009. Zwisler Stine T, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Variation in the COMT gene: implications for pain perception and pain treatment. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Andersen Sonja, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
beta(2)-adrenoceptors are critical for antidepressant treatment of neuropathic pain. Annals of neurology. 2009. Yalcin Ipek, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics of neonatal opioid toxicity following maternal use of codeine during breastfeeding: a case-control study. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Madadi P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The consequence of concomitantly present functional genetic variants for the identification of functional genotype-phenotype associations in pain. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Lötsch J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Clinical development of TRPV1 antagonists: targeting a pivotal point in the pain pathway. Drug discovery today. 2009. Gunthorpe Martin J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Expression and functional analysis of CYP2D6.24, CYP2D6.26, CYP2D6.27, and CYP2D7 isozymes. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2009. Zhang Wei-Yan, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association between KCNJ6 (GIRK2) gene polymorphisms and postoperative analgesic requirements after major abdominal surgery. PloS one. 2009. Nishizawa Daisuke, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Respiratory depression with tramadol in a patient with renal impairment and CYP2D6 gene duplication. Anesthesia and analgesia. 2008. Stamer Ulrike M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetic insights into codeine analgesia: implications to pediatric codeine use. Pharmacogenomics. 2008. Madadi Parvaz, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Caffeine reverses antinociception by amitriptyline in wild type mice but not in those lacking adenosine A1 receptors. Neuroscience letters. 2008. Sawynok Jana, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Acetaminophen reinforces descending inhibitory pain pathways. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Pickering G, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
COX inhibitors downregulate PDE4D expression in a clinical model of inflammatory pain. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Wang X-M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Modeling and simulation to support dose selection and clinical development of SC-75416, a selective COX-2 inhibitor for the treatment of acute and chronic pain. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Kowalski K G, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Management of cancer pain: basic principles and neuropathic cancer pain. European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990). 2008. Laird B, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Association of ABCB1/MDR1 and OPRM1 gene polymorphisms with morphine pain relief. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Campa D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Effects of the CYP2D6 gene duplication on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of tramadol. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. 2008. Kirchheiner Julia, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic variation in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene and morphine requirements in cancer patients with pain. Molecular pain. 2008. Rakvåg Trude T, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacologic management of neuropathic pain: evidence-based recommendations. Pain. 2007. Dworkin Robert H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Complicated pain management in a CYP450 2D6 poor metabolizer. Pain practice : the official journal of World Institute of Pain. 2007. Foster Adriana, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Comparative metabolic capabilities and inhibitory profiles of CYP2D6.1, CYP2D6.10, and CYP2D6.17. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2007. Shen Hongwu, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacokinetics of codeine and its metabolite morphine in ultra-rapid metabolizers due to CYP2D6 duplication. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2007. Kirchheiner J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Concentrations of tramadol and O-desmethyltramadol enantiomers in different CYP2D6 genotypes. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Stamer U M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Exploring joint effects of genes and the clinical efficacy of morphine for cancer pain: OPRM1 and COMT gene. Pain. 2007. Reyes-Gibby Cielito C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The effect of CYP2D6 polymorphisms on the response to pain treatment for pediatric sickle cell pain crisis. The Journal of pediatrics. 2007. Brousseau David C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Safety and pharmacokinetics of paracetamol following intravenous administration of 5 g during the first 24 h with a 2-g starting dose. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Gregoire N, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Human catechol-O-methyltransferase haplotypes modulate protein expression by altering mRNA secondary structure. Science (New York, N.Y.). 2006. Nackley A G, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
GTP cyclohydrolase and tetrahydrobiopterin regulate pain sensitivity and persistence. Nature medicine. 2006. Tegeder Irmgard, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Response to hydrocodone, codeine and oxycodone in a CYP2D6 poor metabolizer. Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry. 2006. Susce Margaret T, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics of morphine poisoning in a breastfed neonate of a codeine-prescribed mother. Lancet. 2006. Koren Gideon, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetically mediated interindividual variation in analgesic responses to cyclooxygenase inhibitory drugs. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Lee Yun-Sil, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The analgesic effect of tramadol after intravenous injection in healthy volunteers in relation to CYP2D6. Anesthesia and analgesia. 2006. Enggaard Thomas P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Evidence for morphine-independent central nervous opioid effects after administration of codeine: contribution of other codeine metabolites. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Lötsch Jörn, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Tramadol as a new probe for cytochrome P450 2D6 phenotyping: a population study. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2005. Pedersen Rasmus Steen, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Codeine intoxication associated with ultrarapid CYP2D6 metabolism. The New England journal of medicine. 2004. Gasche Yvan, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
A novel functional polymorphism in the uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 promoter with significant impact on promoter activity. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2004. Duguay Yannick, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
A rapid and simple CYP2D6 genotyping assay--case study with the analgetic tramadol. Metabolism: clinical and experimental. 2003. Borlak Jürgen, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Impact of CYP2D6 genotype on postoperative tramadol analgesia. Pain. 2003. Stamer Ulrike M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Adverse drug reactions to oxycodone and hydrocodone in CYP2D6 ultrarapid metabolizers. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. 2003. de Leon Jose, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Post-mortem SNP analysis of CYP2D6 gene reveals correlation between genotype and opioid drug (tramadol) metabolite ratios in blood. Forensic science international. 2003. Levo Antti, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Sequence variability and candidate gene analysis in two cancer patients with complex clinical outcomes during morphine therapy. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2003. Hirota Takeshi, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
COMT val158met genotype affects mu-opioid neurotransmitter responses to a pain stressor. Science (New York, N.Y.). 2003. Zubieta Jon-Kar, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Normal-release and controlled-release oxycodone: pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and controversy. Supportive care in cancer : official journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer. 2003. Davis Mellar P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics of codeine metabolism in an urban population of children and its implications for analgesic reliability. British journal of anaesthesia. 2002. Williams D G, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Expression, purification, biochemical characterization, and comparative function of human cytochrome P450 2D6.1, 2D6.2, 2D6.10, and 2D6.17 allelic isoforms. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 2002. Yu Aiming, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the mechanisms of anesthesia. Brain research bulletin. 2002. Tassonyi Edömer, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The treatment of neuropathic pain: antidepressants and opioids. The Clinical journal of pain. 2000. Watson C P. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Codeine analgesia is due to codeine-6-glucuronide, not morphine. International journal of clinical practice. 2000. Vree T B, et al. PubMed
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Codeine in post-operative pain. Study of the influence of sparteine phenotype and serum concentrations of morphine and morphine-6-glucuronide. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 1998. Poulsen L, et al. PubMed
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Same incidence of adverse drug events after codeine administration irrespective of the genetically determined differences in morphine formation. Pain. 1998. Eckhardt K, et al. PubMed
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A combination of mutations in the CYP2D6*17 (CYP2D6Z) allele causes alterations in enzyme function. Molecular pharmacology. 1997. Oscarson M, et al. PubMed
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Genetically deficient CYP2D6 metabolism provides protection against oral opiate dependence. Pharmacogenetics. 1997. Tyndale R F, et al. PubMed
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Quick onset of severe abdominal pain after codeine in an ultrarapid metabolizer of debrisoquine. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 1997. Dalén P, et al. PubMed
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Effect of codeine on gastrointestinal motility in relation to CYP2D6 phenotype. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 1997. Mikus G, et al. PubMed
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The hypoalgesic effect of tramadol in relation to CYP2D6. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 1996. Poulsen L, et al. PubMed
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Attenuation of morphine-induced delirium in palliative care by substitution with infusion of oxycodone. Journal of pain and symptom management. 1996. Maddocks I, et al. PubMed
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Formation of morphine from codeine in Chinese subjects of different CYP2D6 genotypes. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 1996. Tseng C Y, et al. PubMed
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Codeine and morphine in extensive and poor metabolizers of sparteine: pharmacokinetics, analgesic effect and side effects. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 1996. Poulsen L, et al. PubMed
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Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with codeine for postoperative pain relief in ten extensive metabolisers and one poor metaboliser of dextromethorphan. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 1995. Persson K, et al. PubMed
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The influence of pharmacogenetics on opioid analgesia: studies with codeine and oxycodone in the Sprague-Dawley/Dark Agouti rat model. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 1994. Cleary J, et al. PubMed
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Codeine increases pain thresholds to copper vapor laser stimuli in extensive but not poor metabolizers of sparteine. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 1990. Sindrup S H, et al. PubMed
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Impact of environmental and genetic factors on codeine analgesia. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 1991. Desmeules J, et al. PubMed