Disease:
Cardiovascular Diseases

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page.

Gene ? Variant?
(138)
Alternate Names / Tag SNPs ? Drugs ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2C19 *1 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available No VIP available CYP2C19 *1A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2C19 *2 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available No VIP available CYP2C19 *2A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available No VIP available CYP2C19 *3 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2C19 *17 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available No VIP available CYP2C9 *1 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available No VIP available CYP2C9 *2 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available No VIP available CYP2C9 *3 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1057910 1075A>C, 47545517A>C, 47639A>C, 96741053A>C, CYP2C9*3, CYP2C9*3:Ile359Leu, CYP2C9: I359L, CYP2C9:359Ile>Leu, CYP2C9:Ile359Leu, Ile359Leu, mRNA 11A>C
A > C
Missense
Ile359Leu
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1143627 -118C>T, 113594387G>A, 3343050G>A, 4970C>T
G > A
5' Flanking
No VIP available CA No Variant Annotations available
rs1800795 -237C>G, 22756645C>G, 22766645C>G, 4880C>G, 50-321G>C
C > G
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2108622 1297G>A, 14389G>A, 15990431C>T, 23454G>A, 7253233C>T, CYP4F2 exon 11, CYP4F2: C>T, CYP4F2: V433M, CYP4F2:V433M, V433M, Val433Met, c.1297G>A, mRNA 1347G>A, p.Val433Met
C > T
Missense
Val433Met
No VIP available CA No Variant Annotations available
rs28399504 1A>G, 47326927A>G, 5001A>G, 80161A>G, 96522463A>G, 99C>T, CYP2C19*4, CYP2C19:A1G, Met1Val
A > G
Missense
Met1Val
No VIP available CA No Variant Annotations available
rs3846662 1564-106A>G, 1722+45A>G, 23092A>G, 25245443A>G, 74651084A>G
A > G
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4149601 -315-16229G>A, -326G>A, -404G>A, 110182G>A, 24G>A, 3607655G>A, 49-16229G>A, 55816791G>A, Gln8=
G > A
5' UTR
Gln8Gln
No VIP available CA VA
rs4244285 24154G>A, 24154G>C, 47346080G>A, 47346080G>C, 681G>A, 681G>C, 96541616G>A, 96541616G>C, CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19:681G>A, CYP2C19:G681A, Pro227=
G > C
G > A
Synonymous
Pro227Pro
No VIP available CA No Variant Annotations available
rs5065 11906068A>G, 1479+245A>G, 454T>C, 6773T>C, 7910800A>G, NPPA:T2238C, Ter152Arg
A > G
Intronic
null152Arg
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs7294 *134G>A, *237G>A, 31042321C>T, 31102321C>T, 8956G>A, VKORC1:3730G>A, VKORC1:G9041A
C > T
3' UTR
No VIP available CA No Variant Annotations available
rs854560 12801T>A, 12801T>C, 12801T>G, 12801T>N, 163T>A, 163T>C, 163T>G, 163T>N, 32978927A>C, 32978927A>G, 32978927A>N, 32978927A>T, 94946084A>C, 94946084A>G, 94946084A>N, 94946084A>T, Leu55=, Leu55Met, Leu55Val, Leu55Xaa
A > T
A > C
A > G
A > N
Missense
Leu55Met
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs9923231 -1639G>A, -1639G>C, -1639G>T, 31047689C>A, 31047689C>G, 31047689C>T, 31107689C>A, 31107689C>G, 31107689C>T, 3588G>A, 3588G>C, 3588G>T, VKORC1: -1639G>A, VKORC1:-1639, VKORC1:G3673A, upstream -1639G>A
C > G
C > T
C > A
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs9934438 173+1000C>T, 174-136C>T, 31044878G>A, 31104878G>A, 6399C>T, VKORC1: 1173C>T, VKORC1:C1173T, VKORC1:C6484T
G > A
Intronic
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 138

Overview

Alternate Names: 
Synonym
Cardiovascular Disease; Cardiovascular system disease; Disease of cardiovascular system; Disease, Cardiovascular; Diseases, Cardiovascular
PharmGKB Accession Id: PA443635
External Vocabularies

Curated Information ?

Curated Information ?

Relationships from National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT)

May Treat
Diagnoses
Contraindicated With
No related diseases are available

Publications related to Cardiovascular Diseases: 180

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
The Influence of Genetic Polymorphism of Cyp2c19 Isoenzyme on the Pharmacokinetics of Clopidogrel and Its Metabolites in Patients With Cardiovascular Diseases. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Karaźniewicz-Łada Marta, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genome-Wide Meta-Analysis of Homocysteine and Methionine Metabolism Identifies Five One Carbon Metabolism Loci and a Novel Association of ALDH1L1 with Ischemic Stroke. PLoS genetics. 2014. Williams Stephen R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Routine assessment of on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity and gene polymorphisms in predicting clinical outcome following drug-eluting stent implantation in patients with stable coronary artery disease. JACC. Cardiovascular interventions. 2013. Viviani Anselmi Chiara, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Decreased Bone Mineral Density in Subjects Carrying Familial Defective Apolipoprotein B-100. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. 2013. Yerges-Armstrong Laura M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2C19 Poor Metabolizer Is Associated with Clinical Outcome of Clopidogrel Therapy in Acute Myocardial Infarction but Not Stable Angina. Circulation. Cardiovascular genetics. 2013. Kim Ho-Sook, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Lipid and lipoprotein levels and trends in rheumatoid arthritis compared to the general population. Arthritis care & research. 2013. Liao Katherine P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenomics and cardiovascular disease. Current cardiology reports. 2013. Weeke Peter, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The CYP2C19*17 Variant is not Independently Associated with Clopidogrel Response. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2013. Lewis Jp, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2C19 polymorphisms and antiplatelet effects of clopidogrel in acute ischemic stroke in China. Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation. 2013. Jia Dong-mei, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Impact of ABCC3/MRP3 -211C/T polymorphism on clopidogrel responsiveness in patients with percutaneous coronary intervention. Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology. 2013. Zou Jian-Jun, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Influence of CYP2C19 loss-of-function variants on the antiplatelet effects and cardiovascular events in clopidogrel-treated Chinese patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Zou Jian-Jun, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Identification of heart rate-associated loci and their effects on cardiac conduction and rhythm disorders. Nature genetics. 2013. den Hoed Marcel, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Intestinal microbiota metabolism of l-carnitine, a nutrient in red meat, promotes atherosclerosis. Nature medicine. 2013. Koeth Robert A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Clopidogrel and warfarin pharmacogenetic tests: what is the evidence for use in clinical practice?. Current opinion in cardiology. 2013. Shahin Mohamed H A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C19 influences the response to clopidogrel in ischemic heart disease patients in the South Indian Tamilian population. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Subraja K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Relationship of CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*3 Gene Polymorphism with Clopidogrel Response Variability and Recurrent Cardiovascular Events in Chinese Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention. Pharmacology. 2013. Liu Yamin, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP3A4/5 combined genotype analysis for predicting statin dose requirement for optimal lipid control. Drug metabolism and drug interactions. 2013. Kitzmiller Joseph Paul, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Cardiovascular risk among patients on clopidogrel anti-platelet therapy after placement of drug-eluting stents is modified by genetic variants in both the CYP2C19 and ABCB1 genes. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2013. Carlquist J F, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
High-density lipoproteins: A consensus statement from the National Lipid Association. Journal of clinical lipidology. 2013. Toth Peter P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2C19 polymorphisms in the Thai population and the clinical response to clopidogrel in patients with atherothrombotic-risk factors. Pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine. 2013. Sukasem Chonlaphat, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Effects of VerifyNow P2Y12 test and CYP2C19*2 testing on clinical outcomes of patients with cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Platelets. 2013. Yamaguchi Yusuke, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Impact of Genetic Polymorphisms of SLC2A2, SLC2A5, and KHK on Metabolic Phenotypes in Hypertensive Individuals. PloS one. 2013. Le Myphuong T, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Warfarin anticoagulant therapy: a southern Italy pharmacogenetics-based dosing model. PloS one. 2013. Mazzaccara Cristina, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Clarifying the importance of CYP2C19 and PON1 in the mechanism of clopidogrel bioactivation and in vivo antiplatelet response. European heart journal. 2012. Gong Inna Y, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Effect of the CYP2C19*2 and *3 genotypes, ABCB1 C3435T and PON1 Q192R alleles on the pharmacodynamics and adverse clinical events of clopidogrel in Chinese people after percutaneous coronary intervention. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2012. Tang Xiao-Fang, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Cardiovascular Pharmacogenomics: The Future of Cardiovascular Therapeutics?. The Canadian journal of cardiology. 2012. Roden Dan M. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Effects of CYP2C19 variant alleles on postclopidogrel platelet reactivity and clinical outcomes in an actual clinical setting in China. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. Wu Hongyi, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Value of platelet pharmacogenetics in common clinical practice of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. International journal of cardiology. 2012. Verschuren Jeffrey J W, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Influence of genetic polymorphisms on the effect of high- and standard-dose clopidogrel after percutaneous coronary intervention: the GIFT (Genotype Information and Functional Testing) study. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2012. Price Matthew J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Point-of-care genetic testing for personalisation of antiplatelet treatment (RAPID GENE): a prospective, randomised, proof-of-concept trial. Lancet. 2012. Roberts Jason D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Impact of mifepristone, a glucocorticoid/progesterone antagonist, on HDL cholesterol, HDL particle concentration, and HDL function. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. 2012. Page Stephanie T, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Cardiovascular pharmacogenomics: current status and future directions-report of a national heart, lung, and blood institute working group. Journal of the American Heart Association. 2012. Musunuru Kiran, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2C19 and PON1 polymorphisms regulating clopidogrel bioactivation in Chinese, Malay and Indian subjects. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Chan Mark Y, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2C19*2 and other genetic variants affecting platelet response to clopidogrel in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Thrombosis research. 2012. Kassimis George, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Comparison of breast cancer recurrence risk and cardiovascular disease incidence risk among postmenopausal women with breast cancer. Breast cancer research and treatment. 2012. Bardia Aditya, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Predicting clopidogrel response using DNA samples linked to an electronic health record. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2012. Delaney J T, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics following maintenance doses of prasugrel and clopidogrel in Chinese carriers of CYP2C19 variants. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2012. Kelly Ronan P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Association of cytochrome P450 2C19*2 polymorphism with clopidogrel response variability and cardiovascular events in Koreans treated with drug-eluting stents. Heart (British Cardiac Society). 2012. Oh Il-Young, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
PharmGKB summary: very important pharmacogene information for G6PD. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. McDonagh Ellen M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The influence of CYP2C19*2 and *17 on on-treatment platelet reactivity and bleeding events in patients undergoing elective coronary stenting. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. Harmsze Ankie M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics of drugs withdrawn from the market. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Zhang Wei, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Association between bilirubin and cardiovascular disease risk factors: using Mendelian randomization to assess causal inference. BMC cardiovascular disorders. 2012. McArdle Patrick F, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Influence of paraoxonase-1 Q192R and cytochrome P450 2C19 polymorphisms on clopidogrel response. Clinical pharmacology : advances and applications. 2012. Kreutz Rolf P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CNR1 genotype influences HDL-cholesterol response to change in dietary fat intake. PloS one. 2012. Silver Heidi J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Metabolomics reveals amino acids contribute to variation in response to simvastatin treatment. PloS one. 2012. Trupp Miles, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Paraoxonase-1 is not a major determinant of stent thrombosis in a Taiwanese population. PloS one. 2012. Chen Dong-Yi, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Dosing Clopidogrel Based on CYP2C19 Genotype and the Effect on Platelet Reactivity in Patients With Stable Cardiovascular Disease. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. 2011. Mega Jessica L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2C19 But Not PON1 Genetic Variants Influence Clopidogrel Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Clinical Efficacy in Post-Myocardial Infarction Patients. Circulation. Cardiovascular interventions. 2011. Hulot Jean-Sébastien, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Effect of paraoxonase-1 polymorphism on clinical outcomes in patients treated with clopidogrel after an acute myocardial infarction. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Simon T, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Impact of genetic variants on post-clopidogrel platelet reactivity in patients after elective percutaneous coronary intervention. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Rideg Orsolya, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Cytochrome P450 2C19 polymorphism is associated with reduced clopidogrel response in cerebrovascular disease. Yonsei medical journal. 2011. Lee Jun-Beom, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) Gene Variants Are Not Associated With Clopidogrel Response. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Lewis J P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Variability in on-treatment platelet reactivity explained by CYP2C19*2 genotype is modest in clopidogrel pretreated patients undergoing coronary stenting. Heart (British Cardiac Society). 2011. Bouman Heleen J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Vanin-1 T26I polymorphism, hypertension and cardiovascular events in two large urban-based prospective studies in Swedes. Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases : NMCD. 2011. Fava C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Contribution of deletion in angiotensin-converting enzyme but not A1166C angiotensin II type-1 receptor gene polymorphisms to clinical outcomes in atherothrombotic disease. Archives of medical research. 2011. Le Hello Claire, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
No association of paraoxonase-1 Q192R genotypes with platelet response to clopidogrel and risk of stent thrombosis after coronary stenting. European heart journal. 2011. Sibbing Dirk, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Clinical, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacogenetic determinants of clopidogrel resistance in Korean patients with acute coronary syndrome. The Korean journal of laboratory medicine. 2011. Park Kyoung-Jin, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The relation between CYP2C19 genotype and phenotype in stented patients on maintenance dual antiplatelet therapy. American heart journal. 2011. Gurbel Paul A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Standard- vs high-dose clopidogrel based on platelet function testing after percutaneous coronary intervention: the GRAVITAS randomized trial. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. 2011. Price Matthew J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Impact of CYP2C19 polymorphism on residual platelet reactivity in patients with coronary heart disease during antiplatelet therapy. Journal of cardiology. 2011. Yamamoto Koichiro, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Cytochrome P450 2C19 polymorphism is associated with poor clinical outcomes in coronary artery disease patients treated with clopidogrel. Molecular biology reports. 2011. Jin Bo, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Identification of CYP2C19*4B: pharmacogenetic implications for drug metabolism including clopidogrel responsiveness. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2011. Scott S A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Differential Impacts of CYP2C19 Gene Polymorphisms on the Antiplatelet Effects of Clopidogrel and Ticlopidine. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Maeda A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Replication of LDL GWAs hits in PROSPER/PHASE as validation for future (pharmaco)genetic analyses. BMC medical genetics. 2011. Trompet Stella, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Impact of cytochrome P450 2C19*2 polymorphism on intra-stent thrombus after drug-eluting stent implantation in Japanese patients receiving clopidogrel. Circulation journal : official journal of the Japanese Circulation Society. 2010. Sawada Takahiro, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics of OATP Transporters Reveals That SLCO1B1 c.388A>G Variant Is Determinant of Increased Atorvastatin Response. International journal of molecular sciences. 2011. Rodrigues Alice C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Enteric microbiome metabolites correlate with response to simvastatin treatment. PloS one. 2011. Kaddurah-Daouk Rima, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The influence of CYP 2C19*2 polymorphism on platelet function testing during single antiplatelet treatment with clopidogrel. Thrombosis journal. 2011. Pettersen Alf-Aage R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Impact of CYP2C19 polymorphism and smoking on response to clopidogrel in patients with stable coronary artery disease. Chinese medical journal. 2010. Liu Xiao-Li, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pre-procedural platelet reactivity after clopidogrel loading in korean patients undergoing scheduled percutaneous coronary intervention. Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis. 2010. Kang Min-Kyung, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Clopidogrel loading dose adjustment according to platelet reactivity monitoring in patients carrying the 2C19*2 loss of function polymorphism. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2010. Bonello Laurent, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
PharmGKB summary: very important pharmacogene information for PTGS2. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Thorn Caroline F, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Effect of CYP2C19 and ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms on outcomes of treatment with ticagrelor versus clopidogrel for acute coronary syndromes: a genetic substudy of the PLATO trial. Lancet. 2010. Wallentin Lars, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic variants in ABCB1 and CYP2C19 and cardiovascular outcomes after treatment with clopidogrel and prasugrel in the TRITON-TIMI 38 trial: a pharmacogenetic analysis. Lancet. 2010. Mega Jessica L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Effects of CYP2C19 genotype on outcomes of clopidogrel treatment. The New England journal of medicine. 2010. Paré Guillaume, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Isolated and interactive impact of common CYP2C19 genetic variants on the antiplatelet effect of chronic clopidogrel therapy. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2010. Sibbing D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Carriage of cytochrome 2C19 polymorphism is associated with risk of high post-treatment platelet reactivity on high maintenance-dose clopidogrel of 150 mg/day: results of the ACCEL-DOUBLE (Accelerated Platelet Inhibition by a Double Dose of Clopidogrel According to Gene Polymorphism) study. JACC. Cardiovascular interventions. 2010. Jeong Young-Hoon, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The case for routine genotyping in dual-antiplatelet therapy. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2010. Damani Samir B, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic effects on postprandial variations of inflammatory markers in healthy individuals. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.). 2010. Cheng Yu-Ching, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Impact of cytochrome P450 2C19 loss-of-function polymorphism and of major demographic characteristics on residual platelet function after loading and maintenance treatment with clopidogrel in patients undergoing elective coronary stent placement. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2010. Hochholzer Willibald, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
A pharmacogenetics-based approach to reduce cardiovascular mortality with the prophylactic use of statins. Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology. 2010. Lacchini Riccardo, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Targeting the Pentose Phosphate Pathway in Syndrome X-related Cardiovascular Complications. Drug development research. 2010. Gupte Sachin A. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Relation of CYP2C19 loss-of-function polymorphism to the occurrence of stent thrombosis. Expert opinion on drug metabolism & toxicology. 2010. Giusti Betti, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Besides CYP2C19*2, the variant allele CYP2C9*3 is associated with higher on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity in patients on dual antiplatelet therapy undergoing elective coronary stent implantation. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Harmsze Ankie, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Vitamin E reduces cardiovascular disease in individuals with diabetes mellitus and the haptoglobin 2-2 genotype. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Blum Shany, et al. PubMed
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Effect of cytochrome P450 polymorphism on arachidonic acid metabolism and their impact on cardiovascular diseases. Pharmacology & therapeutics. 2010. Zordoky Beshay N M, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 2C19(*)2 polymorphism and cardiovascular recurrences in patients taking clopidogrel: a meta-analysis. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Sofi F, et al. PubMed
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HMGCR gene polymorphism is associated with stroke risk in the EPIC-Norfolk study. European journal of cardiovascular prevention and rehabilitation : official journal of the European Society of Cardiology, Working Groups on Epidemiology & Prevention and Cardiac Rehabilitation and Exercise Physiology. 2010. Freitas Renata N, et al. PubMed
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The common functional polymorphism -50G>T of the CYP2J2 gene is not associated with ischemic coronary and cerebrovascular events in an urban-based sample of Swedes. Journal of hypertension. 2010. Fava Cristiano, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 2C19 polymorphism, suboptimal reperfusion and all-cause mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Cardiology. 2010. Małek Lukasz A, et al. PubMed
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Aromatase gene polymorphisms are associated with survival among patients with cardiovascular disease in a sex-specific manner. PloS one. 2010. Beitelshees Amber L, et al. PubMed
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Anti-inflammatory effects of simvastatin on adipokines in type 2 diabetic patients with carotid atherosclerosis. Diabetes & vascular disease research : official journal of the International Society of Diabetes and Vascular Disease. 2009. Hu Yun, et al. PubMed
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Common polymorphisms in CYP2C9, subclinical atherosclerosis and risk of ischemic vascular disease in 52,000 individuals. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2009. Kaur-Knudsen D, et al. PubMed
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Genome-wide association scan identifies variants near Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP) genes on chromosome 11q21-22 strongly associated with serum MMP-1 levels. Circulation. Cardiovascular genetics. 2009. Cheng Yu-Ching, et al. PubMed
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Evaluation of individualized clopidogrel therapy after drug-eluting stent implantation in patients with high residual platelet reactivity: design and rationale of the GRAVITAS trial. American heart journal. 2009. Price Matthew J, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 genetic polymorphisms and the response to prasugrel: relationship to pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and clinical outcomes. Circulation. 2009. Mega Jessica L, et al. PubMed
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Impact of CYP2C19 polymorphisms on the antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel in an actual clinical setting in Japan. Circulation journal : official journal of the Japanese Circulation Society. 2009. Jinnai Toshikazu, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 2C19 loss-of-function polymorphism and stent thrombosis following percutaneous coronary intervention. European heart journal. 2009. Sibbing Dirk, et al. PubMed
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Association of cytochrome P450 2C19 genotype with the antiplatelet effect and clinical efficacy of clopidogrel therapy. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. 2009. Shuldiner Alan R, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19*2 polymorphism is not the sole determinant of the response to clopidogrel: implications for its monitoring. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2009. Aleil B, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 2C19 polymorphism in young patients treated with clopidogrel after myocardial infarction: a cohort study. Lancet. 2009. Collet Jean-Philippe, et al. PubMed
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Drug discovery using chemical systems biology: identification of the protein-ligand binding network to explain the side effects of CETP inhibitors. PLoS computational biology. 2009. Xie Li, et al. PubMed
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The effect of nine common polymorphisms in coagulation factor genes (F2, F5, F7, F12 and F13 ) on the effectiveness of statins: the GenHAT study. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2009. Maitland-van der Zee Anke-Hilse, et al. PubMed
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Clopidogrel pharmacogenomics and risk of inadequate platelet inhibition: US FDA recommendations. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Ellis Kyle J, et al. PubMed
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Relation of genetic polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 gene with clopidogrel resistance after drug-eluting stent implantation in Koreans. The American journal of cardiology. 2009. Lee Jung Myung, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome p-450 polymorphisms and response to clopidogrel. The New England journal of medicine. 2009. Mega Jessica L, et al. PubMed
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Genetic determinants of response to clopidogrel and cardiovascular events. The New England journal of medicine. 2009. Simon Tabassome, et al. PubMed
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COL4A1 is associated with arterial stiffness by genome-wide association scan. Circulation. Cardiovascular genetics. 2009. Tarasov Kirill V, et al. PubMed
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Significance of genetic polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in cardiovascular and renal disease. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Rudnicki Michael, et al. PubMed
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The preventive factors for aspirin-induced peptic ulcer: aspirin ulcer and corpus atrophy. Journal of gastroenterology. 2009. Shiotani Akiko, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 2J2*7 polymorphisms in Japanese, Mongolians and Ovambos. Cell biochemistry and function. 2008. Takeshita Haruo, et al. PubMed
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Genetic loci associated with plasma concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein A1, and Apolipoprotein B among 6382 white women in genome-wide analysis with replication. Circulation. Cardiovascular genetics. 2008. Chasman Daniel I, et al. PubMed
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Genetic variation at the LDL receptor and HMG-CoA reductase gene loci, lipid levels, statin response, and cardiovascular disease incidence in PROSPER. Atherosclerosis. 2008. Polisecki Eliana, et al. PubMed
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Interactions between the single nucleotide polymorphisms in the homocysteine pathway (MTHFR 677C>T, MTHFR 1298 A>C, and CBSins) and the efficacy of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors in preventing cardiovascular disease in high-risk patients of hypertension: the GenHAT study. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2008. Maitland-van der Zee Anke-Hilse, et al. PubMed
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Are we poised to target ACE2 for the next generation of antihypertensives?. Journal of molecular medicine (Berlin, Germany). 2008. Ferreira Anderson J, et al. PubMed
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Alternative splicing of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase is associated with plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol response to simvastatin. Circulation. 2008. Medina Marisa Wong, et al. PubMed
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Coexisting polymorphisms of P2Y12 and CYP2C19 genes as a risk factor for persistent platelet activation with clopidogrel. Circulation journal : official journal of the Japanese Circulation Society. 2008. Malek Lukasz A, et al. PubMed
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Inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation by clopidogrel is related to CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms. Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology. 2008. Chen Bi-Lian, et al. PubMed
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The effect of CYP2C19 polymorphism on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of clopidogrel: a possible mechanism for clopidogrel resistance. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Kim K A, et al. PubMed
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The pharmacogenetics and pharmacodynamics of clopidogrel response: an analysis from the PRINC (Plavix Response in Coronary Intervention) trial. JACC. Cardiovascular interventions. 2008. Gladding Patrick, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic association of the NPPA T2238C genetic variant with cardiovascular disease outcomes in patients with hypertension. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. 2008. Lynch Amy I, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 2C19 681G>A polymorphism and high on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity associated with adverse 1-year clinical outcome of elective percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting or bare-metal stents. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2008. Trenk Dietmar, et al. PubMed
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The common gene variants of CYP2C19 affect pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in an active metabolite of clopidogrel in healthy subjects. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2008. Umemura K, et al. PubMed
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Statins inhibit toll-like receptor 4-mediated lipopolysaccharide signaling and cytokine expression. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2008. Hodgkinson Conrad P, et al. PubMed
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Rosuvastatin to prevent vascular events in men and women with elevated C-reactive protein. The New England journal of medicine. 2008. Ridker Paul M, et al. PubMed
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Acceleration of cardiovascular disease by a dysfunctional prostacyclin receptor mutation: potential implications for cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition. Circulation research. 2008. Arehart Eric, et al. PubMed
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Cyclooxygenase polymorphisms and risk of cardiovascular events: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Lee C R, et al. PubMed
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Association of the Trp719Arg polymorphism in kinesin-like protein 6 with myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease in 2 prospective trials: the CARE and WOSCOPS trials. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2008. Iakoubova Olga A, et al. PubMed
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Concept, design and implementation of a cardiovascular gene-centric 50 k SNP array for large-scale genomic association studies. PloS one. 2008. Keating Brendan J, et al. PubMed
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Polymorphism modulates symptomatic response to antiarrhythmic drug therapy in patients with lone atrial fibrillation. Heart rhythm : the official journal of the Heart Rhythm Society. 2007. Darbar Dawood, et al. PubMed
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Common polymorphisms of CYP2C19 and CYP2C9 affect the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic response to clopidogrel but not prasugrel. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2007. Brandt J T, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 gene polymorphisms on clopidogrel responsiveness in healthy subjects. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2007. Fontana P, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 2C19 loss-of-function polymorphism, but not CYP3A4 IVS10 + 12G/A and P2Y12 T744C polymorphisms, is associated with response variability to dual antiplatelet treatment in high-risk vascular patients. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2007. Giusti Betti, et al. PubMed
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Common genetic variants account for differences in gene expression among ethnic groups. Nature genetics. 2007. Spielman Richard S, et al. PubMed
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Demystifying the ACE polymorphism: from genetics to biology. Current pharmaceutical design. 2007. Castellon Raquel, et al. PubMed
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Variation in GYS1 interacts with exercise and gender to predict cardiovascular mortality. PloS one. 2007. Fredriksson Jenny, et al. PubMed
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KCNJ11 gene knockout of the Kir6.2 KATP channel causes maladaptive remodeling and heart failure in hypertension. Human molecular genetics. 2006. Kane Garvan C, et al. PubMed
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Common genetic variation in five thrombosis genes and relations to plasma hemostatic protein level and cardiovascular disease risk. Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology. 2006. Kathiresan Sekar, et al. PubMed
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A common genetic variant in the NOS1 regulator NOS1AP modulates cardiac repolarization. Nature genetics. 2006. Arking Dan E, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 2C19 loss-of-function polymorphism is a major determinant of clopidogrel responsiveness in healthy subjects. Blood. 2006. Hulot Jean-Sébastien, et al. PubMed
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Interleukin-6 -174 G/C promoter polymorphism and effects of fenofibrate and simvastatin on inflammatory markers in hypercholesterolemic patients. Blood coagulation & fibrinolysis : an international journal in haemostasis and thrombosis. 2006. Potaczek Daniel P, et al. PubMed
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Antiplatelet drug resistance and drug-drug interactions: Role of cytochrome P450 3A4. Pharmaceutical research. 2006. Lau Wei C, et al. PubMed
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Coffee, CYP1A2 genotype, and risk of myocardial infarction. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. 2006. Cornelis Marilyn C, et al. PubMed
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Effects of polymorphisms in beta1-adrenoceptor and alpha-subunit of G protein on heart rate and blood pressure during exercise test. The Finnish Cardiovascular Study. Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985). 2006. Nieminen Tuomo, et al. PubMed
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Influence of phenotype and pharmacokinetics on beta-blocker drug target pharmacogenetics. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2006. Beitelshees A L, et al. PubMed
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Does the Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion polymorphism modify the response to ACE inhibitor therapy?--A systematic review. Current controlled trials in cardiovascular medicine. 2005. Scharplatz Madlaina, et al. PubMed
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Ser49Gly of beta1-adrenergic receptor is associated with effective beta-blocker dose in dilated cardiomyopathy. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2005. Magnusson Yvonne, et al. PubMed
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Beta2-adrenergic receptor genotype and survival among patients receiving beta-blocker therapy after an acute coronary syndrome. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. 2005. Lanfear David E, et al. PubMed
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Demographic, environmental, and genetic predictors of metabolic side effects of hydrochlorothiazide treatment in hypertensive subjects. American journal of hypertension. 2005. Maitland-van der Zee Anke-Hilse, et al. PubMed
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A multilocus approach to the antihypertensive pharmacogenetics of hydrochlorothiazide. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2005. Maitland-van der Zee Anke-Hilse, et al. PubMed
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C-reactive protein levels and outcomes after statin therapy. The New England journal of medicine. 2005. Ridker Paul M, et al. PubMed
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Beta1-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms and left ventricular remodeling changes in response to beta-blocker therapy. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2005. Terra Steven G, et al. PubMed
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Interactions of dietary fat intake and the hepatic lipase -480C-->T polymorphism in determining hepatic lipase activity: the Hoorn Study. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2005. Bos Griët, et al. PubMed
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beta-Adrenergic receptor polymorphisms and responses during titration of metoprolol controlled release/extended release in heart failure. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2005. Terra Steven G, et al. PubMed
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Association between beta-1 and beta-2 adrenergic receptor gene polymorphisms and the response to beta-blockade in patients with stable congestive heart failure. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2005. de Groote Pascal, et al. PubMed
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Toll-like receptor 4 gene Asp299Gly polymorphism is associated with reductions in vascular inflammation, angiographic coronary artery disease, and clinical diabetes. American heart journal. 2004. Kolek Matthew J, et al. PubMed
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Effects of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, alpha-adducin, and other candidate gene polymorphisms on blood pressure response to hydrochlorothiazide. American journal of hypertension. 2003. Turner Stephen T, et al. PubMed
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Gly389Arg polymorphism of beta1-adrenergic receptor is associated with the cardiovascular response to metoprolol. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2003. Liu Jie, et al. PubMed
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Beta 1-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms confer differential function and predisposition to heart failure. Nature medicine. 2003. Mialet Perez Jeanne, et al. PubMed
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The ACE gene I/D polymorphism is not associated with the blood pressure and cardiovascular benefits of ACE inhibition. Hypertension. 2003. Harrap Stephen B, et al. PubMed
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An evaluation of the beta-1 adrenergic receptor Arg389Gly polymorphism in individuals with heart failure: a MERIT-HF sub-study. European journal of heart failure : journal of the Working Group on Heart Failure of the European Society of Cardiology. 2003. White Hazel L, et al. PubMed
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Beta 1-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms and antihypertensive response to metoprolol. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2003. Johnson Julie A, et al. PubMed
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Investigations of a common genetic variant in betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) in coronary artery disease. Atherosclerosis. 2003. Weisberg Ilan S, et al. PubMed
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A common beta1-adrenergic receptor polymorphism (Arg389Gly) affects blood pressure response to beta-blockade. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2003. Sofowora G G, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms on warfarin maintenance dose and metabolic clearance. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2002. Scordo Maria Gabriella, et al. PubMed
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Beta-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms: cardiovascular disease associations and pharmacogenetics. Pharmaceutical research. 2002. Johnson Julie A, et al. PubMed
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Influence of a glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) polymorphism (1561C-->T) on plasma homocysteine, folate and vitamin B(12) levels and its relationship to cardiovascular disease risk. Atherosclerosis. 2002. Lievers Karin J A, et al. PubMed
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Genetic variability in the extracellular matrix as a determinant of cardiovascular risk: association of type III collagen COL3A1 polymorphisms with coronary artery disease. Blood. 2002. Muckian Clare, et al. PubMed
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An evaluation of the beta-1 adrenergic receptor Arg389Gly polymorphism in individuals at risk of coronary events. A WOSCOPS substudy. European heart journal. 2002. White H L, et al. PubMed
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A polymorphism in the beta1 adrenergic receptor is associated with resting heart rate. American journal of human genetics. 2002. Ranade Koustubh, et al. PubMed
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Effects of ethnicity on the distribution of clinically relevant endothelial nitric oxide variants. Pharmacogenetics. 2001. Tanus-Santos J E, et al. PubMed
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Effects of beta1-adrenoceptor genetic polymorphisms on resting hemodynamics in patients undergoing diagnostic testing for ischemia. The American journal of cardiology. 2001. Humma L M, et al. PubMed
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Inter-individual differences in cytokine release in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Clinical and experimental immunology. 2001. Roth-Isigkeit A, et al. PubMed
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The gain-of-function G389R variant of the beta1-adrenoceptor does not influence blood pressure or heart rate response to beta-blockade in hypertensive subjects. Clinical science (London, England : 1979). 2000. O'Shaughnessy K M, et al. PubMed
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The deletion genotype of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme is associated with an increased vascular reactivity in vivo and in vitro. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 1999. Henrion D, et al. PubMed
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G894T polymorphism in the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene is associated with an enhanced vascular responsiveness to phenylephrine. Circulation. 1999. Philip I, et al. PubMed
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Mortality in a cohort of men expressing the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Blood. 1998. Cocco P, et al. PubMed
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A new genetic defect in human CYP2C19: mutation of the initiation codon is responsible for poor metabolism of S-mephenytoin. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 1998. Ferguson R J, et al. PubMed
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Racial difference in the relationship of an angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene polymorphism to serum angiotensin I-converting enzyme activity. Hypertension. 1996. Bloem L J, et al. PubMed
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G6PD deficiency. Blood. 1994. Beutler E. PubMed